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1 Informatics in Logistics Management Lecture 2. Integrated Logistics Support Lecturer: Prof. Anatoly Sachenko
2 Lecture Overview Definition and Importance ¦ Scope of logistic support management ¦ Standards ¦ Integrated Logistics Support Elements ¦ Adoption ¦ Benefits and Value of ILS ¦ Implementing an ILS Solution ¦ Overview of ILS Process Requirements ¦ System Engineering Process ¦ TOC and CAIV ¦ Logistics Support Analysis ¦
3 Definition Integrated logistics support (ILS) ¦ is an integrated approach to the management of logistic disciplines in the military, ¦ similar to commercial product support or customer service organizations ¦ Although originally developed for military purposes, it is applied by the private sector as well ¦
4 Definition Two popular definitions: 1. ILS – is a management function that provides planning, funding, and functioning controls which help to assure that the system meets performance requirements, is developed at a reasonable price, and can be supported throughout its life cycle 2. ILS – encompasses the unified management of the technical logistics elements that plan and develop the support requirements for a system. This can include hardware, software, and the provisioning of training and maintenance resources. ¦
5 Definition Integrated definition: “A disciplined, unified and iterative approach to the management and technical activities necessary to: (1) integrate support considerations into system and equipment design; (2) develop support requirements that are related consistently to readiness objectives, to design, and to each other; (3) acquire the required support; and (4) provide the required support during the operational phase at minimum cost”.
6 Definition ¦In general, ILS plans and directs the identification and development of logistics support and system requirements for military systems, with the goal of creating systems that last longer and require less support. ¦ILS therefore, addresses these aspects of supportability not only during acquisition, but also throughout the operational life cycle of the system. ¦The impact of ILS is often measured in terms of metrics such as Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Testability (RAMT), and sometimes System Safety (RAMS).
7 Importance ¦In the world of Aerospace & Defense programs, Sustainment & Supportability have become a major cost consideration within complex systems. ¦These two facets of the A&D product lifecycle are now being carefully considered and, in some cases, are being given more consideration than the initial purchase price when making the acquisition decision. ¦In fact, the total lifecycle cost is quickly displacing initial system or equipment cost as the criteria for awarding contracts.
8 Importance ¦For many of the world’s top A&D firms, the solution to the Sustainability and Supportability issue lies in Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) ¦By installing and applying ILS tools and processes, A&D firms are able to significantly lower sustainment costs, such that they’re able to easily differentiate their products in competitive situations, and win more profitable contracts ¦Read on and discover how ILS is reshaping the way A&D companies are now managing sustainment as part of the overall lifecycle
9 Scope of logistic support management
11 Scope of logistic support management
12 Standards ¦ILS has been categorized by the United Kingdom Ministry of Defense (UK Mo. D) Through Life Support (TLS) Directorate into: ¦ Reliability Engineering, Maintainability Engineering and Maintenance (preventive, predictive and corrective) Planning ¦ Supply Support (Spare part) / acquire resources ¦ Support and Test Equipment ¦ Manpower and Personnel
13 Standards Training and Training Support ¦ Technical Data / Publications ¦ Computer Resources Support ¦ Facilities ¦ Packaging, Handling, Storage, and Transportation ¦ Design Interface ¦
14 Standards ¦In USA initial efforts to collect logistics information in a standardized way were accomplished by the US Army with the issuance of MIL-STD-1388 -2 B ¦MIL-STD-1388 was eventually replaced by MIL-PRF-49506 Logistics Management Information ¦This change reflected a shift towards identifying a project’s performance outcomes, rather than recording the detailed technique to achieve them.
15 Standards in Europe ¦In Europe, the Ministry of Defence of the United Kingdom adapted the specification to meet their own needs and issued DEF-STAN 00 -60 ¦This was the first specification to formally link the previously separate disciplines of Provisioning, LSA and Technical Publications under a common specification, and also the first to attempt to formalize a product lifecycle as part of an acquisition process
16 Integrated Logistics Support Elements ¦All elements of ILS are ideally developed in coordination with the system engineering effort and with each other ¦Tradeoffs may be required between elements in order to acquire a system that is: affordable (lowest life cycle cost), operable, supportable, sustainable, transportable, and environmentally sound ¦The planning for ILS for a system may be contained in an Integrated Logistics Support Plan (ILSP) ¦ILS planning activities coincide with development of the system acquisition strategy, and the program will be tailored accordingly
17 Integrated Logistics Support Elements
18 Adoption ¦Influence on Design. ILS will provide important means to identify (as early as possible) reliability issues / problems and can initiate system or part design improvements based on reliability, maintainability, testability or system availability analysis (for example by the proper use of detailed functional and/or piece part FMECA techniques, Event tree and Fault tree analysis / assessments, Reliability Block Diagrams, Importance measurements, Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) / Maintenance steering Group 3 and Monte Carlo techniques).
19 Adoption Design of the Support Solution for minimum cost. Ensuring that the Support Solution considers and integrates the elements considered by ILS. This is discussed fully below. ¦
20 Adoption Initial Support Package. These tasks include calculation of requirements for spare parts, special tools, and documentation. Quantities required for a specified initial period are calculated, procured, and delivered to support delivery, installation in some of the cases, and operation of the equipment. ¦
21 Overview of ILS Process Requirements ¦The Logistics Support Analysis (LSA) process provides the basis for the ILS program. Through the LSA, the source data and maintenance plans are generated and documented. ¦The LSA is designed both to examine the product design and to recommend improvements in design that can result in increased maintainability, reliability and supportability of the equipment or system.
22 Overview of ILS Process Requirements ¦This is accomplished by defining and recommending changes in design that will result in: 1. Reduced time to perform maintenance 2. Greater reliability of components 3. Maintenance procedures requiring little or no specialized support equipment or specialized training
23 System Engineering Process
24 TOC and CAIV ¦Total Ownership Cost (TOC) and Cost As an Independent Variable (CAIV). TOC is the sum of all life cycle costs and the cost of the supporting infrastructure that plans and manages an asset. Over 50% of the TOC is incurred during the sustainment of an asset. One of the primary goals of logistics and the systems engineering process is to provide a system and support at a reasonable/right cost.
25 TOC and CAIV ¦As much as 80% of the TOC is determined during the initial acquisition. The application of TOC procedures through tradeoffs can greatly reduce the out-year costs while maximizing operational effectiveness. Program managers and personnel tasked with acquiring Coast Guard assets shall make the reduction of TOC one of the key components of the acquisition.
26 TOC and CAIV ¦The CAIV concept is based on setting aggressive (low), realistic cost objectives and managing to achieve them by conducting trade-off analyses that consider cost, performance, schedule, and supportability. The objectives must balance operational needs with projected out-year resources. The key principles are: ¦ Set realistic but aggressive cost objectives (defined as ranges) early in the acquisition. ¦ Manage risk to achieve cost, schedule, performance, and life cycle support objectives.
27 TOC and CAIV Use metrics to track progress in setting and achieving the cost objectives. ¦ Make use of tools such as cost estimating, requirements analysis, tradeoff risk analysis, Pareto analysis (focus on biggest payback items), and Value Engineering (identify reductions where cost and performance are out of balance). ¦ Motivate managers and industry and provide incentives for meeting program objectives. ¦
28 TOC and CAIV
29 Logistics Support Analysis ¦When the optimum design is defined, other ILS elements, such as training, technical publication and provisioning, are planned, guided and completed. This process ensures that the maintenance protocol will meet the program maintenance concept. It also ensures that supportability requirements are considered and incorporated into the design of the equipment or system early in the product design phase.
30 Logistics Support Analysis ¦The ILS process typically begins with an LSA Plan. This document gathers and defines program requirements and objectives. This plan would detail the activities to be accomplished to ensure that these requirements and objectives will be met. The plan would include the scheduling of LSA activities relative to program scheduled events, such as the Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews.
31 Logistics Support Analysis ¦The LSA is not an isolated, internally-based activity. Instead, it requires data/input from subcontractors, vendors, engineering, and the customer. At a high level, there are specific areas that are included in LSA. These include: 1. Maintenance Planning 2. Supply Support 3. Support and Test Equipment/Equipment Support 4. Manpower and Personnel
32 Logistics Support Analysis 5. Training and Training Support 6. Technical Data 7. Computer Resources Support 8. Facilities 9. Packaging, Handling, Storage and Transportation 10. Design Interface
33 Maintenance planning ¦ Maintenance planning begins early in the acquisition process with development of the maintenance concept. It is conducted to evolve and establish requirements and tasks to be accomplished for achieving, restoring, and maintaining the operational capability for the life of the system. Maintenance planning relies on Level Of Repair Analysis (LORA) as a function of the system acquisition process. Its planning will: ¦ Define the actions and support necessary to ensure that the system attains the specified system readiness objectives with minimum Life Cycle Cost (LCC).
34 Maintenance planning Set up specific criteria for repair, including Built. In Test Equipment (BITE) requirements, testability, reliability, and maintainability; support equipment requirements; automatic test equipment; and manpower skills and facility requirements. ¦ State specific maintenance tasks, to be performed on the system. ¦ Define actions and support required for fielding and marketing the system. ¦ Address warranty considerations. ¦
35 Maintenance planning The maintenance concept must ensure prudent use of manpower and resources. When formulating the maintenance concept, analysis of the proposed work environment on the health and safety of maintenance personnel must be considered. ¦ Conduct a LORA repair analysis to optimize the support system, in terms of LCC, readiness objectives, design for discard, maintenance task distribution, support equipment and ATE, and manpower and personnel requirements. ¦ Minimize the use of hazardous materials and the generation of waste. ¦
36 Supply support encompasses all management actions, procedures, and techniques used to determine requirements to: ¦ Acquire support items and spare parts. ¦ Catalog the items. ¦ Receive the items. ¦ Store and warehouse the items. ¦ Transfer the items to where they are needed. ¦
37 Supply support Issue the items. ¦ Dispose of secondary items. ¦ Provide for initial support of the system. ¦ Acquire, distribute, and replenish inventory. ¦
38 Support and test equipment ¦Support and test equipment includes all equipment, mobile and fixed, that is required to perform the support functions, except that equipment which is an integral part of the system. Support equipment categories include: ¦ Handling and Maintenance Equipment. ¦ Tools (hand tools as well as power tools). ¦ Metrology and measurement devices. ¦ Calibration equipment. ¦ Test equipment.
39 Support and test equipment Automatic test equipment. ¦ Support equipment for on- and offequipment maintenance. ¦ Special inspection equipment and depot maintenance plant equipment, which includes all equipment and tools required to assemble, disassemble, test, maintain, and support the production and/or depot repair of end items or components. ¦
40 Manpower and personnel ¦Manpower and personnel involves identification and acquisition of personnel with skills and grades required to operate and maintain a system over its lifetime. Manpower requirements are developed and personnel assignments are made to meet support demands throughout the life cycle of the system. Manpower requirements are based on related ILS elements. Human factors engineering (HFE) or behavioral research is frequently applied to ensure a good manmachine interface.
41 Manpower and personnel Manpower requirements are predicated on accomplishing the logistics support mission in the most efficient and economical way. This element includes such requirements during planning and decision process: ¦ Man-machine and environmental interface ¦ Special skills ¦ Human factors considerations during the planning and decision process ¦
42 Training and training devices ¦Training and training devices support encompasses the processes, procedures, techniques, training devices, and equipment used to train personnel to operate and support a system. This element defines requirements for the training of operating and support personnel throughout the life cycle of the system.
43 Training and training devices ¦ It includes requirements for: ¦ Competencies management ¦ Factory training ¦ Instructor and key personnel training ¦ New equipment training team ¦ Resident training ¦ Sustainment training ¦ User training
44 Technical data ¦Technical Data and Technical Publications consists of scientific or technical information necessary to translate system requirements into discrete engineering and logistic support documentation. Technical data is used in the development of repair manuals, maintenance manuals, user manuals, and other documents that are used to operate or support the system.
45 Technical data ¦ Technical data includes, but may not be limited to: ¦ Technical manuals ¦ Technical and supply bulletins ¦ Transportability guidance technical manuals ¦ Maintenance expenditure limits and calibration procedures ¦ Repair parts and tools lists ¦ Maintenance allocation charts ¦ Corrective maintenance instructions ¦ Preventive maintenance and Predictive maintenance instructions
46 Technical data Drawings/specifications/technical data packages ¦ Software documentation ¦ Provisioning documentation ¦ Depot maintenance work requirements ¦ Identification lists ¦ Component lists ¦ Product support data ¦ Flight safety critical parts list for aircraft ¦ Lifting and tie down pamphlet/references ¦
47 Computer resources support ¦Computer Resources Support includes the facilities, hardware, software, documentation, manpower, and personnel needed to operate and support computer systems and the software within those systems. Computer resources include both stand-alone and embedded systems. This element is usually planned, developed, implemented, and monitored by a Computer Resources Working Group (CRWG) or Computer Resources Integrated Product Team (CRIPT) that documents the approach and tracks progress via a Computer Resources Life-Cycle Management Plan (CRLCMP).
48 Computer resources support Developers will need to ensure that planning actions and strategies contained in the ILSP and CRLCMP are complementary and that computer resources support for the operational software, and ATE software, support software, is available where and when needed. ¦
49 Packaging, handling, storage, and transportation (PHS&T) ¦PHS&T includes resources and procedures to ensure that all equipment and support items are preserved, packaged, packed, marked, handled, transported, and stored properly for short- and long-term requirements. It includes material-handling equipment and packaging, handling and storage requirements, and prepositioning of material and parts. ¦ System constraints (such as design specifications, item configuration, and safety precautions for hazardous material)
50 Packaging, handling, storage, and transportation (PHS&T) Special security requirements ¦ Geographic and environmental restrictions ¦ Special handling equipment and procedures ¦ Impact on spare or repair parts storage requirements ¦ Emerging PHS&T technologies, methods, or procedures and resource-intensive PHS&T procedures ¦ Environmental impacts and constraints ¦
51 Facilities ¦The Facilities logistics element is composed of a variety of planning activities, all of which are directed toward ensuring that all required permanent or semi-permanent operating and support facilities (for instance, training, field and depot maintenance, storage, operational, and testing) are available concurrently with system fielding. Planning must be comprehensive and include the need for new construction as well as modifications to existing facilities.
52 Facilities It also includes studies to define and establish impacts on life cycle cost, funding requirements, facility locations and improvements, space requirements, environmental impacts, duration or frequency of use, safety and health standards requirements, and security restrictions. Also included are any utility requirements, for both fixed and mobile facilities, with emphasis on limiting requirements of resources. ¦
53 Design interface ¦Design interface is the relationship of logistics -related design parameters of the system to its projected or actual support resource requirements. These design parameters are expressed in operational terms rather than as inherent values and specifically relate to system requirements and support costs of the system. Programs such as "design for testability" and "design for discard" must be considered during system design.
54 Design interface ¦ The basic requirements: ¦ Reliability ¦ Maintainability ¦ Standardization ¦ Interoperability ¦ Safety ¦ Security Usability ¦ Environmental and HAZMAT ¦ Privacy, particularly for computer systems
55 Benefits and Value of ILS ¦ This data, if developed in an integrated logistics environment, will be used as part of the analysis and design improvement process. It will then be leveraged to produce the training, provisioning and technical publications required to support the system or equipment. Here are some specific examples of realized benefits: ¦ Initial Design Improvements ¦ Provisioning Data ¦ Technical Publications ¦ Training and e. Learning
56 Implementing an ILS Solution: Pitfalls of a Point-Solution Approach ¦It is clear that ILS offers tremendous benefits to manufacturers, hence its adoption as a best practice for the A&D industry. Since compliance is increasingly being demanded by customers, the question that needs to be answered is: What are the most common pitfalls in an ILS implementation, and how can they be overcome?
57 Implementing an ILS Solution: Pitfalls of a Point-Solution Approach To meet ILS requirements, organizations must deploy specialized and highly structured solutions with such core elements: ¦ a basic LSA sub-system ¦ a provisioning sub-system ¦ a technical publication development subsystem ¦ a training/e. Learning solution sub-system ¦ an information publishing delivery system ¦
58 Implementing an ILS Solution: Pitfalls of a Point-Solution Approach ¦Even when a point solution is architected and deployed within an organization, it is often incomplete and lacks the necessary automation. Thus, organizations are left to define the processes of: 1. Accessing and reusing design information in the various sub-systems 2. Creating graphics and illustrations specific to product configurations 3. Triggering documentation updates when designs or configurations change
59 References ¦James V. Jones. Integrated Logistics Support Handbook. Mc. Graw-Hill Logistics Series, 2006. - 528 p. ¦Blanchard B. S. System Engineering Management, Prentice-Hall. 1998. ¦Blanchard B. S. , Fabrycky W. J. Systems Engineering and Analysis, 3 rd Edition, Prentice-Hall. 1998. ¦Ebeling C. An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability Engineering, Mc. Graw-Hill. 1996. ¦Mark Willis. System Supportability Engineering – SMART Integrated Logistics Support. 14 th International Mirce Symposium, 1 -3 December 2004, Woodbury Park, Exeter, UK.
60 Handbooks ¦MIL-HDBK-217, Reliability Prediction of Electronic Equipment, U. S. Department of Defense. ¦MIL-HDBK-338 B, Electronic Reliability Design Handbook, U. S. Department of Defense. ¦MIL-HDBK-781 A, Reliability Test Methods, Plans, and Environments for Engineering Development, Qualification, and Production, U. S. Department of Defense. ¦NASA PRA - Probabilistic Risk Assessment Handbook ¦NASA Fault Tree Assessment handbook
61 Standards ¦Army Regulation 700 -127 Integrated Logistics Support, 27 September 2007 ¦British Defence Standard 00 -600 Integrated Logistics Support for MOD Projects ¦Federal Standard 1037 C in support of MIL-STD-188 ¦MIL-STD-785, Reliability Program for Systems and Equipment Development and Production, U. S. Department of Defense. ¦MIL-STD 1388 -1 A Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) ¦MIL-STD 1388 -2 B Requirements for a Logistic Support Analysis Record ¦MIL-STD-1629 A, Procedures for Performing a Failure Mode, Effects and criticality analysis