- Количество слайдов: 40
11 -12 -13 • State of Consciousness: Handout Review • Quiz Tomorrow 11 -13 -13 - Study Handout! • Nightmares - Reading/Video • Sleep - Why do infants sleep all the time? - How much? What happens if we don’t sleep?
11 -12 -13 • Hypnosis and Meditation - Attention? Focus? Power? Suggestion - Video • Drug States - Do these things really alter our mood, perception, and behavior? - Video
Memory & Information Processing In order to remember something, we must: • Encode (get info into our brain) • Store (keep the info somewhere safe) • Retrieve (get the info back out later) How Do We Encode Info? Selective Attention Where Do We Store Info? Long Term Memory Short Term Memory Sensory Memory
External Events Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention & Encoding Short-Term Memory Retrieval Encoding Long-Term Memory
#21 Encoding Imagery Earliest memories involve mental imagery Easier to recall concrete words than abstract words Balloon vs Process Flashbulb Memories “Where were you when…?
Organizing Info & Encoding Meaningful Info is Easier to Encode Chunking Hierarchies Magical Number 7± 2 “ciacnnabccbsnbc” ROYGBIV Broad Concepts First Details Next Class Notes
#1 Forgetting - Encoding Failure? External Events (Stimuli) Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Retrieval Attention & Encoding Long-Term Memory
A Simplified Memory Model Sensory input External events Attention to important or novel information Sensory memory Encoding Short-term memory Encoding Retrieving Long-term memory
Storage: Sensory Memory Experiment How do we know it exists? Sperling (1960) Immediate Recall of All 9 Letters Only about 50% recall Cued Recall of Specific Row (tone) Almost 100% recall Iconic Memory ~ 250 msecs K Z R Q B T S G F 50 msec display Echoic Memory ~ 3 -4 seconds
#23 Storage: Short Term Memory Percent of Ss who recalled consonants Task 100 80 60 40 20 0 STM Remember CHJ (no rehearsal) J J J 3 6 9 12 15 18 Time (sec) between presentation and recall Limited Time (rehearsal) Limited Capacity (7 ± 2)
Storage: Long Term Memory Ave adult brain has ~ 1 billion bits of info stored Capacity may be 1000 - 100, 000 times greater Forgetting Curve (Ebbinghaus) Much of what we learn we quickly forget Percent of list retained How precise and durable are our memories? 60 50 40 30 20 10 J J J J J 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 25 Time (days) since learning
#24 Where/How are Memories Stored? Lashley’s Rats - Train rats & remove specific portions of their brains Gerard’s Hamsters - train hamsters & temporarily “turn off” brain’s electrical activity Q: Do they still “remember”? A: Yes Conclusion Memories do not reside in a single, specific location.
Storage: Long-Term Memory § MRI scan of hippocampus (in red) Hippocampus
Storage: Long-Term Memory § Amnesia--the loss of memory § Explicit Memory § memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare § also called declarative memory § hippocampus--neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage § Implicit Memory § retention independent of conscious recollection § also called procedural memory
#25 So. . . How are Memories Stored? Aplysia - during conditioning: 1. More serotonin released at certain synapses 2. These synapses became more efficient Long Term Potentiation - prolonged strengthening of potential neural firing… Looks Like Learning! Serotonin Blockers Serotonin Stimulators Alcohol Boxing Shock Therapy Stress Emotions
#26 Encoding § Automatic Processing § unconscious encoding of incidental information § space § time § frequency § well-learned information § word meanings § we can learn automatic processing § reading backwards
Implicit & Explicit Memories The Case of the Lost Mariner Amnesiacs, incapable of learning new facts, can be conditioned to do new tasks They know things but don’t remember learning! Implicit Memory Knowing how to do something Cerebellum Explicit Memory Knowing that you know something Hippocampus
#29 Remembering: Retrieval Cues Recognition (multiple choice) Identification of items previously learned Recall (Fill in Blank) Retrieval of information previously learned Retrieval Cues - help us to remember Web of Associations Priming Activation of a connected node (Implicit) “hare”
Encoding § Imagery § mental pictures § a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding § Mnemonics § memory aids § especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
#27 Encoding § Chunking § organizing items into familiar, manageable units § like horizontal organization--1776149218121941 § often occurs automatically § use of acronyms § HOMES--Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior § ARITHMETIC--A Rat In Tom’s House Might Eat Tom’s Ice Cream
Encoding: Chunking § Organized information is more easily recalled
Storage: Retaining Information § Iconic Memory § a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli § a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more that a few tenths of a second § Echoic Memory § momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
#28 Storage: Short-Term Memory Percentage 90 who recalled consonants 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 § Short-Term Memory 3 6 9 12 15 18 Time in seconds between presentation of contestants and recall request (no rehearsal allowed) § limited in duration and capacity § “magical” number 7+/-2
Remembering: Context & Mood Context Effect Memory increases if recall occurs in the same context as encoding.
#31 Storage: Long-Term Memory § How does storage work? § Karl Lashley (1950) § rats learn maze § lesion cortex § test memory § Synaptic changes= § Long-term Potentiation § increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation § Strong emotions make for stronger memories § some stress hormones boost learning and retention
Remembering: Context & Mood Context Effect State-Dependent Memory increases if recall occurs in the same context as encoding. Memory increases if mood at recall is the same as retrieval
Forgetting As Retrieval Failure Some info may never make it to LTM Encoding Failure Some info may not make it out of LTM Interference - learning some items may interfere with learning other items Proactive vs Retroactive Interference
#30 Retrieval Cues § Deja Vu (French)--already seen § cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience § "I've experienced this before. " § Mood-congruent Memory § tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood § memory, emotions, or moods serve as retrieval cues § State-dependent Memory § what is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk, or depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same state
Forgetting § Retroactive Interference Percentage 90% of syllables 80 recalled 70 Without interfering events, recall is better After sleep 60 50 40 30 20 10 After remaining awake 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hours elapsed after learning syllables 8
#32 Forgetting § Forgetting as encoding failure § Which penny is the real thing?
Forgetting § The forgetting curve for Spanish learned in school Percentage of 100% original 90 vocabulary 80 retained Retention drops, 70 then levels off 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 9½ 14½ 25 35½ 49½ Time in years after completion of Spanish course
Forgetting § Forgetting as encoding failure § Information never enters the long-term memory Attention External events Short- Encoding Sensory term memory Encoding failure leads to forgetting Longterm memory
Interference Proactive Interference Something learned earlier disrupts something learned later. Past Present Retroactive Interference Something learned later disrupts something learned earlier. Past Present
#32 Forgetting- Interference § Motivated Forgetting § people unknowingly revise memories § Repression § defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
#33 Memory Construction § Most people can agree on the following: § § Injustice happens Forgetting happens Recovered memories are commonplace Memories recovered under hypnosis or drugs are especially unreliable § Memories of things happening before age 3 are unreliable § Memories, whether false or real, are upsetting
Memory • Research indicates that we remember 10 percent of what we read • 50 percent of what we see and hear • and 90 percent of what we say and experience.
Memory • we remember 10% of what we hear, 20% of what we read, 50% of what we do, 75% of what we discuss and 90% of what we teach.
There are FOUR Types of Memory Devices we will examine • • Mnemonic Device (Michael Scott) Acronyms (HOMES) Chunking (See Below) Symantics (A “Punny Story”)
• CHOOSE TWO OF THE FOLLOWING: Create or Recall a Learning Device • Using one of these strategies from school or a personal hobby. (Anything Appropriate) • Mnemonic Device (Michael Scott) • Acronyms (HOMES) • Chunking (See Below) • Symantics (A “Punny Story”)