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1 Multifamily Energy Efficiency Web Training 80 Slides 1 Multifamily Energy Efficiency Web Training 80 Slides

Intent of Web Training • Provide an overview of energy efficient and costeffective design Intent of Web Training • Provide an overview of energy efficient and costeffective design strategies for multifamily new construction buildings – Benefits of energy efficiency in multifamily new construction buildings – Building energy code applicable to low-rise and high-rise buildings – Energy efficiency design concepts – Information on financial incentives, and – List of resources for energy efficiency It should take approximately one hour to review the contents of this training. This is not a comprehensive training, but will provide you with links to additional resources where you can learn more about multifamily energy efficiency. 2

Overview of Content • • Introduction: The Value of Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings Overview of Content • • Introduction: The Value of Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings Unique Aspects of Multifamily Building Construction Design Concepts and Practices for Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings Energy Efficiency Measure Selection – – – Envelope Heating Cooling Water Heating Lighting Appliances 3

Overview of Content • How to Achieve at Least 15% Better than Code Using Overview of Content • How to Achieve at Least 15% Better than Code Using an Integrated Approach • How to do Cost-Benefit and Payback Analyses • Case Study • Non-Energy Benefits of Energy Efficiency • Financing for Energy Efficiency and Green Measures • Summary • Resources 4

5 Introduction Value of Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings 5 Introduction Value of Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings

Why Energy Efficiency? Energy efficiency saves money, energy, and resources… making homes more affordable, Why Energy Efficiency? Energy efficiency saves money, energy, and resources… making homes more affordable, comfortable, and attractive to residents. It increases: – – – Comfort Energy Savings Property Value Maintenance Savings Tenant Payment Security …to list a few A minimally compliant Title 24 building is the worst building you can legally build in California! 6

CA Residential New Construction Multifamily is making its way back into new construction • CA Residential New Construction Multifamily is making its way back into new construction • Overall home-building is down, but the proportion of multifamily to single family units permitted in California is growing* • * U. S. Census Bureau 45% of new California homes permitted between January and September 2008 were multifamily* 7

Multifamily Trends and Projections 8 The California Department of Finance projects there will be Multifamily Trends and Projections 8 The California Department of Finance projects there will be over 44 million people in 2020 (almost 5 million more than California’s current population) More people equates to more demand for housing

Unique Aspects of MF Buildings • MF buildings come in high-rise and low-rise varieties Unique Aspects of MF Buildings • MF buildings come in high-rise and low-rise varieties – Building design, equipment selection, construction practices, and code regulations vary by building type • MF High often stories • MF buildings. Rise – 4+include nonresidential areas – Residential DHW and lighting code requirements – Common spaces: Corridors, entry ways, laundry – Non residential HVAC and envelope measures facilities, leasing offices, recreational rooms, etc. • MF Lowmeasures or fewer stories • Energy Rise - 3 must be analyzed separately if more then – of the total code area is common space (i. e. one 20%All residential floor requirements energy model for the residential area, another for the nonresidential are) – Mixed Use Projects • Also follow the above 20% rule if more than 20% nonresidential floor area. – Live Work Projects • Typically heated and/or cooled like a residence and using domestic water heating systems, so abide to residential standards • Lighting in designated workspaces, however, must comply with the nonresidential prescriptive lighting requirements. 9

Unique Aspects of MF Buildings • Split Incentives – Developers have less financial incentive Unique Aspects of MF Buildings • Split Incentives – Developers have less financial incentive to invest in energy efficiency when they don’t benefit from utility bill savings – Energy efficiency measures typically benefit the tenants – Depending on whether the energy using systems are centralized or individually metered… the cost of the energy use is borne by the space occupants or the building owner/management. • Energy use schedules vary – It’s difficult to predict when many tenants will be occupying the building. – Domestic Hot Water (DHW): The energy used to heat water is typically a higher percentage of the overall energy due to increased occupant density and reduced building envelope areas. 10

Cost Benefits of Energy Efficiency You’re probably asking yourself: Does energy efficiency really add Cost Benefits of Energy Efficiency You’re probably asking yourself: Does energy efficiency really add value to a building? As energy costs continue to sharply rise, where will people want to live? Owners: can you afford not to build an energy efficient building? Designers: can you afford not to design energy efficient buildings? 11

12 First cost is important to consider, but the life-cycle cost is an even 12 First cost is important to consider, but the life-cycle cost is an even more valuable metric …

Cost Benefits of Energy Efficiency So … what are the costs of energy efficiency? Cost Benefits of Energy Efficiency So … what are the costs of energy efficiency? • Incremental first costs • Risk (design or installation errors) • Delays (procurement or design) • Maintenance (knowledge) • Financing 13

Offsetting Additional Costs What’s out there to help offset those costs? –City & Local Offsetting Additional Costs What’s out there to help offset those costs? –City & Local Support –State and Federal Tax Credits Increased Basis Threshold –Residential Utility Incentive Programs • New Construction –Policy programs • Energy Efficiency-Based Utility Allowance (EEBUA) schedules –Green Building Programs • • LEED New Homes BIG Green Points Enterprise Green Communities NAHB Green Builder –Smart Design • Lead to potential lower number of call backs • Lower construction costs 14

15 Design Concepts and Practices for Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings 15 Design Concepts and Practices for Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings

Design Team 16 Early team collaboration results in the most cost-effective solutions: • Involve Design Team 16 Early team collaboration results in the most cost-effective solutions: • Involve an energy consultant as early as possible in the design process Consultant Engineers Architect Financing Builder • Optimize. Ebuilding orientation, window. Owner/Devand any other areas Goals/Objectives potential design restrictions BEFORE they are locked in by the Maximize Minimize Design & entitlement process Efficiency Cost Program • Title 24 Parameters/Optionscan be started in schematic drawing phase Energy Efficiency Design Options Marketing Strategies Financing Options Building Strategies Analysis Energy Simulation Alternatives Non-energy benefits Cost Analysis Final Decisions Construction Documents Obtain Permits Secure Funds Inform all contractors

Title 24 Basics • Mandatory Measures – Lighting efficiency – Shell insulation minimums – Title 24 Basics • Mandatory Measures – Lighting efficiency – Shell insulation minimums – Equipment efficiency minimums – Appliance standards • Prescriptive Packages offer a checklist of compliance measures – Establishes Performance baseline – Climate Zone dependant • Performance Calculation allows trade-offs to meet the standard energy budget (baseline) – Envelope: • Orientation, Insulation, Windows, Assemblies – HVAC: • Heating and Cooling equipment and distribution – DHW: • Central and individual water heating equipment & distribution 17

Title 24 Basics • 2005 code was 24. 3% more stringent than 2001 for Title 24 Basics • 2005 code was 24. 3% more stringent than 2001 for electricity use and 15. 7% for gas usage for new multifamily buildings* • 2008 code is 19. 7% more stringent than 2005 for electricity use and 7% for gas usage for new multifamily buildings* – Lower prescriptive U-factors for windows – Additional HERS measures – Required ventilation in residential code – Minimum prescriptive reflectivity of roof materials in specific CZ – Opaque building elements have different default assumptions in non-res calculation methods – Improved controls required for outdoor lighting * California Energy Commission’s Energy Impact Analysis for 2005 and 2008 Title 24, respectively. 18

Time Dependent Valuation (TDV) 19 • TDV affects energy trade-offs in the performance approach Time Dependent Valuation (TDV) 19 • TDV affects energy trade-offs in the performance approach by changing the way energy is ‘valued’ based on the time of use of that energy – Before 2005, T 24 energy use estimates had a constant value regardless of the time of use – TDV assigns higher value for on-peak savings, lower value for off -peak savings Flat Energy Value used in prior standards Time Dependent Energy Value in 2008 Standards are ‘Peakier’ than the 2005 Standards Energy value TDV Values - 2008 Standards TDV Values - 2005 Standards With TDV value a k. Wh saved during a highcost peak hour is valued more highly than a k. Wh saved during an off-peak hour With flat energy value a k. Wh saved is valued the same for every hour of the day Time of Day

Time Dependent Valuation (TDV) • TDV favors technologies that save more energy onpeak than Time Dependent Valuation (TDV) • TDV favors technologies that save more energy onpeak than off-peak (and dings harder for wasteful peak usage) – Greater credit for: • • Higher EER air conditioners Lower SHGC glazing Better duct insulation (in unconditioned spaces) Daylighting controls for lighting – Greater penalties for: • West-facing glass • Oversized, unshaded windows/skylights – Generally neutral for: • Economizers • Envelope insulation • High efficiency water heating • This affects trade-off choices using the performance approach (computer simulation) 20

Third. Party. Verification Building department focus is Health and Life Safety, not energy efficiency Third. Party. Verification Building department focus is Health and Life Safety, not energy efficiency Energy savings are not realized unless measures are installed properly • HERS rater verifies measures for T-24 compliance – Provide quality assurance, making certain that products are installed properly for maximum safety and efficiency – Three C-HERS providers: CHEERS, Cal. CERTS, CBPCA • Commissioning – Does not give credit in T-24 performance or prescriptive, but a worthwhile option for you to consider – Assures that equipment is working as designed 21

Third Party Verification 22 • The following measures require HERS verification if claimed for Third Party Verification 22 • The following measures require HERS verification if claimed for minimal Title 24 code compliance (or ENERGY STAR compliance): – New in 2008 code – Continued from past years • Low Leakage Air Handlers • Refrigerant Charge Indicator Light Display • Verified Cooling Coil Airflow • Evaporatively Cooled Condensers • Ice Storage Air Conditioners • QII for Spray Polyurethane Foam • PV Field Verification Protocol • • • Reduced Duct Leakage (6%) Supply Duct Location Deeply Buried Ducts Duct Surface Area and R-value Air Handler Fan Watt Draw Refrigerant Charge High EER for A/C Maximum Cooling Capacity Building Envelope Sealing Quality Insulation Installation (QII)

23 Energy Efficiency Measure Selection 23 Energy Efficiency Measure Selection

Energy Efficiency Measures 24 • Apply your understanding of individual measures to an integrated Energy Efficiency Measures 24 • Apply your understanding of individual measures to an integrated design approach • The goal is to have a good ‘package’ of measures that are costeffective in the long run and minimize first costs as much as possible – – – – Site Considerations Building Envelope Options HVAC Equipment Water Heating System Lighting Appliances Operations & Maintenance • Climate Insulation. Access These • are used in Title 24 performance • Solar compliance calculations Space heating and cooling • Radiant barrier • Orientation • Correct sizing and • Cool roof individual Central or distribution tankless • Attic venting Storage or high efficacy Hardwired lighting STAR® • Windows and glazing Distribution controls • ENERGY fixtures (CFLs, LEDs, etc)of • Shading Location • dishwashers, building to Leave a guide refrigerators, on how and • Lighting tank insulation windows controls (dimmers, clothesand(vegetation, a high maintain and operate • Pipe washers and natural occupancy etc) overhangs, building gas clothes dryers performancesensors, photometric sensors) • Infiltration/leakage • Quality insulation

California’s Climate Zones • There are 16 in California • The best package of California’s Climate Zones • There are 16 in California • The best package of measures will vary by building design and climate zone • Each building is unique, so there is no single “silver bullet” solution for every buildings Coastal Climate Zones: 1 -7 Inland Climate Zones: 8 -16 25

Envelope: Site Considerations 26 • With careful design, the building envelope can control loads Envelope: Site Considerations 26 • With careful design, the building envelope can control loads that affect residential building heating and cooling energy use – Keep out summer heat – Allow heat penetration from the sun in the winter • Buildings interact with site influences such as sun and wind through – Shape and shade – Building Orientation – Short faces of building minimize – Inter-building shading to. East-West afternoon solar heat gain reduce heat gain when the sun is at – Plant deciduous mornings and south side trees on the low angles in – Shade with summer leaves and allow afternoons – Material properties when bare in winter sun penetration – Long faces of building facing North– Solar transmittance of windows South allow heat gain when the – Air infiltration is lower in the sky properties of building envelope winter sun – Reflectivity and emissivity of outer surfaces

Envelope: Windows and Ventilation • Ventilation – Cross Ventilation • Inlet without outlet - Envelope: Windows and Ventilation • Ventilation – Cross Ventilation • Inlet without outlet - Breeze will not really enter space • Inlet and outlet - Cross ventilation occurs. Stack effect improves flow – Stack Effect: Window or roof opening for the outlet in a higher position than the opening for the inlet • Warm air rises and exhausts • Resulting low pressure draws air in through lower openings • Windows – Use appropriate shading devices – Minimize SHGC and U-factors • Select based on NFRC* performance values • Dual glazing – also provides acoustic insulation – Better windows can result in reduction of heating and cooling equipment size – saving first costs * NFRC = National Fenestration Ratings Council * SHGC = Solar Heat Gain Coefficient 27

Envelope: Windows and Ventilation What do window ratings mean? • SHGC: Fraction of solar Envelope: Windows and Ventilation What do window ratings mean? • SHGC: Fraction of solar radiation thru window (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient) – If SHGC=0. 53, 53% of solar heat gain transmitted – Look for SHGC of 0. 35, or less • VLT: Amount of visible light transmitted – If VLT=0. 75, 75% of visible light transmitted – Look for VLT of 0. 50 or more • U-factor: Rate of heat loss: – Low-emittance (Low-E) coatings are deposited on a window to suppress radiative heat flow (reduce U-factor) – Look for U-factor of 0. 40 or less • Air Leakage: Rate of Infiltration 28

Envelope: Insulation Basics • Insulation resists the flow of heat – Measured by R-value Envelope: Insulation Basics • Insulation resists the flow of heat – Measured by R-value (R = Resistance) • Types: – – – Fibrous Insulation: Blankets, Batts, Loose-fill Spray Foam Rigid Foam Panels Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF) Structural Insulated Panels (SIPS) • Better insulation can help reduce HVAC equipment size by reducing heating and cooling loads Source: www. buildingscience. com Source: www. mybungalow. com Source: www. southface. org Source: www. penta. ca Source: www. california-siphomes. com Source: www. wdcicf. com 29

Envelope: Insulation Basics • Insulation is cost effective when installed correctly: – – In Envelope: Insulation Basics • Insulation is cost effective when installed correctly: – – In continuous contact with air barrier No gaps No compressions No voids • Standard Practice: Poor installation – Gaps and voids – Not in contact with air barrier (drywall) – Compression 30

Envelope: Insulation Basics Due to poor installation practices: • Insulation R-value is devalued by Envelope: Insulation Basics Due to poor installation practices: • Insulation R-value is devalued by 13% when using the performance approach for T-24 compliance, unless… – A quality insulation installation (QII) inspection is conducted by a HERS rater and passes the following points: • • Fully lofted and filled framing cavities (no compression) Full contact with air barrier Rim joists insulated Batts butt-fit or split around wiring and plumbing Wall cavities caulked or foamed for air-tight seal Pre-insulation of hard-to-access wall stud cavities Knee walls and skylight shafts insulated to min. R-19 Insulation over all recessed lighting fixtures 31

Envelope: Insulation Basics Due to poor installation practices: • Insulation R-value is devalued by Envelope: Insulation Basics Due to poor installation practices: • Insulation R-value is devalued by 13% when using the performance approach for T-24 compliance, unless… • Thermal Bypass Checklist and QII are requirements for the ENERGY STAR for Homes label – The checklist requires inspection of the following to ensure the building envelope is thermally efficient: • • • Overall air barrier and thermal barrier alignment Walls Adjoining Exterior Walls or Unconditioned Spaces Floors between Conditioned and Exterior Spaces Shafts Attic/Ceiling Interface Common Walls Between Dwelling Units 32

Envelope: Radiant Barrier 33 Radiant barrier is most effective in cooling-dominated zones because it Envelope: Radiant Barrier 33 Radiant barrier is most effective in cooling-dominated zones because it reflects heat from the sun, preventing it from penetrating the attic space • Benefits – Can reduce attic heat by up to 30% and block up to 97% of radiant heat gain – Reduced heat gain in duct work – Does not carry heating penalty of cool roofs – No additional labor costs (new construction) • Types – Single-sided foil stapled to roof joists (retrofit) – Foil-faced roof sheathing (new construction) • Installation – Must be adjacent to air gap – Must face down (to avoid dust accumulation)

Heating and Cooling Split DX Packaged Terminal Air Conditioning/ Heat Pump Cooling Efficiency Metric Heating and Cooling Split DX Packaged Terminal Air Conditioning/ Heat Pump Cooling Efficiency Metric Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER)/ Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) SEER/EER Heating Efficiency Metric Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF)/ Coefficient of Performance (COP) HSPF/COP 34 System Type Advantages Disadvantages Hydronic Fan Coil/ Heat Pump Furnace N/A Energy Factor (EF) Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) • Occupies little interior space • Can cool multiple rooms/large areas • No ductwork • Efficient in individual rooms • Can combine with DHW system • Ducted or ductless • Need adjacent or roof space • Occupies wall space • Seen on bldg exterior • Additional plumbing required • Not packaged with A/C Federal Appliance Standards – SEER 13 Federal Standards in effect since Jan 23, 2006 (National Appliance Efficiency Conservation Act) • Title 24 does not govern equipment efficiency of federally mandated equipment

HVAC Equipment Sizing Properly sized equipment can reduce energy usage by as much as HVAC Equipment Sizing Properly sized equipment can reduce energy usage by as much as 35% • Energy loss due to improper sizing can be greater than savings from higher efficiency equipment • Tools for proper sizing – The Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA): www. acca. org • Guidelines for sizing HVAC equipment & ACCA Manual J Residential Load Calculation – The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air. Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE ): www. ashrae. org • Handbooks – Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association (SMACNA): www. smacna. org • Residential Comfort Manual 35

Tools for HVAC Selection • Directory of ARI (Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute) Verified Tools for HVAC Selection • Directory of ARI (Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute) Verified HVAC Equipment www. ceehvacdirectory. org • California Energy Commission Certified Equipment Directory www. energy. ca. gov/appliances/appliance • ENERGY STAR® Savings Calculator www. energystar. gov/ia/business/bulk_purchasing /bpsavings_calc/Calc_CAC. xls 36

SEER vs. EER • Minimum air conditioner efficiency is based on SEER (Seasonal Energy SEER vs. EER • Minimum air conditioner efficiency is based on SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio) because of Federal Standards • SEER is the only performance indicator allowed on manufacturer labels • SEER test conducted at 82º F: Southeast US; warm, humid climates • EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) is the full load efficiency at specific operating conditions • EER test conducted at 95º F: California conditions; hot, dry climate • Helps reduce peak loads • Credit granted for higher EER in 2008 Title 24 – Manufacturers not required to report EER – Requires HERS inspection to obtain Title 24 credit 37

HVAC: HERS Compliance Measures • • • High Efficiency Air Conditioner Air Higher SEER HVAC: HERS Compliance Measures • • • High Efficiency Air Conditioner Air Higher SEER Draw – Handler Watt – Higher Cooling Capacitysystem with low wattage High efficiency fan & duct Minimum EER – fan “Right sized” cooling system criteria Duct Sealing and Testing – Leakage Air Handlers Low. Reduce duct leakage to 6% Refrigerant Charge Measurement or Refrigerant Charge Indicator Light Display Duct Location (within conditioned space) Blower Door Test (Envelope infiltration) – No more than 12 lineal feet of supply duct is outside the Coil Airflow Verified Cooling conditioned space – 12’ includes the air Condensers Evaporatively Cooled handler and plenum length Ice Storage Air Conditioners Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory 38

Ducts 39 Reduce distribution losses by: • Placing ducts within conditioned space • Conduct Ducts 39 Reduce distribution losses by: • Placing ducts within conditioned space • Conduct tight duct test • Increase duct insulation leak 20 -40% – Unsealed duct systems can of their size ducts • Correctly conditioned air – Tight ducts are <6% • Run duct as straight as possible R-4. 2, 6 or 8 duct insulation prescriptively required depending on climate zone An exception is allowed if more efficient windows and/or HVAC systems are provided (except CZ 15)

Water Heating Types Water heating energy represents a significant portion of the overall energy Water Heating Types Water heating energy represents a significant portion of the overall energy budget in multifamily buildings • Water Heating System Considerations: – – – Storage or Tankless/Instantaneous Gas or Electric Central or Individual Indirect or Direct Integrated with space heating system? 40

Water Heating: Central Systems Important Elements of Energy Efficient Central Water Heating Systems • Water Heating: Central Systems Important Elements of Energy Efficient Central Water Heating Systems • • • High efficiency hot water source – Large boilers with indirect for efficiency Recirculation loop designedstorage tanks last longer than smaller – water heaters and systems be repaired continuous Central hot water can often Recirculation loop controls designed withrather than replaced. – recirculation systems are simple andstorage tanktime when to Well insulated hot water the recirculation gas boilers is 80% thea – The federal minimum standard for large pump at complaints Timer Controls shut off piping and keep tenant minimum, draw areexpected toinefficient. thermal efficiency extremely be minimal hot water but and appliances that reduce hot water Efficient fixtures is savings can be achieved with a well designed • Significant energy boilers can reach a Simple atmospheric of about 82% – Temperature plumbing” recirculation loopmaximumpump when the Controls consumption efficiency shut off the recirculation “structured and advanced boiler thermal return water reaches demand controls threshold a temperature • modulation and/or can attain thermal efficiencies up to 98% by Condensing boilers – Demand Controlsare more advanced than the flue gases. capturing the sensible and latent heat from the basic timer and temperature controls, charging the loop with hot water in response to demand – Temperature Modulation Controls save energy by reducing the temperature of the tank water in times of low demand 41

Water Heating: Central Systems Trade-Offs of Central DHW systems • Hot Water Sub-Metering – Water Heating: Central Systems Trade-Offs of Central DHW systems • Hot Water Sub-Metering – Conservation vs. Efficiency • Tenants have incentive to conserve water and energy when they pay the utility bill – Utility Submeter Applications manufactures only CA approved hot water sub-meter • Boiler Performance & Maintenance – Condensing or not, boilers require annual tune-ups – Specialty service and corrosion resistant parts cause higher maintenance costs – Efficiency varies with operating condition temperatures 42

Water Heating: Solar Hot Water • Title 24 does give credit for solar hot Water Heating: Solar Hot Water • Title 24 does give credit for solar hot water heating (solar PV does not) • Solar hot water is one of the easiest methods of achieving high levels of energy efficiency • Alternative to high-efficiency boilers • Particularly complimentary to central systems • T-24 consultant uses a savings fraction calculator, and solar designer determines size of the actual system – Solar fraction = the percentage of total hot water heating that the solar system will deliver Image Sources: www. findouthow. co. uk www. solaroptions. biz 43

Lighting 44 Lighting Terminology • Lamp = Light Bulb • Lumen = A unit Lighting 44 Lighting Terminology • Lamp = Light Bulb • Lumen = A unit of Visible Light • Luminaire = Light Fixture • Efficacy = Efficiency of Lighting Product (Lumens/watt)

Lighting • Tri-Phosphor Fluorescent – Same technology as color television – There is only Lighting • Tri-Phosphor Fluorescent – Same technology as color television – There is only one “full spectrum” lamp • Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFL) – Can be used throughout the home – Availability and selection increasing • LED (Light Emitting Diode) – Approx 20 lumens per watt – Can be installed: • Under counters • Hallways, staircases – Still limited by production • Lighting Controls – – – Dimmers Occupancy Photosensors Timers Motion Sensors 45

Lighting All Title 24 lighting requirements are mandatory • Not part of prescriptive package Lighting All Title 24 lighting requirements are mandatory • Not part of prescriptive package • Not part of residential energy performance calculation budget • Primarily impacts dwelling units • The Standards apply only to permanently installed luminaires 46

Lighting 47 T-24 Residential Lighting Standards • Kitchens – 50% of total wattage must Lighting 47 T-24 Residential Lighting Standards • Kitchens – 50% of total wattage must be high efficicacy – Low efficicacy luminaires must be switched separately • Bathrooms, garages, laundry rooms, closets, and utility rooms – High efficacy OR Controlled by a manual-on occupant sensor • All other residential spaces – High efficacy OR Controlled by a dimmer switch or manual-on occupancy sensor TABLE 150 -C High Efficacy Luminaire Requirements Lamp Power Rating Minimum Lamp Efficacy 5 watts or less 30 lumens per watt over 5 and to 15 watts 40 lumens per watt over 15 watts to 40 watts 50 lumens per watt over 40 watts 60 lumens per watt

Appliances Look for the ENERGY STAR® label on all appliances • Refrigerators – Choose Appliances Look for the ENERGY STAR® label on all appliances • Refrigerators – Choose refrigerators 20+% more efficient than federal standards – Top freezer models are more efficient than side-by-side models – Refrigerators under 25 cubic feet are sufficient • Dishwashers – Look for models that save water AND energy – Energy Factor (EF) of at least 0. 65 – “no heat dry” option can save additional energy • Clothes Washers – High Modified Energy Factor (MEF) - dryer and water heating energy – Low Water Factor (WF) - gallons needed per cubic foot of laundry – Front loading washers are generally more efficient than top loading • Clothes Dryers – Dryness sensor for automatic shut-off when clothes are dry Discount for bulk purchases at www. quantityquotes. net 48

49 How to Achieve at Least 15% Better than Code using Integrated Approach 49 How to Achieve at Least 15% Better than Code using Integrated Approach

Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 What measures are needed in 2008 standards to get Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 What measures are needed in 2008 standards to get a ~15% compliance margin? • Measures vary by building type – – High rise versus low rise Central versus distributed systems Amount of building self shading Building geometry • Measures vary by climate zone – Focus on measures affecting largest energy use – Peak demand related measures first • The “average” answer has little use. There is no “magic bullet” solution for all buildings and climate zones 50

Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 • Building simulation software can evaluate the effectiveness of Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 • Building simulation software can evaluate the effectiveness of multiple measures and compare those results with alternate combinations – Adding insulation will reduce cooling and heating loads – Combining a radiant barrier with a lower level of insulation may reduce cooling loads more affectively than maximizing insulation alone • The goal of the integrated design process is to seek the most cost-effective combination of energy efficient measures – Balance first costs and energy savings 51

Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 • The same measure or combination of measures can Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 • The same measure or combination of measures can result in widely divergent energy savings for different buildings 52

Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 • The same measure or combination of measures can Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 • The same measure or combination of measures can result in widely divergent energy savings for different buildings • Some measure will have more impact inland than coastal – Window SHGC – Cooling EER • Some measures will have more impact in coastal climate zones – DHW System Efficiency 53

54 How to do Cost-Benefit & Payback Analysis 54 How to do Cost-Benefit & Payback Analysis

Cost Benefit Analysis Process Identify cost-effective energy efficiency measures Find utility rates and multiply Cost Benefit Analysis Process Identify cost-effective energy efficiency measures Find utility rates and multiply by k. Wh and Therm savings Specify EE measures in building energy simulation software Find incremental cost estimate for each measure (DEER database)* Use simulation software output for k. WH and Therm savings Divide estimated annual utility savings by incremental measure costs to get the number of year payback If the cost-benefit numbers aren’t satisfactory, change the mix of measures and begin again * http: //www. energy. ca. gov/deer/ 55

Example: Upgrade Detail Original Specification Ceiling Attic Wall Fenestration 56 Energy Efficiency Cost Savings Example: Upgrade Detail Original Specification Ceiling Attic Wall Fenestration 56 Energy Efficiency Cost Savings Upgrade Implication per year R-38 R-30 + Radiant Barrier $7, 000 Wood frame, 2 x 4, R-13 Payback Period N/A Dual pane, Alum. frame Low-e 2, Vinyl frame $3, 900 Space Heating Room heat pump (6. 6 HSPF) Room heat pump (downsized) (2. 841 COP) ($1, 163) Space Cooling Room heat pump (10 EER) Room heat pump (downsized) (11. 26 EER) Central Boiler, recirc. Loop w/aquastat control Central Boiler, recirc. loop w/demand pump control 1. 6 years Included Water Heating $151/ Unit Or $6, 070 $0. 00 Note: Costs are illustrative and not definitive. Example is also illustrative; combination of measures will vary by building and location. $2, 160 (after $6, 000 utility incentive) immediate

57 Case Study 57 Case Study

Case. Study – Project Details • Project name: Cottonwood Creek Apartments • Owner: BRIDGE Case. Study – Project Details • Project name: Cottonwood Creek Apartments • Owner: BRIDGE Housing Corporation • Architect: KTGY Group • Location: Suisun City, California • California Climate Zone: 12 • Dwelling Units: 94 • Percent better than 2005 California Residential Building Code: 17. 6% Cottonwood Creek Apartments received design assistance, cash incentives, and training opportunities through their participation in the CMFNH program, funded by Pacific Gas & Electric. 58

Case Study – EE Measures Installed Overall site layout increased energy efficiency by: • Case Study – EE Measures Installed Overall site layout increased energy efficiency by: • Maximizing daylighting • Strategic landscaping to minimize solar gain in the summers and encourage it in the winter 59

Case Study – EE Measures Installed Materials and mechanical systems materials contributing to energy Case Study – EE Measures Installed Materials and mechanical systems materials contributing to energy efficiency included: • Radiant barrier roof sheathing • Low E² thermally efficient windows • Third-party HERS-rated HVAC equipment to ensure maximum performance of the system • Raised heel trusses for increased insulation • A high-performing building envelope complete with Quality Insulation Installation • Ducts in conditioned spaces, tested and verified for leakage 60

Case Study – EE Measures Installed In addition BRIDGE also incorporated high efficiency ENERGY Case Study – EE Measures Installed In addition BRIDGE also incorporated high efficiency ENERGY STAR® appliances and lighting: • Refrigerators, dishwashers, and front-loading washers and dryers • Fluorescent lighting, light-emitting diode (LED) exit signs, and motion sensor lights in the community building. 61

Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis As a result of the advanced planning and Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis As a result of the advanced planning and clear goals BRIDGE exceeded Title 24 by over 17% without significant impact on the cost of the project. • Estimated $85, 000 spent on incremental energy efficiency upgrades ($0. 71 per square foot). • CMFNH incentives received = $38, 540, reducing net cost of EE measures to $0. 39 per square foot • Total hard costs for the project ≈ $143/sqft 62

Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis Cost of energy efficiency upgrades only ≈ 0. Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis Cost of energy efficiency upgrades only ≈ 0. 27% of hard costs! 63

Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis Cottonwood Creek Apartments is expected to save… + Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis Cottonwood Creek Apartments is expected to save… + 27, 426. 83 k. Wh every year through good design 12, 445. 60 k. Wh savings from appliances This one project will be saving enough energy every year to power roughly six California single-family homes. 64

Case Study – Payback Cost of EE upgrade Utility incentives Net Cost of EE Case Study – Payback Cost of EE upgrade Utility incentives Net Cost of EE Measures 65 $85, 000 $38, 540 $48, 455 Annual energy savings (k. Wh) 39, 872. 43 Utility Cost (per k. Wh) x $ 0. 14 Annual utility cost savings $5, 582. 14 Payback Period = 48, 455/5, 582 = 8. 7 years

66 Non-Energy Benefits of Energy Efficiency 66 Non-Energy Benefits of Energy Efficiency

Non. Energy Benefits Energy of Efficiency Beyond energy savings, energy efficiency benefits include: • Non. Energy Benefits Energy of Efficiency Beyond energy savings, energy efficiency benefits include: • Marketability – Buyers and tenants value homes that are easy and inexpensive to maintain – As well as socially and environmentally responsible • Comfort – Measures to reduce energy use also produce more comfortable living conditions • Public recognition – Awards are given by numerous associations for achievement in energy efficiency. – Receipt of such awards may give your business credibility and prestige 67

Beyond EE – Green Measures • Non toxic materials and finishes – Low VOC Beyond EE – Green Measures • Non toxic materials and finishes – Low VOC Paints, carpet, cabinets • Better indoor air quality • Local and replenishable materials – Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified wood products – Recycled materials • Water conservation – Landscaping • Irrigation • Indigenous plant species – Plumbing & Appliances • Dual flush toilets • Low flow shower and sink fixtures 68

Beyond EE – Green Measures • Storm water control – Green roofs • Water Beyond EE – Green Measures • Storm water control – Green roofs • Water capture • Insulating and cool roof properties – Permeable surfaces • Prevent water run-off and stormwater pollution – Greywater systems • Onsite water recycling • Location – Proximity of transportation and amenities – Low environmental impact 69

70 Financing for Energy Efficiency and Green Measures 70 Financing for Energy Efficiency and Green Measures

Financing Energy Efficiency Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTCs) are awarded to new construction Financing Energy Efficiency Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTCs) are awarded to new construction and rehabilitation projects on a competitive points basis • 155 points required to be competitive in the 4% and 9% categories • Maximum of eight points available for incorporating sustainable measures, including energy efficiency – Of those 8 points, 6 are available for energy efficiency • Exceed Title 24 by at least 10% - 4 points • Energy Star rated fans, whole house fan, economizer cycle on HVAC system – 2 points 71

Financing Energy Efficiency • Additional discretionary threshold basis limits boost up to 5% of Financing Energy Efficiency • Additional discretionary threshold basis limits boost up to 5% of the project’s basis limit. – Exceed Title 24 by 15% or more – Distributive energy technologies – Renewable energy sources – Tankless water heaters – High efficiency condensing boiler – Solar thermal domestic hot water system 72

Financing Energy Efficiency Federal Tax Credits New Homes are available for site built homes, Financing Energy Efficiency Federal Tax Credits New Homes are available for site built homes, excluding rental properties and non-profits. • $2, 000 to builder for each home whose performance is calculated to exceed Heating and Cooling Use of Section 404 of 2004 Supplement of the IECC by 50%) The New Solar Homes Partnership offers rebates to reduce (buy-down) the initial cost of a photovoltaic system in new residential construction (single and multifamily). • $2. 50/watt for market-rate housing • $3. 50/watt for affordable housing projects • Project must exceed Title 24 by at least 15% 73

74 Summary 74 Summary

Summary Points • Title 24 defines the worst building allowed by law • Early Summary Points • Title 24 defines the worst building allowed by law • Early team collaboration allows for integrated and cost-effective decisions E Consultant • Consider. Engineers Architect including. Financing Builder lifecycle cost, Owner/Dev non-energy benefits • Local, statewide and federal financial incentives are available to offset incremental costs of energy efficiency upgrades • Use a performance approach to find the best package of cost-effective measures for each unique project • Third Party verification allows for performance credits and quality assurance 75

76 Resources 76 Resources

Resources Program Information • US EPA ENERGY STAR® Program – www. energystar. gov/homes • Resources Program Information • US EPA ENERGY STAR® Program – www. energystar. gov/homes • California Multifamily New Homes Program: PG&E – www. h-m-g. com/multifamily • California Advanced Homes Program: SCE, SDG&E, So. Cal. Gas – http: //www. sce. com/b-rs/bb/cali-new-homes/ – http: //www. sdge. com/builderservices/new. Homes. shtml – http: //www. socalgas. com/construction/ahp/ • California Multifamily Energy Efficiency Programs – www. californiaenergyefficiency. com – www. fyppower. com 77

Resources General EE Resources • Energy Design Resources – www. energydesignworkshops. com • California Resources General EE Resources • Energy Design Resources – www. energydesignworkshops. com • California Energy Commission – www. energy. ca. gov • California Association of Building Energy Consultants (CABEC) – www. cabec. org • California Multifamily Housing Consortium – www. seiinc. org/mfconsortium. html • Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) – www. pathnet. org • US Green Building Council (USGBC) – www. usgbc. org 78

Resources Verification and HERS rating • California Home Energy Efficiency Rating System – www. Resources Verification and HERS rating • California Home Energy Efficiency Rating System – www. cheers. org • Cal. CERTS – www. calcerts. com • CBPCA – www. cbpca. org • Resnet – www. natresnet. org/herseems/ratingmethod. htm • Building Commissioning Association – www. bcxa. org 79

Resources Finance • Energy-Efficient Mortgages – www. pueblo. gsa. gov/cic_text/housing/energy_mort/ener gy-mortgage. htm • Solar Resources Finance • Energy-Efficient Mortgages – www. pueblo. gsa. gov/cic_text/housing/energy_mort/ener gy-mortgage. htm • Solar and Wind Financial Incentives & Tax Credits – www. californiasolarcenter. org/incentives. html • Energy Efficiency-Based Utility Allowance – www. designedforcomfort. com • California Housing Finance Agency (Cal. HFA) – www. calhfa. ca. gov/multifamily/financing/index. htm • Energy. Wi$e Construction Funding Directory – www. fundinggreenbuildings. com 80