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2007 -2009 NATURAL AEROSOLIC MINERAL DUSTS Edward Derbyshire Before and during a Mongolian dust 2007 -2009 NATURAL AEROSOLIC MINERAL DUSTS Edward Derbyshire Before and during a Mongolian dust storm Beijing, China, April 2003

Palaeolakes Some common dust sources Tibet N. Pakistan Debris fans Yardangs Karakoram Glacier forelands Palaeolakes Some common dust sources Tibet N. Pakistan Debris fans Yardangs Karakoram Glacier forelands Egypt Mongolia

Impact – Case Studies 1 (Sahara) Non-industrial silicosis (‘Desert Lung’) was found in human Impact – Case Studies 1 (Sahara) Non-industrial silicosis (‘Desert Lung’) was found in human lung tissue > 50 yr ago…. . autopsy showed high content of fine (<3 m) silica dust A radiographic study of 54 Bedouin people in the Negev Desert, showed the incidence of fibrosis to be age related, with progression more notable in women (13 out of 22) than in men (only 4 out of 32), perhaps related to greater exposure to dust in and around family tents. [Bar-Ziv, J, Goldberg, GM. 1974. Simple siliceous pneumoconiosis in Negev Bedouins. Rch. Env. Health 29: 121] Other findings from different parts of North Africa include radiological evidence of multiple micro-nodules scattered throughout the lungs, and considered to be consistent with silicosis.

Impact – Case Studies-1 (Ladakh) Work undertaken in two studies in Ladakh (Norboo et Impact – Case Studies-1 (Ladakh) Work undertaken in two studies in Ladakh (Norboo et al. 1991; Saiyed et al. 1991) is of particular interest - a region without any mines or industries but in which (like China) dust storms are frequent. Radiographic evidence taken from an equal number of men and women between the ages of 50 and 62 years in two villages (altitudes of 3200 m and 3500 m) showed important differences resulting from the higher dust concentrations at the lower of the two villages. Several cases of progressive massive fibrosis were found in the lower village, with none in the upper one, suggesting that silicosis may cause appreciable morbidity at lower altitudes. Norboo, T, Angchuk, PT, Yahya, M, Kamat, SR, Pooley, FD, Corrin, B, Kerr, IH, Bruce, N, Ball, KP. 1991. Silicosis in a Himalayan village population: role of environmental dust. Thorax 46: 341 -343. Saiyed, HN, Sharma, YK, Sadhu, SG, Norboo, T, Patel, PD, Patel, TS, Venkaiah, K, Kashyap, SK. 1991. Non-occupational pneumoconiosis at high altitude villages in central Ladakh. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 48: 825 -829.

Impact – Case Studies-2 Ladakh Mineral dust found on the upper surfaces of wooden Impact – Case Studies-2 Ladakh Mineral dust found on the upper surfaces of wooden roof beams of Ladakhi houses is all <15 m, more than 25% by weight being <1 m; the silica content is >60%.

Impact – Case Studies-3 (Ladakh) Close correlation between dust storm frequency and number of Impact – Case Studies-3 (Ladakh) Close correlation between dust storm frequency and number of cases of pneumoconiosis – village with low dust storm frequency: 2. 0% of population village with moderate frequency: 20. 1% of population village with high dust storm incidence: 45. 3% of population The larger of the two Ladakh studies (449 patients older than 50 years: 245 women, 204 men from 3 different villages: Saiyed et al 1991) showed typical cases of pneumoconiosis associated with progressive massive fibrosis and egg-shell calcification of the bronchial glands (indicative of high concentrations of free silica) in 101 cases (22. 5% of the population sampled).

Impact – Case Studies-1 North China The large population subjected to frequent dust storms Impact – Case Studies-1 North China The large population subjected to frequent dust storms in north China probably includes substantial numbers of people with nonoccupational silicosis Hexi Corridor dust pall (ca. 1 km thick) over Lanzhou city (pop. 3. 5 m), early summer

Impact – Case Studies-2 (North China) Anxi County, Gansu Province, China DATA on DUST* Impact – Case Studies-2 (North China) Anxi County, Gansu Province, China DATA on DUST* Outdoor dust concentration (TSP) during storms: 42 mg/m 3 (cf. recurrent outdoor range for this region 21 – 69 mg/m 3) Free silica content in dust: Total suspended particulates, rural houses: 34 - 61% ≤ 3. 2 mg/m 3 Minghua, Hexi Corridor, China DATA ON PNEUMOCONIOSIS+ Desert margin towns (based on a total of 395 Xradiographs) Incidence in the population in general: 7% Incidence in adults over 40 years of age: >40% Total number of people affected in N. China - unknown

This demands improved understanding of • Dust particle properties – size, shape, mineralogy/geochemistry – This demands improved understanding of • Dust particle properties – size, shape, mineralogy/geochemistry – laboratory data • Dust sources & pathways – observational data as a basis for assessment of particle surface reactivity and toxicology Interest in refining data on these subjects has increased steadily in the past decade, especially for Mid, Central and East Asia, and the peri-Saharan regions.

Particle size 1. Canary Islands Typically, almost 40% of the dust of the calima Particle size 1. Canary Islands Typically, almost 40% of the dust of the calima of March 2004 in Gran Canaria was finer than 10 microns 2. Dead Sea, Israel Particle-size distribution of (salt-free) atmospheric deposition over the Dead Sea (Malvern model Mastersizer Laser): (a) collected on 4 th November, 1998; (b) 23 rd March, 1998 and (c) 20 th July, 1998. (d)[Singer et al. 2003]

Composition Quartz amounts in major dust storms are very similar (60. 95% in North Composition Quartz amounts in major dust storms are very similar (60. 95% in North Africa), closely matching the global value (58. 98%) Si - abundant to dominant element in Saharan dust <10µm Composition Entrainment of material < 2 µm Silt-size aggregates of clay grade particles. Clay grades are detached and transported as aggregates, not as single grains.

Quantitative Mineralogy Saharan dust pall, Lanzarote, June 2002 Courtesy of Johann Engelbrecht Rapid, automated Quantitative Mineralogy Saharan dust pall, Lanzarote, June 2002 Courtesy of Johann Engelbrecht Rapid, automated analysis using the Bruker D 8 XRD system [Courtesy of Johann Engelbrecht]

OBSERVATIONAL DATA Ground-based. Global synoptic atmosphere circulation data and derived models. Orbital data. LIDAR OBSERVATIONAL DATA Ground-based. Global synoptic atmosphere circulation data and derived models. Orbital data. LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)

Mean number of ‘dust days’ (defined as reduction in visibility by dust to < Mean number of ‘dust days’ (defined as reduction in visibility by dust to < 1 km) 80 in south-west Asia >60 in Turkmenistan and the Karakum >45 in Kazakhstan after Prospero 2002 [After Prospero 2002] The long-term global dust storm frequency shows a distribution of major sources closely similar to other data sources - sources occur in all continents except Europe and Antarctica. >30 in the Tarim Basin (Taklamakan), the Hexi Corridor and the Loess Plateau (China) ~30 in parts of North Africa ~20 in the NW Indian subcontinent >15 in central Australia. [after Middleton et al. 1986]

The altitude effect Canary Is. Example of a “winter pattern” (Sahelian) dust outbreak (26 The altitude effect Canary Is. Example of a “winter pattern” (Sahelian) dust outbreak (26 February– 15 March 2000). ambient PM 10 levels (TSP). Sea. WIFS image &TOMS aerosol index map Dominant meteorological scenario during the winter Sahelian dust outbreaks; 925 and 850 h. Pa pressure levels, 26 Feb. 2000, 1200 h. [Viana et al. 2002]

Backward trajectory at mid-point of calima of 3 – 8 March 2004 track across Backward trajectory at mid-point of calima of 3 – 8 March 2004 track across NW Sahara suggestive of summer half-year pattern. However, estimated thickness of dust pall on Gran Canaria and Tenerife only 1 to 1. 5 km (i. e. low altitude) is consistent with winter half-year mode, however. [courtesy of Denis D. Rousseau]

Two Chinese dust sources of global importance – Mongolia (pink flow-path) and Taklamakan Basin Two Chinese dust sources of global importance – Mongolia (pink flow-path) and Taklamakan Basin (yellow flow-path) Dust carried by both airstreams has been recognised in Greenland ice cores…. …. . and in the snows of the French Alps (>20, 000 km pathway)

Dust concentration [mg m 3] 0. 083 0. 356 1. 206 3. 955 Description Dust concentration [mg m 3] 0. 083 0. 356 1. 206 3. 955 Description Normal background ‘Detachment mode’ Extensive dust pall Ordinary dust storm (Chinese Meteorological Bureau)

Source-specific properties stable during long-range windborne transport Ø clay mineralogy Ø major or minor Source-specific properties stable during long-range windborne transport Ø clay mineralogy Ø major or minor elemental ratios Ø rare earth element (REE) abundances Ø Sr, Nd and Pb -isotope ratios (isotope composition varies with the PSD in some dust samples, so PSD measurement is necessary) [after Grousset & Biscaye 2005]

EVENT-BASED MODELS On 26– 27 March 2003, 50% of the dust particles in Japan EVENT-BASED MODELS On 26– 27 March 2003, 50% of the dust particles in Japan came from North Africa, about 30% from the Middle East, and only about 10% from China in the boundary layer. This simulated result is consistent with polarization lidar and sky radiometer observations. [Tanaka et al 2005]

Gran Canarian Dust - Trace Aerosol Composition (at Taliarte site – near sea level) Gran Canarian Dust - Trace Aerosol Composition (at Taliarte site – near sea level) Links between selected elements in Saharan dust and some known lung function conditions and diseases N Minimum Max Median Dep. typical Mn (ng/m 3) 63 2. 12 1096. 02 50. 14 141. 69 Fe (μg/m 3) 101 0. 9 57. 00 1. 98 5. 85 Co (ng/m 3) 101 0. 16 23. 00 1. 13 2. 46 Pb (ng/m 3) 101 1. 51 44. 78 9. 90 7. 83 Cu (ng/m 3) 101 1. 76 63. 93 11. 64 12. 90 Cd (ng/m 3) 101 0. 01 2. 75 0. 24 0. 40 Mg (μ/m 3) 100 0. 03 429. 39 17. 56 59. 94 Al (μ/m 3) 100 0. 30 148. 60 4. 40 15. 06 Ca (μ/m 3) 78 0. 23 786. 10 23. 82 119. 56 Na (μ/m 3) 100 0. 27 802. 48 70. 84 103. 81 Cr (ng/m 3) [but species critical] 41 1. 20 154. 38 18. 72 29. 62 Zn (μ/m 3) 79 0. 01 11. 92 0. 50 1. 36 Ni (ng/m 3) 38 0. 32 31. 72 3. 38 5. 71 Ti (μ/m 3) 38 0. 05 0. 46 0. 15 0. 09 Cancer suspected Cancer & asthma Other agents – no data for Gran Canaria: Emphysema Asthma As (cancer) and V (asthma)

Biogenic Silica - common in atmospheric dusts Testate amoeba Organic tracers phytoliths, lacustrine diatoms, Biogenic Silica - common in atmospheric dusts Testate amoeba Organic tracers phytoliths, lacustrine diatoms, pollen, etc. – indicate a continental origin and possibly a specific Climate area – but may not indicate precise source of dust pall Phytolith 15 µm Diatoms typical of those deflated from desiccated Saharan. Sahelian dry lake basins, e. g. Aulacoseira granulata