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11 th Pisa Meeting 2009 H C A L CMS HCAL Front-End Upgrade for 11 th Pisa Meeting 2009 H C A L CMS HCAL Front-End Upgrade for SLHC Phase I Julie Whitmore Fermilab On behalf of the CMS Collaboration Special thanks to the CMS HCAL Upgrade Group May 27, 2009 1

CMS Hadron Calorimeter H C A L Sampling Calorimeter Had Barrel: HB Had Endcaps: CMS Hadron Calorimeter H C A L Sampling Calorimeter Had Barrel: HB Had Endcaps: HE Had Outer: HO Had Forward: HF HO HB HE HF Common technology HB, HE, HO Brass/scintillator/WLS fiber - HPD May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 2

SLHC Luminosity Upgrade Plan n H C A L Phase 0 - (2009) Incremental SLHC Luminosity Upgrade Plan n H C A L Phase 0 - (2009) Incremental LHC upgrades, run L up to ~1 x 10 34 Phase 1 - Dec 2013 shutdown (~8 months), run L up to ~2 -3 x 1034 Phase 2 (? ) - Dec 2017 (long shutdown TBD) run L up to ~8 -10 x 10 34 May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 3

Physics Motivation n H C A L High Luminosity run conditions n Maintain detector Physics Motivation n H C A L High Luminosity run conditions n Maintain detector performance/resolution n Limit lepton ID degradation / Improve background rejection n Improve triggering Maintain calibration Lepton Isolation Calorimeter longitudinal segmentation - shower shape, improve resolution (weighting) Extreme pile-up conditions (200 pileup evts/X-ing) n Need better timing resolution n May 27, 2009 Current HCAL timing based on pulse shape information -3 ns) 11 th Pisa Meeting (2 4

Lepton Isolation at L 1 trigger @ 1035 C A L MHz Need to Lepton Isolation at L 1 trigger @ 1035 C A L MHz Need to improve Lepton Isolation @ 1035 H Single electron trigger rate L = 2 x 1033 Isolation criteria are insufficient to reduce rate at L = 1035 cm-2. s-1 5 k. Hz @ 1035 τ With current HCAL detector design Removing Layer 0 from HCAL Isolation cone improves rejection --> Longitudinal Depth segmentation May 27, 2009 We need to get another x 200 (x 20) reduction for single (double) tau rate! 11 th Pisa Meeting 5

HCAL Longitudinal Depth Segmentation Current 18 -Channel RMs May 27, 2009 H C A HCAL Longitudinal Depth Segmentation Current 18 -Channel RMs May 27, 2009 H C A L Upgrade 64 -Channel HB RMs 48 -Channel HE RMs 11 th Pisa Meeting 6

Current On-Detector Electronics n n Cards, HPDs and ODUs are combined to make readout Current On-Detector Electronics n n Cards, HPDs and ODUs are combined to make readout modules (RMs) Optical Decoder Unit (ODU) - Maps layers into towers using optical fiber n H C QIE ODU A L RM Channel Control Gigabit Optolink HB - tower has 1 depth (no depth segmentation) HPD VCSEL+Fiber May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting Readout box (4 RMs) 20° of HCAL RM 7

Replaceable Readout Modules H C A L Replace RMs - Optical addition, - HPD Replaceable Readout Modules H C A L Replace RMs - Optical addition, - HPD Photodetection - QIE Digitization - Slow Controls - 1. 6 GHz GOL VCSEL + Digital Fiber Analog fiber May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 8

Phase I Upgrade Constraints n H C A L Phase I shutdown schedule is Phase I Upgrade Constraints n H C A L Phase I shutdown schedule is tight n Keep HCAL services (optolinks, cooling pipes, etc. ) n RBXs - change RMs/CCMs/Calib only n n Digital Optolinks n n May 27, 2009 Serious space constraints and cooling limitations 4 times no. QIE channels, faster gigabit optolink chips more heat dissipation Si. PMs controls & environment n Gain sensitive to temperature - temp stability and temp monitoring/gain calib needed n Controls - Over voltage setting, Peltier coolers, temp sensors, Leakage current monitoring, FE chip parameters Keep the same fiber plant (use more of the available fibers) Need to move over 4 times more data with same fiber ribbons (6/8 fibers --> 8/8 fibers) 11 th Pisa Meeting 9

HCAL Front-End Upgrade n H C A L HCAL Front-end Upgrade can take advantage HCAL Front-End Upgrade n H C A L HCAL Front-end Upgrade can take advantage of Major Development in Photodetector Technology (Si. PMs - pixelated Geiger-mode APD) n n n Signal-to-Noise Performance improves with increased Calorimeter Light Collection (x 60) n Larger signal boost --> finer granularity image of the energy flow in the detector Finer Depth Segmentation in Barrel & Endcap improves Performance @ High Luminosity n Separate low Et ECAL leakage (front conpartment) from high Et particle flow jets (hadronic rear compartment) n Radiation Dose Compensation Lepton Isolation @ High Luminosity improves with TDC Measurements on Inner Layers n Restricting Isolation Cone Energies (Large Area Sums over Low ET Hits) to the Same Bunch Crossing May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 10

Si. PM characteristics q 42 m 20 m q pixel Resistor h q Al Si. PM characteristics q 42 m 20 m q pixel Resistor h q Al Depletion Region 2 m R 50 q Substrate q Ubias q May 27, 2009 H C A L Matrix of independent pixels arranged on a common substrate Each pixel operates in a selfquenching Geiger mode Each pixel produces a standard response independent of the no. of incident photons (that arrive within quenching time) One pixel – logical signal: 0 or 1 Si. PM output - integrates over all pixels: q Si. PM response = fired pixels Dynamic range ~ no. of pixels 11 th Pisa Meeting 11

Photosensors Si. PMs Replace HPDs H C A L 1 Si. PM per fiber Photosensors Si. PMs Replace HPDs H C A L 1 Si. PM per fiber Light-tight 18 -connector Faceplate Basic Concept - 1 Si. PM (1 mm 2) per fiber --> Si. PM strip detectors - Layers summed via electrical Si. PM signals (instead of optical fibers) (ODU --> EDU) - Depth segmentation done on separate board Can continue to study simulations and optimize later in design phase May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting Poster Session: Jim Freeman “Silicon Photomultipliers 12 For CMS HCAL”

Front-end Digital Transmitter Board H C A L 180 mm 75 mm 8 Optical Front-end Digital Transmitter Board H C A L 180 mm 75 mm 8 Optical Fibers • 72 HB/HE RBX, 4 RM/RBX, 8 Fibers/RM – 2304 Digital Links in HB/HE May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 13

n QIE (Charge integrating. Encoding ASIC) n n 40 MHz deadtimeless ADC Piece-wise linear n QIE (Charge integrating. Encoding ASIC) n n 40 MHz deadtimeless ADC Piece-wise linear FADC n n n Quantization error matched to detector resolution QIE 8 - Currently used Upgraded QIE 10 n n n 4 ranges, 6 -bit resolution per range TDC bit Need to verify AMS 0. 8 m bi-CMOS rad tolerance May 27, 2009 H C A L Fractional Quantization Error QIE 10 Design Parameters Ge. V Implementation of 4 range splitter with a 6 -bit non-linear FADC allows for a simplified design with min impact on detector resolution 11 th Pisa Meeting 14

FE Benchmarks n H C A L In-situ calibration/monitoring n Single Pixel (single p. FE Benchmarks n H C A L In-situ calibration/monitoring n Single Pixel (single p. e. ) at 10 f. C n Electronic n noise at 2 f. C and LSB at 3 f. C Muon MIP Calibration Signal from every depth segmentation n Implies min layer grouping n Layer-0 thicker/brighter than other layers n MIP in Layer-0 single particle calibration n Reduced n May 27, 2009 systematic relative to MIP in ECAL Less sensitive to dead material in between ECAL & HCAL 11 th Pisa Meeting 15

Upgraded Digital Readout H C A L GOL 1. 6 Gb/s GBT 4. 8 Upgraded Digital Readout H C A L GOL 1. 6 Gb/s GBT 4. 8 Gb/s 120 bits (84 bits for the user) GBT Project - Giga. Bit Transceiver (Common Project) (Bi-directional Data Links for Data + Clock + Slow controls) May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 16

Front End Control & Monitoring n H C A L FE RBX control & Front End Control & Monitoring n H C A L FE RBX control & Monitoring n 2 TTC fibers/RBX - serial communication n n Currently 1 used - Clock, QIE FE settings (clock phase, temperature readout) Upgraded communication (also via GBT) n n 1 Uplink + 1 Downlink fiber/RBX New on-detector module uses GBT (Giga. Bit Transceiver) Chip Set n n n May 27, 2009 Common LHC Experiment Project (Fall 2011 -1 st Parts) n Need ~5000 parts Communications (Clock, FE Settings [Clock Phase, Si. PM Bias Voltages, Peltier Cooler Voltage], Leakage Current readout, and Temp Sensor Readout) Server in Counting House (USC 55) - controls RBX FE Crates 11 th Pisa Meeting 17

SLHC Radiation Levels H C A L SLHC radiation levels (x 3 for safety SLHC Radiation Levels H C A L SLHC radiation levels (x 3 for safety factor) Need radiation tolerant devices (ASICs, FPGAs, & COTS support components) - SEU mitigation (TMR, layout optimization, Anti-fuse) - Testing of ASICs, FPGAs, and COTS May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 18

FE Electronics Radiation Tolerance May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting H C A FE Electronics Radiation Tolerance May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting H C A L 19

Si. PM Radiation Tests H C A L Zecotek FBK Hamamatsu CPTA HE HO Si. PM Radiation Tests H C A L Zecotek FBK Hamamatsu CPTA HE HO May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting HB 20

FE Design Challenges n H C A L Electrical (Si. PM responses) to form FE Design Challenges n H C A L Electrical (Si. PM responses) to form tower depth segments n Different Si. PM strips n n n Gain sensitivity - 4%-8%/o. C HCAL - water cooling (water temp varies), Peltier coolers on Si. PMs Si. PM Monitoring & Temperature control n n Monitor gain, adjust bias voltage or Peltier cooler settings (feedback loop) Needs to be demonstrated n n May 27, 2009 Beam tests, HO demonstrator boxes Could go back to optical summing (ODU) concept w/ single larger form factor Si. PM 11 th Pisa Meeting 21

2009 Beam Test n H C A L CERN Beam Test 2009 (mid-July) - 2009 Beam Test n H C A L CERN Beam Test 2009 (mid-July) - Si. PM Strips Conceptual Design Test – Half Density EDU (fiber centers too close) Individual FBK 1 x 1 mm 2 Si. PMs for EDU May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 22

n Si. PM 18 -Channel Strip H C A L Zecotek Custom Part 80 n Si. PM 18 -Channel Strip H C A L Zecotek Custom Part 80 Strips Fabricated n Packaging in May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 23

n Si. PM Temperature Control H C A L Water-cooled plates coupled to EDU n Si. PM Temperature Control H C A L Water-cooled plates coupled to EDU for thermal stability in CERN TB environment n Peltier cooling for fine adjustment Cooling plates May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 24

n Si. PM Readout 4 x 4 region of HB using optical jumper cables n Si. PM Readout 4 x 4 region of HB using optical jumper cables (mini-ODUs) 1) C A L 40 MHz readout with 4 depth segmentations - 2) H QIE 8 electronics adjust preamp gains as needed 250 MHz 12 -bit sampling ADC with 17 depth segmentations in the central tower - adjust preamp gains as needed May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 25

HO Si. PM Demonstrator Boxes H C A L Landau fit to signals from HO Si. PM Demonstrator Boxes H C A L Landau fit to signals from 2 RBXs installed in CMS HCAL detector in May cosmic rays - Hamamatsu, Zecotek (3 mm x 3 mm) n Si. PM Control - Over voltage setting, leakage current monitoring, temp sensors, Peltier Coolers (will test feedback loop control) n Experience of “in the field” operation of Si. PMs in the CMS environment May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 26

Summary & Plans n n H C A L Given SLHC luminosity upgrade scenario, Summary & Plans n n H C A L Given SLHC luminosity upgrade scenario, physics performance motivates HCAL depth segmentation Modularity and accessibility provides an opportunity to upgrade n n Si. PM technology good match to needs RMs swapped, RBXs & services infrastructure remain intact n n n Demonstrator HO RBXs installed Beam test - July 2009 FE electronics radiation test program underway No known obstacles hindering FE upgrade n CMS HCAL Upgrade R&D on track for SLHC Phase I Schedule 11 th Pisa Meeting May 27, 2009 n 27

Elba H C A L Unlike Napoleon, I think many of us have enjoyed Elba H C A L Unlike Napoleon, I think many of us have enjoyed being exiled to Elba! Thank you for the invitation! May 27, 2009 11 th Pisa Meeting 28