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1 UNCLASSIFIED U. S. Coast Guard Maritime Domain Awareness Curtis L. Dubay, P. E. 1 UNCLASSIFIED U. S. Coast Guard Maritime Domain Awareness Curtis L. Dubay, P. E. Director, MDA Program Integration U. S. Coast Guard 5 March 2009 U. S. Coast Guard

USCG Global Missions Maritime Safety Security Stewardship Unclassified U. S. Coast Guard USCG Global Missions Maritime Safety Security Stewardship Unclassified U. S. Coast Guard

Exclusive Economic Zone (world’s largest) Unclassified U. S. Coast Guard Exclusive Economic Zone (world’s largest) Unclassified U. S. Coast Guard

National Marine Sanctuaries Unclassified U. S. Coast Guard National Marine Sanctuaries Unclassified U. S. Coast Guard

4 Challenges to Global Security • • Organized crime Piracy Drug smuggling Human smuggling 4 Challenges to Global Security • • Organized crime Piracy Drug smuggling Human smuggling and slavery • Illegal weapons movement & proliferation • Terrorism • Exclusive Economic Zone (resource) exploitation • Illegal fishing • Trade disruption • Illegal migration • Search and Rescue • Environmental attack Nations find their well-being challenged by these common threats to Maritime Security U. S. Coast Guard

CG Mission Programs Safety Security Stewardship • • • Marine Safety Search and Rescue CG Mission Programs Safety Security Stewardship • • • Marine Safety Search and Rescue Defense Readiness Ports, Waterways, & Coastal Security Drug Interdiction Migrant Interdiction Other Law Enforcement Marine Environmental Protection Living Marine Resources Enforcement Aids to Navigation Ice Operations Unclassified U. S. Coast Guard

8 Maritime Governance – Vision/Long Term Strategy “A systems approach to maritime governance must 8 Maritime Governance – Vision/Long Term Strategy “A systems approach to maritime governance must be global in scope and must be built upon a foundation of international cooperation. ” U. S. Coast Guard Strategy for Maritime Safety, Security, and Stewardship Admiral Thad Allen, Commandant, US Coast Guard U. S. Coast Guard

6 Maritime Governance Government p ity Un International Private Sector hi ity ty fe 6 Maritime Governance Government p ity Un International Private Sector hi ity ty fe Sa r cu ds ar ew Se St Regimes (Policies, Regulations) Awareness of Ef rt fo Operations Port States Global Commons Approaches Port States Across the Maritime Domain U. S. Coast Guard

2 Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) …the effective understanding of anything associated with the global 2 Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) …the effective understanding of anything associated with the global maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment U. S. Coast Guard

10 Achieving and Maintaining MDA Observables Collect Fuse • Vessels • Sensors • People 10 Achieving and Maintaining MDA Observables Collect Fuse • Vessels • Sensors • People • Operators & field personnel • Tracks w/ tracks • Intel Sources • Data w/ data • Facilities • Cargo • Infrastructure • Sea lanes • Threats • Friendly forces • Weather • Open source • Private sector • Tracks w/ data • Law enforcement Analyze • Anomaly detection • Pattern recog & analysis • Compare w/ rules Disseminate • Networks • Displays (COP/UDOP) • Command centers Decisions • Strategic • Operational • Tactical • Research tools U. S. Coast Guard

11 Collect AIS Satellites IMO Global Tracking Coastal AIS Nationwide AIS Buoy Coastal Radar 11 Collect AIS Satellites IMO Global Tracking Coastal AIS Nationwide AIS Buoy Coastal Radar Patrol Ships & Aircraft Vessel Traffic Systems U. S. Coast Guard

12 Fuse U. S. Coast Guard 12 Fuse U. S. Coast Guard

13 Analyze Vessel A Tools Data Warehouses Received Reports Field Observations Sensors Characteristics Crew 13 Analyze Vessel A Tools Data Warehouses Received Reports Field Observations Sensors Characteristics Crew Passengers Cargo History Current Activity Projected Activity U. S. Coast Guard

14 Disseminate Report of Vessel A Command Center Views & Databases Characteristics History Crew 14 Disseminate Report of Vessel A Command Center Views & Databases Characteristics History Crew Passengers Cargo Current Activity Operations Meetings & Port Partnerships Arrivals Reports & Schedules U. S. Coast Guard

15 Layered MDA Coastal 24 - 300 nm Ports & Approaches < 24 nm 15 Layered MDA Coastal 24 - 300 nm Ports & Approaches < 24 nm High Seas 300 - 2, 000 nm U. S. Coast Guard

Layered MDA Sensor Coverage Areas CG Enterprise Long Range Identification and Tracking • Global Layered MDA Sensor Coverage Areas CG Enterprise Long Range Identification and Tracking • Global position reporting per SOLAS regulations. • 4 daily broadcasts per IMO • 160+ contracting governments participating in LRIT efforts • Track 40, 000+ SOLAS Class vessels globally • Satellite-based reporting. Nationwide Automated Identification System • Nationwide network of towers & transceivers • Similar to aircraft transponders • VHF radio-based (line of sight technology), self-generated vessel reports per IMO/SOLAS • Provides AIS data feed to CG enterprise data stores. • Inside 50 NM: near real time reports (seconds/minutes). • Inside 2000 NM: less frequent satellite based coverage. Port State Classified Systems 16 IOC • Command Center monitors vessel behavior with radars and cameras. • Corroborate vessel behavior with actions advertised in LRIT/NAIS and in ship reports • Joint planning and ops tools • Real-time op decision support. • Covers critical port/coastal approaches to 24 NM. US Port All tracking systems feed data to CG enterprise data warehouse for strategic fusion. U. S. Coast Guard UNCLASSIFIED Generated using Google Earth®

20 Current AIS Capability U. S. Coast Guard 20 Current AIS Capability U. S. Coast Guard

Conceptual Shore-side NAIS Capability in Critical Ports & Coastal Areas Operations Systems Center NAIS Conceptual Shore-side NAIS Capability in Critical Ports & Coastal Areas Operations Systems Center NAIS Storage, Correlation, & Dissemination Navigation Center NAIS Management & Monitoring CG Data Networks & Portals 19 Sector Command Center Network Node Manages the Local Tactical Picture Encrypted AIS used for Blue Force Tracking Provides netcentric connectivity across domains Critical Port Coverage Current Coverage in VTS Ports and at Prototype Sites Maritime Intelligence Fusion Centers & other Users of NAIS data Class A User Shipboard AIS used on AIS equipped vessels for navigation safety Sector Command Center Provided direct feed of AIS data Network Node Connectivity Symbols NAIS Data Signals CG Data Network Links Class B User NAIS Increment 1 Critical Coastal Coverage 18

20 U. S. Coast Guard 20 U. S. Coast Guard

U. S. Coast Guard U. S. Coast Guard

AIS Via Commercial LEO Satellite +tle – H 1 Unclassified U. S. Coast Guard AIS Via Commercial LEO Satellite +tle – H 1 Unclassified U. S. Coast Guard

Commercial AIS - 24 hour period Combined data of 2 satellites Time of screen Commercial AIS - 24 hour period Combined data of 2 satellites Time of screen capture: 13: 16 UTC 5 November 2008 Vessel count: 11928 U. S. Coast Guard

17 Long Range Identification and Tracking Used with Permission of Inmarsat U. S. Coast 17 Long Range Identification and Tracking Used with Permission of Inmarsat U. S. Coast Guard

Inland River Vessel Movement Center CDC Barges ANHYDROUS AMMONIA AMMONIUM NITRATE CHLORINE PROPYLENE OXIDE Inland River Vessel Movement Center CDC Barges ANHYDROUS AMMONIA AMMONIUM NITRATE CHLORINE PROPYLENE OXIDE BUTADIENE BUTANE OTHER CHEMICALS 12, 007 7, 696 6, 720 3, 783 3, 021 689 46 (35%) (23%) (20%) (11%) (8%) (2%) (1%) U. S. Coast Guard

IRVMC Inland Rivers Vessel Movement Center U. S. Coast Guard IRVMC Inland Rivers Vessel Movement Center U. S. Coast Guard

23 US Information Sharing Today – Mobilizing the Citizens “Layer” • All eyes on 23 US Information Sharing Today – Mobilizing the Citizens “Layer” • All eyes on the water – America’s Waterway Watch http: //www. americaswaterwaywatch. org/ • Engaging Port Partners – Acknowledging Industry’s involvement U. S. Coast Guard

21 Interagency Operations Centers U. S. Coast Guard 21 Interagency Operations Centers U. S. Coast Guard

22 Requirements Interagency Operations Centers Command Center Sensor Control and Processing Collaboration Data Integration 22 Requirements Interagency Operations Centers Command Center Sensor Control and Processing Collaboration Data Integration and Presentation Situational Awareness Interoperability Port Partners Military USCG U. S. Coast Guard

Interagency Operations Centers Concept 25 Approach Distance 24 NM 5 NM Approach Zone • Interagency Operations Centers Concept 25 Approach Distance 24 NM 5 NM Approach Zone • Radar tracking of vessels • Daytime cameras • Nighttime imaging • Receive all AIS broadcasts • Fuse sensor inputs into one track • IP-enabled sensor network Monitoring Zone • Monitor behavior of all vessels • Provide persistent surveillance of security zones, regulated navigation areas and port vulnerabilities • Observe, day/night, activities and operations within the zone

27 International AIS Information Sharing Maritime Security and Safety Information System (MSSIS) U. S. 27 International AIS Information Sharing Maritime Security and Safety Information System (MSSIS) U. S. Coast Guard

28 In Conclusion • The US Coast Guard is one of many agencies in 28 In Conclusion • The US Coast Guard is one of many agencies in a layered approach to MDA • A variety of sensors, analysis tools, technologies, & partnerships combine to guard our waters • Global implementation & continued international partnerships are essential • MDA is the key to effectively implementing any maritime security strategy U. S. Coast Guard

29 Thank You Curtis. L. Dubay@uscg. mil U. S. Coast Guard 29 Thank You Curtis. L. [email protected] mil U. S. Coast Guard

7 National MDA Governance A federal interdepartmental and interagency leadership structure Maritime Domain Awareness 7 National MDA Governance A federal interdepartmental and interagency leadership structure Maritime Domain Awareness Stakeholder Board Global Maritime Intelligence Integration Global Maritime Situational Awareness MDA SB meets monthly, G 5 meet weekly GMAII DOT DHS DOD GMSA CNO-CCG Warfighter Talks U. S. Coast Guard