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2. WORKING CONDITIONS: AN IMMIGRANT TALE OF TRAGEDY IF YOU MISSED THIS CLASS, YOU NEED TO: 1) DO THE DQ 2 FOR THE DAY. WRITE THE DAILY QUOTE AND ANSWER THE QUESTION FOR THE DAY. 2) YOU ARE TO COPY THE NOTES (I GET MY COPY BACK). 3) DO THE BOSS TWEED QUESTIONS AND THE TRIANGLE FIRE QUESTIONS…
Daily Comment & Card 1882 CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT “WE DIDN’T HAVE A CHANCE” -ROSE GLANTZ -Only legislation passed to limit immigration of any one group of people -Passed in response to the Chinese who settled in California after building the railroads SONG FOR THE DAY: BURNING LOVE (ELVIS!!)
Daily Comment & Card MAY 4, 1886 HAYMARKET SQUARE RIOT -Large rally in Haymarket Square in Chicago shortly after strike began at Mc. Cormick Harvesting Machine Co. -Police attempted to disperse the crowd and bomb exploded -Eleven killed, over 100 wounded -8 Anarchists on trial, 4 executed -used to discredit Knights of Labor SONG FOR THE DAY: RING OF FIRE “WE DIDN’T HAVE A CHANCE” -ROSE GLANTZ
Daily Comment & Card 1882 MAY 4, 1886 CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT -Only legislation passed to limit immigration of any one group of people -Passed in response to the Chinese who settled in California after building the railroads HAYMARKET SQUARE RIOT “WE DIDN’T HAVE A CHANCE” -ROSE GLANTZ -Large rally in Haymarket Square in Chicago shortly after strike began at Mc. Cormick Harvesting Machine Co. -Police attempted to disperse the crowd and bomb exploded -Eleven killed, over 100 wounded -8 Anarchists on trial, 4 executed -used to discredit Knights of Labor SONG FOR THE DAY: BURNING LOVE (ELVIS!!)
2 ANALYZE THIS CARTOON… WHAT DO YOU SEE? WHAT DO YOU THINK THIS PICTURE REPRESENTS? WHAT YEAR WOULD YOU PUT ON THIS PICTURE?
STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: -List reasons for immigration to America -Describe the changes to immigration after 1880 -Define Nativism and Americanization -Explain how the fire at the Triangle Waistshirt Company helped to improve conditions for American workers
AN IMMIGRANT TALE OF TRAGEDY…
IMMIGRATION In the last half of the 19 th century, the U. S. population increased from 23. 2 million in 1850 to 76. 2 million in 1900. 16. 2 million new immigrants arrived during this time…
Why were they coming? P - overty (displaced farmers) -Overcrowding and joblessness in Europe (population boom) -One way passage on steamships was inexpensive -Religious persecution (Russian Jews)
After 1880 there was a shift in the origin of the immigration. Before 1880= northern & western Europe England, Germany, Scandinavia (Mostly Protestant, some Irish & German Catholics) After 1880= southern & eastern Europe Italy, Greece, Croatia, Poland, Russia (poor & illiterate-largely Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox or Jewish)
NATIVISM: Those born in America wanted to restrict immigration as new immigrants flooded the country. They believed that people of other races, religions and nationalities were inferior. They feared the “new immigrants” would never be fully absorbed into America. They felt that they would lower wages and take jobs from other Americans. AMERICANIZATION: The process of making immigrants act American (learning to dress, speak, and act like other Americans). It was an “assimilation” process of blending others into America.
THERE WERE VERY FEW LAWS REGULATING INDUSTRY. ONE OF THE FEW WAS… MULLER V. OREGON THE SUPREME COURT RULED THAT WOMEN’S WORK HOURS MUST BE REGULATED TO PRESERVE HEALTH (1908)
WHAT GOT THE ATTENTION OF AMERICA AND MADE THE U. S. SET UP REGULATIONS ABOUT WORKING CONDITION? HERE IS ONE STORY…
The fire at the Triangle Waistshirt Company in New York City was one of the worst disasters since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. It highlights the inhumane working conditions workers could be subjected to…
Because most garment workers were young immigrant women intimidated by their foreign surroundings, they were generally unorganized before 1911.
…on the top floors of the Asch Building in the Triangle Waistshirt Company. Within minutes chaos ruled. By the time the fire was over, 146 of the 500 employees were dead. Survivors were left to deal with the horror of co-workers burning to death or leaping to their death from the ninth floor.
Some of the workers were as young as 15. Many were recent Italian and European Jewish immigrants who had come here with their families seeking a better life.
The Triangle Factory was primarily a non-union shop, although a few of its workers had joined the International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union. What do you notice about the map?
The Triangle Fire proved that fire inspections and precautions were inadequate. Some workers told of their efforts to open the ninth floor doors to the stairs only to find them locked (some employers did this deliberately). Some who waited at the windows found that the firefighters’ ladders were several stories too short, and that the water from the hoses could not reach the top floors.
The only way out was through an opening on one side of the building where employers usually inspected all purses to prevent stealing. Those who survived testified that they were unable to open any doors on the other side of the building.
In the weeks that followed, the dead were identified, their belongings sorted out, and the city mourned…Soon cries for justice and protection of workers were heard…
Eight months after the fire, a jury acquitted factory owners Max Blanck and Isaac Harris of any wrong doing. Twenty-three civil suits were brought against them. On March 11, 1913 (2 years later), They settled for what amounted to $75 per lost life. That equals $1, 828. 43 in 2017
LIZZIE ADLER, ANNA ALTMAN, ANNA ARDITO, ROSIE BASSINO, VINCENZA BELLOTA, BINCENZA BENETI, ESSIE BERNSTEIN, JACOB BERNSTEIN, MORRIS BERNSTEIN, GUSSIE BIERMAN, ABRAHAM BINEVITZ, ROSIE BRENMAN, SARAH BENMAN, IDA BRODSKY, SARAH BODSKY, IDA BROOKS, LAURA BRUNETTE, FRANCES CAPUTTO, JOSEPHINE CARLISI, ALBINA CARUSO, JOSIE CASTELLO, ROSE CIRRITO, ANNA COHEN, ANTONIA COLLETTI, DORA DOCHMAN, KALMAN DOWNIC, CELIA EISENBERG, REBECCA FEIBISCH, YETTA RICHTENHULTZ, DAISY LOPEZ FITZE, TINA FRANK, ROSIE FREEDMAN, MOLLY GERSTEIN, CELIA GETTLIN, ESHTER GODLSTEIN, LENA GOLDSTEIN, MARY GOLDSTEIN, YETTA GOLDSTEIN, IRENE GRAMEATASSION, BERTHA GREB, KINAH GREENBERG, RACHEL GROSSMAN, ROSSIE GROSSO, ESTHER HARRIS, MARY HERMAN, ESTHER HSOCHFIELD, FANNIE HOLLANDER, PAULINE HOROWITZ, IDA JAKOFSKY, TESSIE KAPLAN, BECKY KAPPELMAN, IDA KENOWITZ, BEKCY KESSLER, JACOB KLINE, BERTHA KUHLER, TILLER KUPFERSMITH, SARAH KUPLA, BENNY KURITZ, ANNIE L’ABBATO, FRANNIE LANSNER, MARY LAVENTHAL, JENNIE LEDERMAN, NATTIE LEFKOWITZ, MAX LEHRER, SAM LEHRER, KATE LEONE, ROSIE LERMARCK, JENNIE LEVIN, PAULINE LEVINE, CATHERINE MALTESE, LUCY MALTESE, ROSARIA MALTESE, MARIA MANARA, BERTHA MANDERS, ROSE MANOFSKY, MECHI MARCIANO, YETTA MEYERS, BETTTINA MIALE, FRANCES MIALE, MGAETANA MIDOLO, BECCY NEBRERER, ANNIE NICHOLAS, NICOLINA NICOLOSCI, NANIE NOVOBRITSKY, SADIE NUSSBAUM, JULIA OBERSTEIN, ROSE ORINGER, BECY OSTROWSKY, CARRIE OZZO, ANNIE PACK, PROVIDENZA PANNO, ANTONIETTA PASQUALICCA, IDA PEARL, JENNIE PILDESCU, VINCENZA PINELLO, JENNIE POLINY, MILLIE PARATO, BECKY REIVERS, EMMA ROOTSTEIN, ISRAEL ROSEN, JULIA ROSEN, LOUIS ROSEN, YETTA ROSENBAUM, JENNIE ROSENBERG, GUSSIE ROSENFELD, NETTIE ROSENTHAL, TEDDY ROTHNER, SARAH SABOSWITZ, SOHPIE SALEMI, SARACINO, TESSIE SARACINO, GUSSIE SCHIFFMAN, ROSE SCHMIDT, ETHEL SCHNEIDER, VIOLET SCHOCHEP, MARGARET SCHWARTZ, JACOB SELZER, ANNIE SEMMILIO, ROSIE SHAPIRO, BEN SKLAVER, ROSIE SORKIN, GUSSIE SPUNT, ANNIE STARR, JENNIE STELLINO, JENNIE STERN, JENNIE STIGLITZ, SAMUEL TAVICK, CLOTILDE TERDANOVA, ISABELLA TORTORELLA, MARY ULLO, MEYER UTAL, FREDA VELAKOWSKY, BESSIE VIVIANIO, ROSE WEINER, CLEIA WEINTRAUB, DORA WELFOWITZ, JOSEPH WILSON, TESSIE WISNER, SONIA WISOTSKY, BERTHA WONDROSS, UNIDENTIFIED 1, UNIDENTIFIED 2, UNIDENTIFIED 3 UNIDENTIFIED 4, UNIDENTIFIED 5, UNIDENTIFIED 6. PUBLIC OUTCRY STRENGTHENED UNIONS & THE PUSH FOR THE RIGHTS OF WORKERS
Francis Perkins, who assisted in the factory investigation as executive secretary of the New York Committee on Safety, would become Secretary of Labor under Franklin Roosevelt.