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1 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets 1 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

CONTENTS • General Information • Arts & Culture 15 • Economy & Trade 22 CONTENTS • General Information • Arts & Culture 15 • Economy & Trade 22 • Education & Research 34 • Government & Politics 43 • Society & Welfare 57 • Sports & Leisure 72 • Technology & Infrastructure 73 • Travel & Tourism 77 3 2 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION General Facts • Area: 450, 000 km 2 (174, 000 sq miles) GENERAL INFORMATION General Facts • Area: 450, 000 km 2 (174, 000 sq miles) • 9 million inhabitants • Capital: Stockholm • Other major cities: Göteborg, Malmö • Language: Swedish 3 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION General Facts • Constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy • Head of state: King GENERAL INFORMATION General Facts • Constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy • Head of state: King Carl XVI Gustaf • Prime minister: Göran Persson (leader of the Social Democratic Party) • Currency: 1 Swedish krona (SEK) = 100 öre, equal to approximately EUR 0. 11 or USD 0. 14 • Average life expectancy: men 77 years, women 82 years 4 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION Geography • Forests (mostly coniferous): 54% • Mountains: 17% • Cultivated land: GENERAL INFORMATION Geography • Forests (mostly coniferous): 54% • Mountains: 17% • Cultivated land: 8% • Lakes and rivers: 9% • Highest mountain: Kebnekaise, 2, 111 m (6, 926 ft) • Distance north–south: 1, 574 km (977 miles) • Distance east–west: 499 km (310 miles) 5 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION Geography • IN JANUARY IN JULY Malmö -0. 2°C (31. 6°F) +16. GENERAL INFORMATION Geography • IN JANUARY IN JULY Malmö -0. 2°C (31. 6°F) +16. 8°C (62. 2°F) Stockholm -2. 8°C (30. 0°F) +17. 2°C (63. 0°F) Kiruna • Average temperature -16. 0°C (3. 2°F) +12. 8°C (55. 0°F) Daylight (approx. values) JANUARY 1 JULY 1 Malmö 7 hours 17 hours Stockholm 6 hours 18 hours Kiruna 0 hours 24 hours 6 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION History • Approx. 10, 000 BC: Inland ice started to recede. First GENERAL INFORMATION History • Approx. 10, 000 BC: Inland ice started to recede. First settlements in Sweden date from this period. • 8, 000– 6, 000 BC: Population of the whole country begins • 800– 1050: Viking era. Christianization begins • 13 th century: Colonialization of Finland begins 7 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION History • 1350: Magnus Eriksson’s National Law Code • 1397– 1521: Sweden, GENERAL INFORMATION History • 1350: Magnus Eriksson’s National Law Code • 1397– 1521: Sweden, Denmark and Norway united in the Kalmar Union. Sweden gradually acquires Baltic territories. • 1523: Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden • 1527: Reformation of the Church • 1611– 1718: Great Power Era 8 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION History • 1630– 48: The Thirty Years’ War • 1700– 21: Great GENERAL INFORMATION History • 1630– 48: The Thirty Years’ War • 1700– 21: Great Northern War. Loss of Baltic possessions. • 1719– 72: The Era of Liberty. Parliamentary government. • Gustav III (1771– 1792) reintroduces absolutism • 1809: Finland lost to Russia • 1814– 1905: Union with Norway 9 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION History • 1818: Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte became king under the name of Karl GENERAL INFORMATION History • 1818: Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte became king under the name of Karl XIV Johan • 1850: Industrialization begins • 1911: Universal suffrage for men. Women’s suffrage follows in 1921. • Sweden remains neutral in world wars I and II • 1986: Assassination of Prime Minister Olof Palme • 1995: Membership of the European Union 10 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION The Swedish Language • Swedish—national language of Sweden, native tongue of some GENERAL INFORMATION The Swedish Language • Swedish—national language of Sweden, native tongue of some 90 per cent of its inhabitants • Nordic language, belonging to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages • Also spoken by about 300, 000 Finno-Swedes in Finland • One common language in Scandinavia until the 9 th century. Many runic inscriptions from this period • German has influenced Swedish more than any other foreign language • Swedish taught at some 200 universities outside Sweden 11 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION Monarchy • Early Middle Ages: Elected kings. The Code of Kings 1350 GENERAL INFORMATION Monarchy • Early Middle Ages: Elected kings. The Code of Kings 1350 • 15 th century: Establishment of a parliament, the Riksdag, with four estates: nobility, clergy, burghers, and landowning farmers • Gustav Vasa. Monarchy becomes hereditary • The Era of Liberty: reaction against royal absolutism • 1771 Gustav III ascends the throne • 1914 Conflict between Gustav V and Parliament over the defence issue • Carl XVI Gustaf, king of Sweden since 1973 12 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION Population • World’s oldest system of population records (since 1686) • 71% GENERAL INFORMATION Population • World’s oldest system of population records (since 1686) • 71% live in nuclear families (1990 census) • 80% live in urban areas and along the coast • Fertility rate: 1. 65 children per woman • Sámi (Lapp) minority of some 15, 000 • 15% of Sweden’s population were either born outside Sweden or have two foreign-born parents 13 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GENERAL INFORMATION Religion • Christianity gained ground during the 10 th and 11 th GENERAL INFORMATION Religion • Christianity gained ground during the 10 th and 11 th centuries • 80% belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church • The Church of Sweden ceased to be the state church in 2000 • Sweden has a large number of free churches, immigrant religious denominations and other faiths 14 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ARTS & CULTURE Artists and authors • Endeavors to expand cultural institutions, support for ARTS & CULTURE Artists and authors • Endeavors to expand cultural institutions, support for independent groups and cultural centres as well as purchasing works of art for public buildings to create job opportunities for artists • The state remunerates artists and sculptors for their works on display in public settings and authors, translators and book illustrators whose works are available at libraries • Authors, translators and book illustrators can be awarded a guaranteed author’s allowance 15 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ARTS & CULTURE Cultural Policy • The State finances central cultural institutions including the ARTS & CULTURE Cultural Policy • The State finances central cultural institutions including the Royal Opera, the Royal Dramatic Theatre and the national museums • The State supports local and regional cultural activities through financial contributions • The municipalities bear responsibility for cultural policy at local level. They support libraries, run music schools and give grants to theatres, music, dance, exhibitions, museums etc. 16 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ARTS & CULTURE Literature and Libraries • 1, 500 public libraries which loan books ARTS & CULTURE Literature and Libraries • 1, 500 public libraries which loan books free of charge • Authors receive payments from state funds when their books are borrowed from public libraries • Activities to promote reading among children and young people 17 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ARTS & CULTURE Museums • A group of national museums coordinates activities throughout the ARTS & CULTURE Museums • A group of national museums coordinates activities throughout the entire museum system within their particular field • Every county has a museum which acts as the centre for museum-related activities in the region • Rural heritage associations with collections or preserved environments • An increasing number of new museums depict more recent times 18 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ARTS & CULTURE Music • The Swedish National Concert Institute, Svenska Rikskonserter, supplements regional ARTS & CULTURE Music • The Swedish National Concert Institute, Svenska Rikskonserter, supplements regional and local music production in cooperation with the county music organization, Länsmusiken • Eleven professional symphony and chamber orchestras playing at regional level • Independent groups, representing all musical genres 19 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ARTS & CULTURE Popular Education • Cultural activities mostly under the auspices of popular ARTS & CULTURE Popular Education • Cultural activities mostly under the auspices of popular movements and amateur theatre organizations • 11 educational associations, each with its own ideological profile, have local branches in most municipalities • 1, 700 art clubs • 400, 000 sing regularly in choirs 20 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ARTS & CULTURE Theatre, Film and Dance • Operan and Dramaten are the national ARTS & CULTURE Theatre, Film and Dance • Operan and Dramaten are the national stages for opera and drama • Svenska Riksteatern performs throughout the country • 28 municipal/city and county theatre companies • Around 200 independent theatre groups (also children’s theatre) • Five permanent dance ensembles • Around 20 films which are partly or wholly Swedish-financed are premiered each year 21 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Agriculture and Food Processing • Fewer than 3% of labor force ECONOMY & TRADE Agriculture and Food Processing • Fewer than 3% of labor force in agriculture and forestry • Crop-growing season averages around 240 days/year in the south, 120 days/year in the north • 74% of agricultural enterprises combine farming with forestry • Structural changes have resulted in fewer and larger farms with fewer employees • Food exports more than doubled between 1994– 2000 • High standars in the field of animal welfare 22 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Economy • GDP: SEK 2, 440 billion; per capita: SEK 272, ECONOMY & TRADE Economy • GDP: SEK 2, 440 billion; per capita: SEK 272, 000 (2003) • Unemployment: 4. 9 % (2003) • Enrolled in government-financed labor market programs: 2 % • Sweden is in 17 th place in the GDP per capita ranking (OECD) • Expansion of the public sector came to a halt during the 1990 s • Most forecasts for 2004 and 2005 indicate a GDP growth of 2– 3 % per year 23 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Economy • Diversified economy. Large public sector. Growing private sector • ECONOMY & TRADE Economy • Diversified economy. Large public sector. Growing private sector • Strong dependence on international trade • High R&D expenditure • Floating exchange rate • New, stricter Competition Act 1993 • Dependence on a number of very large international companies 24 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Engineering industry • Accounts for just over 50% of Sweden’s industrial ECONOMY & TRADE Engineering industry • Accounts for just over 50% of Sweden’s industrial production and 10% of total GDP • 2/3 of Swedish-produced engineering products exported • 50% of the sector are engine and vehicle manufacturers • Most companies small or medium-sized • High degree of specialisation • Focus on knowledge-intensive engineering, services and R&D 25 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Foreign Trade • Exports by important commodity groups (percent of total ECONOMY & TRADE Foreign Trade • Exports by important commodity groups (percent of total value) January–November 2003: – Forestry products 13. 5% – Mineral products 8. 5% – Chemical products 12. 8% – Energy products 3. 2% – Engineering products 50. 5% – Other 11. 4% 26 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Foreign Trade • Imports by important commodity groups (percent of total ECONOMY & TRADE Foreign Trade • Imports by important commodity groups (percent of total value) January–November 2003: – Forestry products 3. 5% – Mineral products 8. 1% – Chemical products 12. 5% – Energy products 9. 5% – Engineering products 45. 5% – Other 20. 8% 27 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Forestry and the Forest Products Industry • National forest policy: a ECONOMY & TRADE Forestry and the Forest Products Industry • National forest policy: a reliable yield of timber while preserving biological diversity • Private individuals the largest category of owners • Nearly 12 million hectares of forest certified as sustainably managed • Original genetic material of Sweden’s tree species preserved in a forest gene bank • Sweden is among the world’s leading exporters of forest products 28 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Industry • Some important Swedish industries: – industries based on iron ECONOMY & TRADE Industry • Some important Swedish industries: – industries based on iron ore and wood – telecommunications industry – pharmaceutical industry – aviation industry – automotive industry – defence material industry – nuclear power industry 29 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Industry • Supply of indigenous raw material an important for Swedish ECONOMY & TRADE Industry • Supply of indigenous raw material an important for Swedish industry • The main increase in output has been in knowledge-intensive manufacturing and service sectors. • Fast expansion in the telecommunications industry and the pharmaceutical industry • Mergers and acquisitions have been among the most important elements of Swedish business restructuring in recent decades 30 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Mining and steel industries • Iron played a dominant role for ECONOMY & TRADE Mining and steel industries • Iron played a dominant role for many centuries • Manufacture of iron and non-ferrous metal goods started the modern engineering industry • Iron ore and sulfide extracted in northern Sweden • Smelting of non-ferrous metals including copper, lead, silver and gold • Focus on making high-value specialty steels • Around 20, 000 people employed in the steel industry 31 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Motor vehicle industry • Central role in Swedish economy • Exports ECONOMY & TRADE Motor vehicle industry • Central role in Swedish economy • Exports of automobiles and automobile parts 15% of total Swedish exports 2003 • One fifth of the global heavy truck production 2003 either Volvo or Scania. • Catalytic exhaust emission checks mandatory in Sweden. Around 85% of cars fitted with catalytic converters 32 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

ECONOMY & TRADE Service sector • 3. 7 million people (85% of total workforce) ECONOMY & TRADE Service sector • 3. 7 million people (85% of total workforce) employed in service sector • Extensive public service sector funded by central or local government, mainly health care, education and social services • Expansion of private sector in late 1990 s. Most job growth in knowledgeintensive fields • Company and household-oriented services dominate private service sector • Services have become more important in international trade 33 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

EDUCATION & RESEARCH Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes • Alfred Nobel (1833– 1896), EDUCATION & RESEARCH Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes • Alfred Nobel (1833– 1896), inventor, global industrial magnate, linguist, philosopher and humanist • The Nobel prizes are awarded for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace (Norway). Since 1969 there is also a prize in Economics in honor of Alfred Nobel • In 2003 the prizes were each worth SEK 10 million 34 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

EDUCATION & RESEARCH Compulsory Schooling • 9 years’ compulsory education • More than 97% EDUCATION & RESEARCH Compulsory Schooling • 9 years’ compulsory education • More than 97% of all pupils attend municipal compulsory schools • Few private schools. They generally receive government grants • Parents and pupils shall have a free choice of municipal schools and can also opt for publicly-funded independent schools • The municipalities bear overall responsibility for the implementation and development of education within the school system 35 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

EDUCATION & RESEARCH Compulsory Schooling • Instruction, teaching material, school lunches and school transport EDUCATION & RESEARCH Compulsory Schooling • Instruction, teaching material, school lunches and school transport are free of charge • Parents and pupils shall have a free choice of municipal schools and can also opt for publicly-funded independent schools • School health care for all pupils • Schooling for pupils with learning difficulties is compulsory for nine years plus one optional year • English is the compulsory first foreign language • Home language instruction available for pupils speaking a language other than Swedish 36 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

EDUCATION & RESEARCH Education and research • All children and young people in Sweden EDUCATION & RESEARCH Education and research • All children and young people in Sweden have equal access to education, regardless of ethnic and social background or residential locality • Education is free on all levels • Very few private schools and colleges • Strong ambition to increase the number of women in leading academic posts 37 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

EDUCATION & RESEARCH Higher Education • No tuition fees • Undergraduate education: – Diploma EDUCATION & RESEARCH Higher Education • No tuition fees • Undergraduate education: – Diploma or certificate (2 years) – Bachelor’s degree (3 years) – Master’s degree (4 years) • Courses of varying length for professional degrees 38 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

EDUCATION & RESEARCH Higher Education • To be admitted to post-graduate education, an undergraduate EDUCATION & RESEARCH Higher Education • To be admitted to post-graduate education, an undergraduate program of at least 3 years’ duration must be completed • Four years of doctoral studies and an approved dissertation are required for a doctorate • Study assistance available to all students who need help to finance their studies • Students are represented on decision-making bodies 39 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

EDUCATION & RESEARCH Research System • Sweden is one of the countries that invests EDUCATION & RESEARCH Research System • Sweden is one of the countries that invests the largest percentage of its Gross Domestic Product in R&D • Most research carried out in universities, university colleges, institutes of technology, professional schools etc • Companies account for some 75% of R&D expenditure • Long tradition of state funding for research • Ministry of Education and Science has overall responsibility for research policy 40 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

EDUCATION & RESEARCH Upper Secondary and Adult Education • Municipalities are obliged to provide EDUCATION & RESEARCH Upper Secondary and Adult Education • Municipalities are obliged to provide upper secondary schooling (16+) for all residents who start studying before the age of 20 • Instruction is free of charge • 17 national programs, 14 mainly vocational and three which prepare for university studies • About 98% of school leavers go on to the three-year upper secondary school with vocational and academic programs • Pupils aged 16– 20 receive study assistance 41 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

EDUCATION & RESEARCH Upper Secondary and Adult Education The public school system for adults EDUCATION & RESEARCH Upper Secondary and Adult Education The public school system for adults comprises: - municipal adult education - adult education for people with learning difficulties - basic Swedish for immigrants Other forms of adult education (usually affiliated with political parties or special-interest organizations): - Folk high schools - Voluntary educational associations 42 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Foreign Policy • Sweden has not been at war since 1814 GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Foreign Policy • Sweden has not been at war since 1814 • Non-participation in military alliances with the aim of remaining neutral in the event of conflict in Sweden’s vicinity • High priority to working with the United Nations • EU membership in 1995 • Participation in the multilateral disarmament negotiations in Geneva since they started in 1962 • Active participant in efforts to address environmental threats 43 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Foreign Policy • Sweden supports EU efforts to establish civilian and GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Foreign Policy • Sweden supports EU efforts to establish civilian and military capacity for crisis management. Close cooperation with NATO • Membership in Partnership for Peace (PFP) • Endeavors to develop and reinforce UN peacekeeping operations • Pursues a policy of non-participation in military alliances • Supports the strengthening of open, multilateral trading 44 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Law and Justice • Power to enact laws is vested in GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Law and Justice • Power to enact laws is vested in the Riksdag (Parliament) • The Government has the power to issue decrees concerning less important matters • Spadework in preparation of bills is done by commissions of inquiry, legal experts in the ministries and Parliament standing committees 45 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Law and Justice • Hierarchy of general courts: – district courts GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Law and Justice • Hierarchy of general courts: – district courts (tingsrätt) – courts of appeal (hovrätt) – Supreme Court (Högsta domstolen) • Only cases which may set legal precedent are tried before the Supreme Court • Appeals against administrative authorities are heard in a three-tier administrative court system 46 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Law and Justice • Prosecution system divided into seven districts. Prosecutors GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Law and Justice • Prosecution system divided into seven districts. Prosecutors conduct preliminary investigations in criminal cases • Defence counsel in criminal proceedings for serious crimes is appointed by the court. • Legal aid available under certain conditions • Supervision of courts and administrative organs by the Chancellor of Justice (Justitiekanslern, JK) 47 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Local Government • 290 municipalities (kommun) with responsibility for: – schools GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Local Government • 290 municipalities (kommun) with responsibility for: – schools – social services – elder care, care of people with physical or intellectual disabilities – physical planning and building – certain environmental tasks – rescue services • 21 county councils (landsting) with responsibility for: – health care services at hospitals and local health centres – public dental services – psychiatric care 48 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS National Government • The Swedish Constitution consists of – the Instrument GOVERNMENT & POLITICS National Government • The Swedish Constitution consists of – the Instrument of Government (1974) – the Act of Succession (1810) – the Freedom of the Press Act (1949) – the Freedom of Expression Act (1991) – the Parliament Act (1974) 49 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS National Government • Unicameral Parliament, Riksdag, with 349 seats • Direct GOVERNMENT & POLITICS National Government • Unicameral Parliament, Riksdag, with 349 seats • Direct parliamentary elections every 4 years. Right to vote from the age of 18. • The Government governs the country but is answerable to Parliament • The monarch is head of state, with primarily ceremonial functions • Government decisions are prepared by the ministries 50 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS The Ombudsmen • The government-appointed ombudsmen: – The Consumer Ombudsman – GOVERNMENT & POLITICS The Ombudsmen • The government-appointed ombudsmen: – The Consumer Ombudsman – The Equal Opportunities Ombudsman – The Ombudsman against Ethnic Discrimination – The Ombudsman against Discrimination because of Sexual Orientation – The Children’s Ombudsman – The Disability Ombudsman 51 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS The Ombudsmen • The Press Ombudsman: This self-disciplinary system of the GOVERNMENT & POLITICS The Ombudsmen • The Press Ombudsman: This self-disciplinary system of the Swedish press is not based on legislation. It is entirely voluntary and wholly financed by Sweden’s three press organizations 52 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Political Parties • Two blocs: socialist and non-socialist • Percentage of GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Political Parties • Two blocs: socialist and non-socialist • Percentage of votes in last parliamentary election, September 2002: – Social Democrats 39. 8% – Moderates (Conservative) 15. 5% – Liberals 13. 3% – Christian Democrats 9. 1% – Left Party 8. 3% – Centre Party 6. 1% – Green Party 4. 6% 53 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Sweden in the European Union • EU membership in 1995 • GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Sweden in the European Union • EU membership in 1995 • No to participation in the euro currency union in a referendum in 2003 • Sweden participates in the common foreign and security policy of the EU although it retains its military non-alignment • 10 votes in the Council of Ministers, 19 members of the European Parliament, 1 member of the European Commission, 1 judge at the Court of Justice 54 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Sweden and the United Nations • Since joining the UN in GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Sweden and the United Nations • Since joining the UN in 1946, Sweden has been a member of the Security Council three times • ‘Small countries need the UN’ – UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld (1905– 61) • About 15% of Swedish development assistance goes to UN social and economic programs • Emphasis on importance of conflict-prevention measures and operations 55 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Taxes • Income tax (local and national) on employment, capital and GOVERNMENT & POLITICS Taxes • Income tax (local and national) on employment, capital and business • VAT on goods and services • Payroll fees (social security contributions) around 33% to finance the national social insurance system, old age pensions and certain other social services • Capital is taxed at a standard rate of 30 % • The tax system includes many direct and indirect taxes and contributions • Local authorities are free to set income tax rates in their respective municipalities and county council districts 56 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Child Care • Municipalities obliged to provide preschool care and school-age SOCIETY & WELFARE Child Care • Municipalities obliged to provide preschool care and school-age care. Grants provided to non-municipal childcare • Preschool care for children aged 1– 5 is provided at preschools, family daycare homes and open preschools • After-school childcare for children aged 6– 12 is provided at leisure-time centres, in family daycare homes and at open leisure-time centres • 75% of all children aged 1– 5 are registered with preschools and 74% of children aged 6– 9 with leisure time centres 57 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Disability Policies • Disability policies aim for full participation and equality SOCIETY & WELFARE Disability Policies • Disability policies aim for full participation and equality • Organizations for disabled people are run and dominated by people with physical disabilities • Institutional living replaced by group accommodation, service housing and adapted homes • Local authorities have ultimate responsibility for personal assistance, preschool places, housing, home-help services etc. for the disabled 58 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Equality between Women and Men • 480 days’ leave of absence SOCIETY & WELFARE Equality between Women and Men • 480 days’ leave of absence on parental benefit to look after a child aged 0– 8 years can be shared by parents. • 60 of the days are reserved for the mother, 60 for the father. These days cannot be transferred to the other parent. • More than 50% of fathers utilize their right to paid parental leave during the child’s first year. • Parents entitled to reduce their weekly working hours (against a reduction in pay). 59 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Equality between Women and Men • Political consensus on principles of SOCIETY & WELFARE Equality between Women and Men • Political consensus on principles of gender equality. Gender main-streaming of day-to-day political and administrative work at the national level • After the elections in 2002, 45. 3% of Parliament members are women • Men dominate senior positions in employer/employee organizations and senior management in the private sector • Efforts to encourage women to enter traditionally male-dominated areas of labor market • Efforts to promote gender equality in choice of study programs and professions in upper secondary school 60 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Financial Circumstances of Swedish Households • Transfer payments to households: pensions, SOCIETY & WELFARE Financial Circumstances of Swedish Households • Transfer payments to households: pensions, child allowance, housing allowance, sickness benefit, parental leave etc • Social security benefit for those who cannot support themselves • High income taxes • VAT 25% on most goods and services, 12% VAT on food 61 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Financial Circumstances of Swedish Households • High food prices compared to SOCIETY & WELFARE Financial Circumstances of Swedish Households • High food prices compared to the rest of EU • Biggest expense: housing, takes 30% of income • Modern houses. Average living area 47 m 2/p. p. • Some 22% of households own a weekend cottage • Price differences countryside – cities • Well-developed, subsidized public transport. Cars essential outside urban centres 62 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Health Care System • Responsibility for health care rests primarily with SOCIETY & WELFARE Health Care System • Responsibility for health care rests primarily with the county councils • A primary care sector treats diseases and injuries that do not require hospitalisation • Hospitals, nursing homes and service apartments with 24 hours service a day • 1 physician per 320 inhabitants • Sweden’s costs for health care services are 8. 5% of GNP 63 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Health Care System • Freedom to choose health centre, doctor or SOCIETY & WELFARE Health Care System • Freedom to choose health centre, doctor or hospital • 29% of all visits to a doctor take place at private, publicly-funded, medical establishments • High-cost ceiling to limit personal expense for health care • 900 pharmacies have the sole and exclusive right to retail medicines • To become a registered doctor takes 5. 5 years and a pre-registration period of 18 months as a house officer. It takes 3 years to become a nurse 64 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Immigrants • About 15% of Sweden’s population were born outside Sweden SOCIETY & WELFARE Immigrants • About 15% of Sweden’s population were born outside Sweden or have foreign-born parents • Foreign citizens who have been resident for three years may vote and run for office in local elections • Tuition in Swedish for newly arrived immigrants • Mother tongue tuition for school pupils • Citizens of non-Nordic countries eligible for citizenship after five years’ residence. A citizen of a Nordic country can become a Swedish citizen after two years in Sweden 65 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Labor Market Policy • The main aims of labor market policy: SOCIETY & WELFARE Labor Market Policy • The main aims of labor market policy: – To match demand supply in the job market – To prevent bottle-necks – To help those who find it difficult to get employment in the ordinary labor market • Programs to encourage demand for labor and generate employment • Programs for the occupationally handicapped • Start-your-own grants 66 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Labor Relations • Basic agreement 1938. “The Swedish Model”, a compromise SOCIETY & WELFARE Labor Relations • Basic agreement 1938. “The Swedish Model”, a compromise between labor and capital • Centralized collective bargaining replaced by negotiations at sector level in the 1980 s • Biggest union confederations: – LO, for blue–collar workers – TCO, for white–collar employees – SACO, mainly for graduates 67 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Labor Relations • Around 80% of employees belong to trade unions SOCIETY & WELFARE Labor Relations • Around 80% of employees belong to trade unions • Social welfare contributions (payroll fees) are paid by employers • New labor laws introduced in the 1970 s to increase employee involvement. • Labor Court settles legal disputes on labor issues • Leading employer organization is the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Föreningen Svenskt Näringsliv) 68 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Mass Media • 1766 – the first Freedom of the Press SOCIETY & WELFARE Mass Media • 1766 – the first Freedom of the Press Act • Current Freedom of the Press Act from 1949 • The Freedom of Expression Act covers radio, television, film and other media • Free access to public documents • The responsible publisher–the individual held officially responsible for contraventions of the Press Act • The Press Council, the Code of Ethics and the Press Ombudsman (non-governmental systems) 69 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Social Insurance • The Swedish social insurance system is markedly universal SOCIETY & WELFARE Social Insurance • The Swedish social insurance system is markedly universal in nature • The social insurance system is financed mainly via taxes and employer payroll fees • Voluntary, state-subsidised unemployment insurance 70 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SOCIETY & WELFARE Social Insurance • Uniform social insurance system providing: – health care SOCIETY & WELFARE Social Insurance • Uniform social insurance system providing: – health care – parental insurance – cash benefits during illness – occupational injury insurance – unemployment benefits – pensions – child allowance 71 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

SPORTS AND LEISURE General facts • Around 22, 000 clubs and associations that belong SPORTS AND LEISURE General facts • Around 22, 000 clubs and associations that belong to one of 67 specialized sports federations • Almost half of Sweden’s residents aged between 7 and 70 belong to a sports club • Around 650, 000 participate in competitive sport • 40% of women and 60% men in the specialized sports federations • Central government and local authorities help to subsidize youth sports • Voluntary sports leaders are the backbone of Swedish sporting life 72 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals • Rapidly growing biotech industry. Drug discovery & TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals • Rapidly growing biotech industry. Drug discovery & development dominant sub-sector • Pharmaceutical industry annually invests around 25% of its turnover on R&D • Close collaboration with universities and an advanced health care system open to testing new techniques have contributed to the innovative nature of the Swedish pharmaceutical industry • Extensive restructuring of pharmaceutical industry. Many international mergers and acquisitions 73 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE Environment Protection • Ecologically sustainable development an overall objective • Active TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE Environment Protection • Ecologically sustainable development an overall objective • Active environmental work within the EU framework • New Environmental Code January 1999 takes an integrated view of the environment • The right of common access, a rarely abused privilege • About one third of Sweden’s energy supply is based on renewable energy 74 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE Telecommunications and Information Technology • Telecom and IT products account for TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE Telecommunications and Information Technology • Telecom and IT products account for about 15% of Sweden’s total annual merchandise exports • Sweden is second in the EU, after Finland, with regard to number of researchers in companies with high-tech focus • Products to enhance IT security are an expanding market (more than 15% per year) • Integration of mobile phone service with computer technology • E-democracy is part of the day-to-day work of parliamentarians • Most municipalities have advanced plans for broadband networks 75 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE Telecommunications and Information Technology • 98% of all companies with more TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE Telecommunications and Information Technology • 98% of all companies with more than 10 employees have computers • 74% of the population aged 16– 74 use computers. 73% use the Internet, one third with high speed connections • Popular e-services are Internet banking, e-commerce, contact with e-agencies and information searching 76 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

TRAVEL & TOURISM General facts • Tourism accounts for 19% of Swedens total export TRAVEL & TOURISM General facts • Tourism accounts for 19% of Swedens total export of services • Tourism accounts for 2. 6% of Sweden’s GDP • 3% of all Swedish employees work in tourism sector • 14 million foreign visitors 2002 • Most popular destinations Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö • Stockholm as a congress location similarly priced to rest of western Europe 77 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets

The Swedish Institute (SI) is a public agency established to disseminate knowledge abroad about The Swedish Institute (SI) is a public agency established to disseminate knowledge abroad about Sweden's social and cultural life, to promote cultural and informational exchange with other countries and to contribute to increased international cooperation in the fields of education and research. The Swedish Institute produces a wide range of publications on many aspects of Swedish society. These can be obtained directly from the Swedish Institute or from Swedish diplomatic missions abroad, and many are available on Sweden. se. SWEDEN. SE – the official gateway to Sweden – is Sweden's official Internet portal on www. sweden. se. It includes almost everything you need to know about Sweden, ranging from basic facts about Swedish society to business issues, politics, news, cultural life and current affairs. In the Sweden Bookshop on Slottsbacken 10 in Stockholm's Old Town, as well as on www. swedenbookshop. com, you can buy nonfiction, brochures and richly illustrated gift books on Sweden as well as a broad selection of Swedish fiction and children's books – in English and many other languages – and Swedish language courses. The Swedish Institute Box 7434 SE– 103 91 Stockholm Sweden Phone: +46– 8– 453 78 00 Fax: +46– 8– 20 72 48 E-mail: [email protected] se Internet: www. si. se Photo page 1: Oscar Falk / Clooning / www. imagebank. sweden. se 78 Facts about Sweden www. sweden. se/fact_sheets