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2 Information Processing 2. 1 Basic Knowledge of Computer Platforms 2 Information Processing 2. 1 Basic Knowledge of Computer Platforms

* 3 Processing Stages Input – Enter data into the computer Processing – The * 3 Processing Stages Input – Enter data into the computer Processing – The computer works on the data Output – The processed data or results are given out by the computer INPUT data info. PROCESSING OUTPUT

5 Components of a Typical PC Input devices Output devices Processing unit Primary storage 5 Components of a Typical PC Input devices Output devices Processing unit Primary storage units / Main memory Secondary storage units / Backing storage devices *

Input devices * Input devices are used for entering data (e. g. characters, numbers, Input devices * Input devices are used for entering data (e. g. characters, numbers, sound, video, graphics and etc. ) into the computer E. g. , mouse, keyboard, digitizer, microphone, bar-code reader, smart card (e. g. Octopus), scanner, Optical character recognition software, speech recognizer, Chinese handwriting recognizer, touching screen and etc.

Output devices are used for displaying processed data or information (e. g. graphics & Output devices are used for displaying processed data or information (e. g. graphics & movies on screen, printouts, sound and etc. ) to the users E. g. , monitor (visual display unit), printer, speakers, plotter and etc. *

Processing unit * At the heart of every computer is the central processing unit Processing unit * At the heart of every computer is the central processing unit (CPU), or processor, which executes program instructions and performs the computer's processing actions. The CPU is a collection of electronic circuits made up of thousands of transistors placed onto an integrated circuit (also called a chip or microchip). The two components of the CPU are the control unit (CU) and the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)

Common CPU brands Common CPU brands

Primary storage units it holds data only temporarily as the computer executes instructions. 2 Primary storage units it holds data only temporarily as the computer executes instructions. 2 kinds of primary storage device: – RAM (Random Access Memory) – ROM (Read Only Memory) * RAM ROM

 RAM – memory that permits data or information to be written into or RAM – memory that permits data or information to be written into or read from any memory address at any time. – RAM stores data and information only as long as the computer is turned on (volatile). ROM – offers random access to data, but it can hold data and information after the electric current to the computer has been turned off (non-volatile). – data can be read from memory but cannot be written into it *

Secondary storage unit augments primary memory is used to store data over the long Secondary storage unit augments primary memory is used to store data over the long term or future use. E. g. , hard disks, floppy diskettes, magnetic tapes, CD-ROM (read-only), CD-R (recordable), CD-RW (rewrittable), DVD, magneto-optical (MO) disks, zip disks, jaz disks and etc. *

Why need secondary storage? 1. 2. 3. contents of primary memory remain there only Why need secondary storage? 1. 2. 3. contents of primary memory remain there only temporarily. data vanishes from primary memory as soon as the computer is turned off. Primary memory is not large enough to contain the large volume of data and information associated with business application.

The relationship between 5 components Input devices Processing unit Primary storage Output devices Secondary The relationship between 5 components Input devices Processing unit Primary storage Output devices Secondary storage *

4 step processing The processing sequence is a four step processing called the machine 4 step processing The processing sequence is a four step processing called the machine cycle. These four steps, all of which are directed by the control unit, are as follows: fetch, or obtain the next instruction form memory; decode, or translate the instruction into individual commands that the computer can process;

1. 2. execute, or perform the actions called for in the instructions; and store, 1. 2. execute, or perform the actions called for in the instructions; and store, or write the results of processing to memory. To execute the machine cycle, the control unit depends on registers, temporary storage areas in the processor.

Communication device Modem – A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or Communication device Modem – A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted-pair telephone line and demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for the digital device. *

 Analog and conversion digital signal – Digital-to-analog conversion is a process in which Analog and conversion digital signal – Digital-to-analog conversion is a process in which signals having a few (usually two) defined levels or states (digital) are converted into signals having a theoretically infinite number of states (analog). *

Modulation A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital device Modulation A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted-pair telephone line. Demodulation A modem demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for the digital device. *

Major Items Affect the Performance of Computer Operations CPU RAM Cache Video memory Display Major Items Affect the Performance of Computer Operations CPU RAM Cache Video memory Display adapter *

CPU Clock speed is one measure of computer CPU Clock speed is one measure of computer "power, " but it is not always directly proportional to the performance level. – http: //whatis. techtarget. com/definition/0, , si d 9_gci 211799, 00. html From whatis. com

Bus A bus is the path over which data are moved. The width of Bus A bus is the path over which data are moved. The width of the bus determines the amount of data that can be moved at one time.

Word size is measured in bits. A word is the number of bits a Word size is measured in bits. A word is the number of bits a computer can process simultaneously. The larger the word size, the faster a computer can process data.

Memory The computer's workspace (physically, a collection of RAM chips). It is an important Memory The computer's workspace (physically, a collection of RAM chips). It is an important resource, since it determines the size and number of programs that can be run at the same time, as well as the amount of data that can be processed instantly. From whatis. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

Cache L 1 and L 2 are levels of cache memory in a computer. Cache L 1 and L 2 are levels of cache memory in a computer. If the computer processor can find the data it needs for its next operation in cache memory, it will save time compared to having to get it from RAM. From whatis. com

L 1 is L 1 is "level-1" cache memory, usually built onto the microprocessor chip itself. For example, the Intel MMX microprocessor comes with 32 thousand bytes of L 1. L 2 (that is, level-2) cache memory is built into the CPU chip or on a separate chip that can be accessed more quickly than the larger "main" memory. A popular L 2 cache memory size is 1 MB. From whatis. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

Video RAM Also called Video RAM Also called "VRAM, " it is a type of memory used in a display adapter. It is designed with dual ports so that it can simultaneously refresh the screen while text and images are drawn in memory. It is faster than the common dynamic RAM (DRAM) used as main memory in the computer. From techweb. com

Display adapter An expansion board that plugs into a desktop computer that converts the Display adapter An expansion board that plugs into a desktop computer that converts the images created in the computer (digital) to the electronic signals (analog) required by the monitor. The display adapter converts the characters or graphic patterns (bitmaps) within the computer's memory into signals used to refresh the display screen. From techweb. com

 Display adapters also contain their own memory, which is used to build the Display adapters also contain their own memory, which is used to build the images before they are displayed From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

6 Ways of Increasing Processing and Computer Speed 1. Cache memory 1. a form 6 Ways of Increasing Processing and Computer Speed 1. Cache memory 1. a form of high-speed memory that acts as a temporary holding/processing cell and eliminates the need to move data to and from the main memory repeatedly. 2. Co-processors 1. special chips designed to handle tasks that are performed often. By taking over this processing work from the main processor, they free the CPU to focus on general processing needs.

1. Accelerator boards 1. are add-in circuit boards that increase a computer's processing speed. 1. Accelerator boards 1. are add-in circuit boards that increase a computer's processing speed. 2. Packing more transistors on a chip 1. creating greater chip density, resulting in greater computing speed.

1. Reduced instruction set computing (RISC) 1. processes data more simply than complex instruction 1. Reduced instruction set computing (RISC) 1. processes data more simply than complex instruction set computing. With RISC, data for the execution of an instruction are taken only from register. This both simplifies and accelerates instruction processing. 2. With parallel processing 1. computing handle different parts of a problem by executing instructions simultaneously. In the end, the results of each parallel process are combined to produce a result.

Some Common Storage Devices * CD-ROM CD-RW DVD Zip Jaz Floppy diskettes Hard disks Some Common Storage Devices * CD-ROM CD-RW DVD Zip Jaz Floppy diskettes Hard disks From techweb. com

CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory) A compact disc format used to hold text, CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory) A compact disc format used to hold text, graphics and hi-fi stereo sound. It's like an audio CD with spiral, grooved tracks, but uses a different format for recording data. The audio CD player cannot play CD-ROMs, but CD-ROM players can play audio discs. From techweb. com

CD-ROMs hold 650 MB of data, which is equivalent to about 250, 000 pages CD-ROMs hold 650 MB of data, which is equivalent to about 250, 000 pages of text or 20, 000 medium-resolution images. The first CD-ROM drives transferred data at 150 KB per second (1 X). Speeds doubled to 300 KBps (2 X) and continued upward to more than 40 times (40 X) the original. Access times range from 80 to 120 ms. From techweb. com

 The 120 mm CD-ROM is the de facto standard for software distribution and The 120 mm CD-ROM is the de facto standard for software distribution and for publishing large databases. The smaller mini CD-ROM is only 80 mm in diameter and holds 180 MB (compared to the full-size 650 MB). It fits into the deeper well in the center of the tray in most CD -ROM drives. CD-ROMs have a silver cast just like audio CDs. From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

 There is only one laser in a drive. Two are used here to There is only one laser in a drive. Two are used here to illustrate the difference in reflection From techweb. com

How a CD-ROM is made ? From techweb. com How a CD-ROM is made ? From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

CD-R (CD-Recordable) A recordable CD-ROM technology using a disc that can be written only CD-R (CD-Recordable) A recordable CD-ROM technology using a disc that can be written only once. The drive that writes the CD-R disc is often called a "one-off machine" and can also be used as a regular CD-ROM reader. CD-Rs create the equivalent of pits in the disc by altering the reflectivity of a dye layer. Different dyes can be used, including cyanine (green), pthalo-cyanine (yellowgold) and metal-azo (blue). From techweb. com

 Blank CD-R discs can be recorded once and read on any CD-ROM reader. Blank CD-R discs can be recorded once and read on any CD-ROM reader. CD-Rs have a gold, blue or green cast. From techweb. com

CD-R discs are used for beta versions and original masters of CD-ROM material as CD-R discs are used for beta versions and original masters of CD-ROM material as well as a means to distribute large amounts of data to a small number of recipients. CD-Rs are also used for archiving data. A major advantage over other media is that they can be read in most CD-ROM drives. From techweb. com

"Burning" your own CD-Rs is very efficient for small distributions or when it is vital to create copies immediately. However, when several hundred or more discs must be created, the CDROM manufacturing process is generally more efficient. CD-ROMs are made on a pressing machine from a master plate that was derived from a CD-R recording. From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

 CD-R drives such as this internal drive from Sony look just like CD-ROM CD-R drives such as this internal drive from Sony look just like CD-ROM drives. Only the discs themselves look different. The underside of CD-R media typically has a greenish-gold or silver-blue cast, whereas CDROMs have a silver cast. (Image courtesy of Sony Electronics Inc. ) From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

(Image courtesy of Cedar Technologies. ) From techweb. com (Image courtesy of Cedar Technologies. ) From techweb. com

CD-RW (CD-Re. Writable) A rewritable CD-ROM technology. CD-RW drives can also be used to CD-RW (CD-Re. Writable) A rewritable CD-ROM technology. CD-RW drives can also be used to write CDR discs, and they can read CD-ROMs. But, CD-RW disks have a lower reflectivity than CD-ROMs and CD-Rs, and newer Multi. Read CD-ROM drives are required to read them. Initially known as CD-E (for CD-Erasable), a CD-RW disk can be rewritten a thousand times. From techweb. com

 CD-RW disks can be used to master CDROMs, and the same software used CD-RW disks can be used to master CDROMs, and the same software used for CDR creation supports this application. However, unlike CD-Rs, in which the entire disc or an entire track is recorded at once, CD-RWs support UDF (Universal Disk Format), which is similar to the file system on a hard disk. Using variable packet writing, small numbers of files can be appended, and using fixed packet writing, files can be added and deleted. The fixed packet approach requires preformatting like a floppy disk, but takes considerably longer. From techweb. com

 CD-RWs use phase change technology to alter the reflectivity of the disk's surface. CD-RWs use phase change technology to alter the reflectivity of the disk's surface. Phase change is a pure optical technology and does not rely on any magnetic influence as does magneto-optic and its progeny. A short, high-intensity laser pulse turns a bit in the recording layer from its natural crystalline state (reflective) to an amorphous one (dull), which does not reflect light as well. A medium-intensity pulse restores the crystalline structure. A low-intensity pulse reads the bit. From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

DVD originally stood for Digital Video Disc. Since the technology began to seem as DVD originally stood for Digital Video Disc. Since the technology began to seem as important for the computer world as it did for the video world, the "video" was dropped, and it became simply D-V-D. Later, it was dubbed Digital Versatile Disc. From techweb. com

 DVD is an optical disc technology that is expected to rapidly replace the DVD is an optical disc technology that is expected to rapidly replace the CD-ROM disc (as well as the audio compact disc) over the next few years. A DVD holds 4. 7 gigabytes of information on one of its two sides, or enough for a 133 minute movie. With two layers on each of its two sides, it will hold up to 17 gigabytes of video, audio, or other information. (Compare this to the current CD-ROM disc of the same physical size, holding 600 megabytes. The DVD can hold more than 28 times as much information!) From whatis. com

Types of DVDs DVD-Video is the usual name for the DVD format designed for Types of DVDs DVD-Video is the usual name for the DVD format designed for full-length movies and is a box that will work with your television set. DVD-ROM is the name of the player that will (sooner or later) replace your computer's CD -ROM. It will play regular CD-ROM discs as well as DVD-ROM discs. DVD-R is a write-once version used for creating masters DVD-RAM is the writeable version. DVD-Audio is a player designed to replace your compact disc player. From whatis. com and techweb. com

DVD-Video format DVD-Video uses MPEG-2 compression providing approximately 133 minutes of Laser Disc-quality video DVD-Video format DVD-Video uses MPEG-2 compression providing approximately 133 minutes of Laser Disc-quality video per side. This is not a fixed length, because the compression rate is based upon the amount of motion taking place. DVD-Video supports Dolby Digital surround sound, which provides five discrete channels of CD-quality audio plus a subwoofer (5. 1 channel).

DVD-Audio format DVD-Audio is a second-generation digital music format that provides higher sampling rates DVD-Audio format DVD-Audio is a second-generation digital music format that provides higher sampling rates than audio CDs. Many have welcomed the new format, believing that the original audio CD was unable to capture the total sound spectrum.

From techweb. com From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

 At minimum, the capacity of a DVD is 750% that of a CD-ROM At minimum, the capacity of a DVD is 750% that of a CD-ROM because its tracks, pits and lands are more than twice as dense, and it uses more efficient recording algorithms. (Image courtesy of C-Cube Microsystems. ) From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

Zip A 3. 5 Zip A 3. 5" removable disk drive from Iomega. It uses design concepts from Iomega's Bernoulli technology as well as hard disks to provide 100 MB removable cartridges. The drive is bundled with software that can catalog the disks and lock the files for security. In late 1998, a 250 MB version of the Zip drive was introduced which also reads and writes the 100 MB cartridges. From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

Jaz disks A high-capacity removable hard disk system from Iomega. The Jaz has been Jaz disks A high-capacity removable hard disk system from Iomega. The Jaz has been very popular. In 1997, 2 GB drives were introduced, which support 1 GB and 2 GB cartridges Usually used for backup data From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

Floppy diskettes A reusable magnetic storage medium introduced by IBM in 1971. The floppy Floppy diskettes A reusable magnetic storage medium introduced by IBM in 1971. The floppy was the primary method for distributing personal computer software until the mid-1990 s when CD-ROMs became the preferred medium. The floppy disk used today is the rigid 3. 5" microfloppy that holds 1. 44 MB. The reason it's called a floppy is that the first varieties were housed in bendable jackets. Floppies are terribly undersized for today's use, and their future is uncertain. From techweb. com

 Floppies spin at 300 rpm, which is from 10 to 30 times slower Floppies spin at 300 rpm, which is from 10 to 30 times slower than a hard disk. They are also at rest until a data transfer is requested. From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

Hard disk The primary computer storage medium, which is made of one or more Hard disk The primary computer storage medium, which is made of one or more aluminum or glass platters, coated with a ferromagnetic material. Most hard disks are fixed disks, which are permanently sealed in the drive. Removable cartridge disks such as Iomega's Jaz disks enable the disk to be removed from the computer and used as backup or transferred to another machine with the same drive. From techweb. com

 Most desktop hard disks are either IDE (also known as EIDE or ATAPI) Most desktop hard disks are either IDE (also known as EIDE or ATAPI) or SCSI. The advantage of IDE is their lower cost. The advantage of SCSI is that up to seven or more devices can be attached to the same controller board. SCSI drives are typically used in high-end servers, because SCSI is available as a fault tolerant disk subsystem (RAID systems), while IDE drives are found in most desktop and laptop machines. Increasingly, IDE drives are available in RAID configurations From techweb. com

 Hard disks provide fast retrieval because they rotate constantly at high speed, from Hard disks provide fast retrieval because they rotate constantly at high speed, from 5, 000 to 15, 000 rpm. In laptops, they can be turned off when idle to preserve battery life. Today's hard disks start around 20 gigabytes and generally use 3. 5" platters for desktop computers and 2. 5" platters for notebooks. Hard disks are usually low-level formatted from the factory, which records the original sector identification on them. From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

(Image courtesy of Seagate Technology, Inc. ) From techweb. com (Image courtesy of Seagate Technology, Inc. ) From techweb. com

IBM's Microdrive Introduced in late 1998 with a platter the size of a quarter, IBM's Microdrive Introduced in late 1998 with a platter the size of a quarter, IBM's 340 MB Microdrive weighs less than an AA battery. From techweb. com

Size of Data * bits (binary digit) byte = 8 bits Kbyte (kilo byte Size of Data * bits (binary digit) byte = 8 bits Kbyte (kilo byte KB) = 1024 or 210 bytes Mbyte (mega byte MB) = 1, 048, 576 or 220 bytes Gbyte (giga byte GB) = 1, 073, 741, 842 or 230 bytes Tbyte (tera byte TB) = 1, 099, 511, 627, 776 or 240 bytes

bit (BInary digi. T) The smallest element / unit of computer storage. It is bit (BInary digi. T) The smallest element / unit of computer storage. It is a single digit in a binary number (0 or 1). The bit is physically a transistor or capacitor in a memory cell, a magnetic domain on disk or tape, a reflective spot on optical media or a high or low voltage pulsing through a circuit. * From techweb. com

Bits are widely used as a measurement for transmission. Ten megabits per second means Bits are widely used as a measurement for transmission. Ten megabits per second means that ten million pulses are transmitted per second. A 16 -bit bus means that there are 16 wires transmitting the bit at the same time. Measurements for storage devices, such as disks, files and databases, are given in bytes rather than bits. * From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

Transmission – making it faster The bit is transmitted as a pulse of high Transmission – making it faster The bit is transmitted as a pulse of high or low voltage. Speed is increased by making the transistors open and close faster, which is a combination of making the microscopic elements within the transistor smaller and more durable. * From techweb. com

Byte Groups of bits make up storage units in the computer, called Byte Groups of bits make up storage units in the computer, called "characters, " "bytes, " or "words, " which are manipulated as a group. The most common is the byte, made up of 8 bits and equivalent to one alphanumeric character. * From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

From techweb. com From techweb. com

Storage - making it smaller Making the spot or cell smaller increases the storage Storage - making it smaller Making the spot or cell smaller increases the storage capacity. Holographic storage * From techweb. com

Types of Desktop Computers & Workstation File server Terminal Workstation * Types of Desktop Computers & Workstation File server Terminal Workstation *

File server * The computer that a server program runs in is also frequently File server * The computer that a server program runs in is also frequently referred to as a server From IT Teaching Kit

File server A high-speed computer in a network that stores the programs and data File server A high-speed computer in a network that stores the programs and data files shared by users. It acts like a remote disk drive. From techweb. com

Terminal * In data communications, a terminal is any device that terminates one end Terminal * In data communications, a terminal is any device that terminates one end (sender or receiver) of a communicated signal. In practice, it is usually applied only to the extended end points in a network, not central or intermediate devices. In this usage, if you can send signals to it, it's a terminal. From IT Teaching Kit

Terminal a terminal is an end-use device (usually with display monitor and keyboard) with Terminal a terminal is an end-use device (usually with display monitor and keyboard) with little or no software of its own that relies on a mainframe or another computer (such as a PC server) for processing. E. g. ATM machines The term is sometimes used to mean any personal computer or user workstation that is hooked up to a network. From whatis. com

File/database server Terminal Application server File/database server Terminal Application server

Workstation A workstation is a computer intended for individual use but faster and more Workstation A workstation is a computer intended for individual use but faster and more capable than a personal computer. It's intended for business or professional use (rather than home or recreational use). * From IT Teaching Kit

Workstation any individual personal computer location hooked up to a mainframe computer/server They're simply Workstation any individual personal computer location hooked up to a mainframe computer/server They're simply personal computers attached to a local area network (LAN) that in turn shares the resources of one or more large computers. Since they are PCs, they can also be used independently of the mainframe assuming they have their own applications installed and their own hard disk storage. From whatis. com

Peripheral Devices A peripheral device is any computer device that is not part of Peripheral Devices A peripheral device is any computer device that is not part of the essential computer (the processor, memory, and data paths) but is situated relatively close by. A near synonym is input/output (I/O) device. Some peripherals are mounted in the same case with the main part of the computer as are the hard disk drive, CD-ROM drive, and NIC. Other peripherals are outside the computer case, such as the printer and image scanner, attached by a wired or wireless connection.

5 common input devices 1. Keyboards 1. is the primary text input device. It 5 common input devices 1. Keyboards 1. is the primary text input device. It contains certain standard function keys, such as the key, tab and cursor movement keys, shift and control keys and any other manufacturercustomized keys. 2. Scanners 1. transform written or printed information (optical character recognition scanners) or photographic images, drawings, or entire documents (image scanners) into a digital form that is entered directly into the computer. *

1. Mouse 1. is a small device that a computer user pushes across a 1. Mouse 1. is a small device that a computer user pushes across a desk surface in order to point to a place on a display screen and to select one or more actions to take from that position. 2. Digital cameras 1. capture photographic images on light-sensitive computer memory chips. 3. Voice input devices 1. are attached to the computer to capture spoken words and other sounds in digital form. *

5 common output devices 1. Video displays or monitors 1. a monitor is a 5 common output devices 1. Video displays or monitors 1. a monitor is a computer display and related parts packaged in a physical unit that is separate from other parts of the computer. 2. Printers 1. which produce paper output (hard copy) *

1. Plotters 1. draw image information, such as charts and graphs, line drawings, and 1. Plotters 1. draw image information, such as charts and graphs, line drawings, and building blueprints; and 2. Film recorders 1. transform the electronic image on the computer screen into a film image. The uses of these devices vary greatly from business to business, but all businesses use output devices in their computer systems *