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13 Principles of Marketing Retailing and Wholesaling 13 Principles of Marketing Retailing and Wholesaling

Retailing includes all the activities in selling products or services directly to final consumers Retailing includes all the activities in selling products or services directly to final consumers for their personal, non-business use Retailers are businesses whose sales come primarily from retailing 13 -4

Retailing Non-store retailing includes selling to final consumers through: • Direct mail • Catalogs Retailing Non-store retailing includes selling to final consumers through: • Direct mail • Catalogs • Telephone • Internet • TV shopping • Home and office parties • Door-to-door sales • Vending machines 13 -5

Retailing Types of Retailers* Classified in terms of: • Amount of service • Product Retailing Types of Retailers* Classified in terms of: • Amount of service • Product lines • Relative price 13 -6

Retailing* Types of Retailers Amount of service • Self service • Limited service • Retailing* Types of Retailers Amount of service • Self service • Limited service • Full service 13 -7

Retailing Self-service retailers serve customers who are willing to perform their own locate-compare-select process Retailing Self-service retailers serve customers who are willing to perform their own locate-compare-select process to save money • Wal-Mart • Supermarkets 13 -8

Retailing Limited service retailers provide more sales assistance because they carry more shopping goods Retailing Limited service retailers provide more sales assistance because they carry more shopping goods about which customers need more information • Sears • JC Penney 13 -9

Retailing Full-service retailers assist customers in every phase of the shopping process, resulting in Retailing Full-service retailers assist customers in every phase of the shopping process, resulting in higher costs that are passed on to the customer as higher prices • Department stores - Nordstrom • Specialty stores 13 -10

Retailing Specialty stores carry narrow product lines with deep assortments within the product lines Retailing Specialty stores carry narrow product lines with deep assortments within the product lines Department stores carry a wide variety of product lines Convenience stores carry a limited line of high-turnover convenience goods 13 -11

Retailing Superstores offer a large assortment of routinely purchased food products, non food items, Retailing Superstores offer a large assortment of routinely purchased food products, non food items, and services • Supercenters have very large combination food and discount stores 13 -12

Retailing Category killers are large stores that carry a very deep assortment of a Retailing Category killers are large stores that carry a very deep assortment of a particular line with a knowledgeable staff - Best Buy 13 -13

Retailing Service retailers’ product lines are actually service 13 -13 Retailing Service retailers’ product lines are actually service 13 -13

Retailing* Types of Retailers Relative Prices • • Discount stores Office price retailers Factory Retailing* Types of Retailers Relative Prices • • Discount stores Office price retailers Factory outlets Warehouse clubs 13 -14

Retailing Discount stores sell standard merchandise at lower prices by accepting lower margins and Retailing Discount stores sell standard merchandise at lower prices by accepting lower margins and selling higher volume Off-price retailers buy at less than regular wholesale prices and charge customers less than retail • Independent off-price retailers either are owned and run by entrepreneurs or are divisions of larger retail corporations 13 -15

Retailing Factory outlets are producer-operated stores Freeport ME 13 -16 Retailing Factory outlets are producer-operated stores Freeport ME 13 -16

Retailing Warehouse clubs are large warehouse-like facilities with few frills and offer ultra-low prices Retailing Warehouse clubs are large warehouse-like facilities with few frills and offer ultra-low prices - Costco in Canada 13 -16

Retailing* Types of Retailers Organizational Approach • • • Corporate chain stores Voluntary chain Retailing* Types of Retailers Organizational Approach • • • Corporate chain stores Voluntary chain stores Retailer cooperatives Franchise organizations Merchandising conglomerates 13 -17

Retailing Types of Retailers Organizational Approach Corporate chains are two or more outlets that Retailing Types of Retailers Organizational Approach Corporate chains are two or more outlets that are commonly owned and controlled Size allows them to buy in large quantities at lower prices and gain promotional economies • • • Wal-mart Family Mart 13 -18

Retailing Types of Retailers Organizational Approach Voluntary chains are wholesalesponsored groups of independent retailers Retailing Types of Retailers Organizational Approach Voluntary chains are wholesalesponsored groups of independent retailers that engage in group buying and common merchandising • IGA Grocery Stores 13 -19

Retailing Types of Retailers Organizational Approach Retailer cooperative is a group of independent retailers Retailing Types of Retailers Organizational Approach Retailer cooperative is a group of independent retailers that band together to set up a joint-owned, central wholesale operation and conduct joint merchandising and promotion effort • Ace Hardware • Co-op Grocers in Canada 13 -20

Retailing Types of Retailers Organizational Approach Franchise organizations are based on some unique product Retailing Types of Retailers Organizational Approach Franchise organizations are based on some unique product or service; on a method of doing business; or on the trade name or patent that the franchisor has developed • KFC • Holiday Inn 13 -21

Retailing Merchandising conglomerates are corporations that combine several retailing forms under central ownership • Retailing Merchandising conglomerates are corporations that combine several retailing forms under central ownership • Limited Brands 13 -22

Retailing* Retailer Marketing Decisions • • • Target market and positioning Product assortment and Retailing* Retailer Marketing Decisions • • • Target market and positioning Product assortment and services Price Promotion Place 13 -23

Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Target market and positioning involves the definition and profile of Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Target market and positioning involves the definition and profile of the market so the other retail marketing decisions can be made 13 -24

Retailing* Retailer Marketing Decisions Product assortment and service decisions include: • Product assortment • Retailing* Retailer Marketing Decisions Product assortment and service decisions include: • Product assortment • Services mix • Store atmosphere 13 -25

Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Product assortment should differentiate the retailer while matching target shoppers’ Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Product assortment should differentiate the retailer while matching target shoppers’ expectations Offers merchandise that no other competitor carries • • Private or national brands Merchandising events Highly targeted product assortment 13 -26

Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Services mix should also serve to differentiate the retailer from Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Services mix should also serve to differentiate the retailer from the competition • Level of customer support Store atmosphere is the physical layout that makes moving around the store hard or easy 13 -27

Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Price Decision Price policy must fit the target market and Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Price Decision Price policy must fit the target market and positioning, product and service assortment, and competition • • High markup on lower volume Low markup on higher volume 13 -28

Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Price Decision High-low pricing involves charging higher prices on an Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Price Decision High-low pricing involves charging higher prices on an everyday basis, coupled with frequent sales and other price promotions to increase store traffic, clear out unsold merchandise, create a low price image, or attract customers who will buy other goods at full price 13 -29

Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Price Decision Everyday low prices (EDLP) involves charging a constant, Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Price Decision Everyday low prices (EDLP) involves charging a constant, everyday low price with few sales or discounts 13 -30

Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Promotion Decision • • • Advertising Personal selling Sales promotion Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Promotion Decision • • • Advertising Personal selling Sales promotion Public relations Direct marketing 13 -31

Retailing* Retailer Marketing Decisions Place Decision • Location • • Accessibility Consistent with positioning Retailing* Retailer Marketing Decisions Place Decision • Location • • Accessibility Consistent with positioning 13 -32

Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Place Decision Central business districts are located in cities and Retailing Retailer Marketing Decisions Place Decision Central business districts are located in cities and include department and specialty stores, banks, and movie theaters Shopping center is a group of retail businesses planned, developed, owned, and managed as a unit. • • • Regional shopping centers Community shopping centers Neighborhood shopping centers Power centers Lifestyle centers 13 -33

Retailing The Future of Retailing Retailers have to choose target segments carefully, position themselves Retailing The Future of Retailing Retailers have to choose target segments carefully, position themselves strongly, and consider the following developments as they plan and execute their competitive strategies: • • • Non-store retailing Retail convergence Megaretailers Retail technology Global expansion Retail stores as communities 13 -34

Retailing The Future of Retailing New Retailing Forms and Shortening Life Cycles Retail convergence Retailing The Future of Retailing New Retailing Forms and Shortening Life Cycles Retail convergence involves the merging of consumers, producers, prices, and retailers, creating greater competition for retailers and greater difficulty differentiating offerings 13 -37

Retailing The Future of Retailing New Retailing Forms and Shortening Life Cycles The rise Retailing The Future of Retailing New Retailing Forms and Shortening Life Cycles The rise of megaretailers like Wal-mart involves the rise of mass merchandisers and specialty superstores, the formation of vertical marketing systems, and a rash of retail mergers and acquisitions • Superior information systems • Buying power • Large selection 13 -38

Retailing The Future of Retailing New Retailing Forms and Shortening Life Cycles Retail technology Retailing The Future of Retailing New Retailing Forms and Shortening Life Cycles Retail technology includes video-casts, inventory control, electronic ordering, transfer of information, scanning, online transaction processing, improved merchandise handling systems, and the ability to connect with customers 13 -39

Wholesaling* Wholesaling Wholesalers add value by performing channel functions • Selling and promoting • Wholesaling* Wholesaling Wholesalers add value by performing channel functions • Selling and promoting • Buying assortment building • Bulk breaking • Warehousing • Transportation • Financing • Risk bearing • Market information • Management services and advice 13 -40

Wholesaling Selling and promoting involves the wholesaler’s sales force helping the manufacturer reach many Wholesaling Selling and promoting involves the wholesaler’s sales force helping the manufacturer reach many smaller customers at lower cost Buying and assortment building involves the selection of items and building of assortments needed by their customers, saving the customers work 13 -41

Wholesaling Bulk breaking involves the wholesaler buying in larger quantity and breaking into smaller Wholesaling Bulk breaking involves the wholesaler buying in larger quantity and breaking into smaller lots for its customers Warehousing involves the wholesaler holding inventory, reducing its customers’ inventory cost and risk 13 -42

Wholesaling Transportation involves the wholesaler providing quick delivery due to its proximity to the Wholesaling Transportation involves the wholesaler providing quick delivery due to its proximity to the buyer Financing involves the wholesaler providing credit and financing suppliers by ordering earlier and paying on time 13 -43

Wholesaling Risk bearing involves the wholesaler absorbing risk by taking title and bearing the Wholesaling Risk bearing involves the wholesaler absorbing risk by taking title and bearing the cost of theft, damage, spoilage, and obsolescence Market information involves the wholesaler providing information to suppliers and customers about competitors, new products, and price developments 13 -44

Wholesaling Management services and advice involves wholesalers helping retailers train their sales clerks, improve Wholesaling Management services and advice involves wholesalers helping retailers train their sales clerks, improve store layouts, and set up accounting and inventory control systems 13 -45

Wholesaling* Types of Wholesalers • • • Merchant wholesalers Agents and brokers Manufacturers’ sales Wholesaling* Types of Wholesalers • • • Merchant wholesalers Agents and brokers Manufacturers’ sales branches and offices 13 -46

Wholesaling Types of Wholesalers Merchant wholesalers is the largest group of wholesalers and include: Wholesaling Types of Wholesalers Merchant wholesalers is the largest group of wholesalers and include: • Full-service wholesalers who provide a full set of services • Limited-service wholesalers who provide few services and specialized functions 13 -47

Wholesaling Types of Wholesalers Brokers and agents do not take title, perform a few Wholesaling Types of Wholesalers Brokers and agents do not take title, perform a few functions, and specialize by product line or customer type - Fisher. King Seafoods • Brokers bring buyers and sellers together and assist in negotiations • Agents represent buyers or sellers 13 -48

Wholesaling Types of Wholesalers Manufacturers’ sales branches and offices is a form of wholesaling Wholesaling Types of Wholesalers Manufacturers’ sales branches and offices is a form of wholesaling by sellers or buyers themselves rather than through independent wholesalers 13 -49

Wholesaling Wholesaler Marketing Decisions • • Target market and positioning decisions Marketing mix decisions Wholesaling Wholesaler Marketing Decisions • • Target market and positioning decisions Marketing mix decisions 13 -50

Wholesaling Wholesaler Marketing Decisions Target market and positioning decisions • Size of customer • Wholesaling Wholesaler Marketing Decisions Target market and positioning decisions • Size of customer • Type of customer • Need for service 13 -51

Wholesaling Wholesaler Marketing Decisions Marketing mix decisions • Product • Price • Promotion • Wholesaling Wholesaler Marketing Decisions Marketing mix decisions • Product • Price • Promotion • Place 13 -52