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1 F SENIOR STUDY CIRCLES 1 F SENIOR STUDY CIRCLES

The Nordic light… and concept of study circles and folk high schools 2 The Nordic light… and concept of study circles and folk high schools 2

The Nordic concept of Study Circles and Folk High Schools 3 The tradition, development, The Nordic concept of Study Circles and Folk High Schools 3 The tradition, development, present situation…

4 N. F. S. Grundtvig (1782 – 1871) 4 N. F. S. Grundtvig (1782 – 1871)

and the future… 5 and the future… 5

The Study Circle – as a democratic method for learning 6 “Sweden is to The Study Circle – as a democratic method for learning 6 “Sweden is to a great extent a Study Circle Democracy” (Olof Palme, 1968)

f Palme 7 f Palme 7

The development of learning methods and 8 views on education and learning 1: The The development of learning methods and 8 views on education and learning 1: The top-to-bottom approach (1830 – 1880) “The people need enlightenment” The Workers Academies, the Folk Universities, the University Extention Movements

The development of learning methods and views on education and learning 2: 9 THE The development of learning methods and views on education and learning 2: 9 THE BOTTOM-UP APPROACH (1890 - ) “THE LIBERATION OF THE WORKING CLASS SHOULD BE A TASK FOR THE WORKERS THEMSELVES” “FOR THE PEOPLE, THROUGH THE PEOPLE” THE STUDY CIRCLE BECAME A DEMOCRATIC AND EMANCIPATORY METHOD FOR LEARNING

10 STUDY CIRCLES …. . A GROUP OF EQUALS, THE LEADER IS A “PRIMUS 10 STUDY CIRCLES …. . A GROUP OF EQUALS, THE LEADER IS A “PRIMUS INTER PARES”…. …. A CIRCLE OF FRIENDS COMING TOGETHER TO DISCUSS PROBLEMS OR SUBJECTS OF COMMON INTEREST… (OSCAR OLSSON, 1902)

11 Oscar Olsson 11 Oscar Olsson

12 12

Study Circle participation principles § Equality and democracy § Liberation of resources § Cooperation Study Circle participation principles § Equality and democracy § Liberation of resources § Cooperation and companionship § Study and liberty § Active participation § Self managed and self directed learning 13 (Oscar Olsson)

The original concept of study circles 14 Ø People studied in small groups – The original concept of study circles 14 Ø People studied in small groups – 5 to 15 Ø Often at home or in a community house Ø Study material was rare – one circle, one book Ø Learning by dialogue Ø Teachers not necessary, but occasionally Ø Attending lectures and recourses from outside Ø Knowledge based on experiences in the group - “Learning by sharing”

The pedagogical profile of the Study Circle 15 Circle members/participants, not students/pupils § Circle The pedagogical profile of the Study Circle 15 Circle members/participants, not students/pupils § Circle leaders, not teachers § Circles/groups, not classes/lessons § Previous bad experiences from school should not frighten §

The Study Circle Institution In Sweden it is the name of ”liberal education and The Study Circle Institution In Sweden it is the name of ”liberal education and learning” Run according to rules, Study Circles get public funding, independent of topics ”A mature democracy should (also) contribute to keep system critisism alive” 16 (Norwegian White Paper on Culture, 1998)

17 Study Circle Leadership …. . The role of the leader is crucial, with 17 Study Circle Leadership …. . The role of the leader is crucial, with both organisational, social and emotional skills. . . (Oscar Olsson)

The Uniqueness of the Study Circle…? 18 § A philosophy of equality § The The Uniqueness of the Study Circle…? 18 § A philosophy of equality § The history of popular enlightenment § The links to providers § Dynamics between learning and teaching § Easy and sheep way of learning for all ages § Learning without humiliation and guilt § A pedagogy for questioning “It is the answers that makes you fall asleep” (Paulo Freire)

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The leader should: 20 § Be a good listener and observer § Be sensitive The leader should: 20 § Be a good listener and observer § Be sensitive and responcive § Promote cooperation § Encourage all to take part § Have knowledge about the members § Be democratic, not authoritarian… § Be a good organiser § Have skills on the subject

Study circles in practice Seniorweb Norway University of the 3. Age and Senior Academies Study circles in practice Seniorweb Norway University of the 3. Age and Senior Academies Local community groups Library Groups - Reading Circles Handicraft Circles Walking circes 21

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Senior Study Circle Handicraf 23 Senior Study Circle Handicraf 23

Senior Circles Computer Learning 24 Senior Circles Computer Learning 24

U 3 A, ex: Brisbane 25 U 3 A is the University of the U 3 A, ex: Brisbane 25 U 3 A is the University of the Third Age, which is the age of active retirement, coming after the age of youth and work and home making. University is a loose term - there are no academic requirements for membership and no exams! U 3 A is a worldwide self-help organisation promoting learning for personal enjoyment and satisfaction.

The Self-help Learning Principles of the U 3 A Movement 26 Members form interest The Self-help Learning Principles of the U 3 A Movement 26 Members form interest groups covering as wide a range of topics and activities as they desire; by the members, for the members. No qualifications are sought or offered. Learning is for its own sake, with enjoyment being the prime motive, not qualifications or awards. No payments are made to members for services rendered to any U 3 A. No payments are made to outside tutors.

27 And learn… Contact Us Chronic Illness Alliance Inc. 587 Canterbury Rd, Surrey Hills 27 And learn… Contact Us Chronic Illness Alliance Inc. 587 Canterbury Rd, Surrey Hills VIC 3127 Australia +61 3 8809 0626 [email protected] org. au www. chronicillness. org. au

28 Thank you for listening and participating! sturlabjerkaker@gmail. com 28 Thank you for listening and participating! [email protected] com