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1 Dr. R. P. Singh CMD, POWERGRID 1 Dr. R. P. Singh CMD, POWERGRID

Human Body vs. Power System USER RLDC: : Brain Generation : : Heart Sub-Transmission: Human Body vs. Power System USER RLDC: : Brain Generation : : Heart Sub-Transmission: : Sub Arteries Transmission: : Main Arteries Distribution: Capillaries Voltage : : BP; Frequency: : Heart beat Communication: : Nervous System 2

Objective of Power System 3. Reliability 2. Security 4. Quality 1. Availability 5. Affordability Objective of Power System 3. Reliability 2. Security 4. Quality 1. Availability 5. Affordability 3

1. Availability of Power Through : a) Generation Addition b) Energy Conservation 4 1. Availability of Power Through : a) Generation Addition b) Energy Conservation 4

GENERATION 5 GENERATION 5

Installed capacity (Mar. , 2006) Generating Capacity Hydro 32, 335 MW (26%) Thermal 82, Installed capacity (Mar. , 2006) Generating Capacity Hydro 32, 335 MW (26%) Thermal 82, 507 MW (66%) Coal 68, 643 MW Gas 12, 663 MW Nuclear 3, 850 MW (3%) Renewable 6, 158 MW s (5%)

Power Supply Situation Census Results 1990 - 200591 01 06 Energy Shortage (%) 7. Power Supply Situation Census Results 1990 - 200591 01 06 Energy Shortage (%) 7. 9 7. 8 8. 5 Peaking Shortage (%) 16. 7 12. 3 12. 5 Households Access to Electricity (%) 42. 0 56. 0 - Rural Households Coverage (%) 31. 0 43. 8 - Source: Draft National Electricity Plan of CEA 8

India’s Energy Requirement – Demand Forecast Peak Demand) (MW) End of 10 th Plan India’s Energy Requirement – Demand Forecast Peak Demand) (MW) End of 10 th Plan (2006 – 07) End of 11 th Plan (2011 – 12) End of 12 th Plan (2016 – 17) End of 13 th Plan (2021 – 22) Energy Requirement (BU) 1, 15, 705 720 1, 57, 107 975 2, 12, 725 1, 320 2, 88, 943 1, 900 (Assuming 9% growth) Source: Draft National Electricity Plan of CEA 9

1 GENERATION ADDITION ENVISAGED figures in MW Year End of 9 th Plan End 1 GENERATION ADDITION ENVISAGED figures in MW Year End of 9 th Plan End of 10 th Plan End of 11 th Plan End of 12 th Plan End of 13 th Plan Hydr o 26, 26 9 37, 18 4 59, 60 4 Therm Nuclea Othe Total al r rs 74, 550 2, 720 1, 628 105, 1 67 101, 03 5240 3000 146, 4 5 59 134, 10180 7600 211, 9 571 55 333, 0 00 Source: Draft National Electricity Plan of 10 CEA

India’s available Energy Resources Coal Hydro Crude Oil Natural gas Lignnite Renewables - Biomass India’s available Energy Resources Coal Hydro Crude Oil Natural gas Lignnite Renewables - Biomass 246 billion tonnes (87% non coking gr. ) 84, 000 MW at 60% PLF, Pumpstorage 96, 000 MW & Micro 7, 000 MW 728 million tonnes 660 billion Cu-m 5, 060 million tonnes 6000 MWe - Wind, solar etc. Uranium 20, 000 MWe 78, 000 tonnes Thorium 5, 18, 000 tonnes – can sustain several hundred years requirement 11 Source: Nuclear Power Corporation web si

Generation Addition - Thermal Advantages: v. Availability of Coal v. Shorter gestation period v. Generation Addition - Thermal Advantages: v. Availability of Coal v. Shorter gestation period v. Low initial investment Thus, coal has wider acceptability. Limitations: Long term sustenance questionable : v. Limited resource v. Highly pollutant v. Disposal of ash : due to abrasive & high ash content v. Dependence on imported fuel increasing (about 100 MT by 2011 -12) v. Associated uncertainty in fuel cost- increases with passage of time. Thus, its prime position is threatened 12

Generation Addition - Hydro Advantages : v. Renewable source v. Progressively reducing Tariff v. Generation Addition - Hydro Advantages : v. Renewable source v. Progressively reducing Tariff v. Non-polluting v. Carbon Trading v. Quick start / stop for Grid control Thus, Hydro development is a must. Limitations : v Huge fund requirement v. Land Acquisition, Resettlement & Rehabilitation etc. v. Longer Gestation Period v. Geological Surprises Thus, the growth is sluggish. 13

Generation Addition - Gas Advantages : v. Low capital cost v. Clean fuel v. Generation Addition - Gas Advantages : v. Low capital cost v. Clean fuel v. Easy to handle v. Shorter gestation period v. Can be set up close to load center, thus enhanced grid stability v. Quick start & stop Needed for quick development Limitations : v. Limited Gas Availability – present/ future v. Uncertain fuel cost The purpose of quick availability challenged 14

Generation Addition - Nuclear Advantages : - v. Technologically proven v. Economically Viable v. Generation Addition - Nuclear Advantages : - v. Technologically proven v. Economically Viable v. Compact source v. Environment Friendly v. Can be set up close to load center, thus enhanced grid stability v. Long term Sustenance Thus desirable to quicken our efforts Limitations : - v. High Capital cost v. Safety v. Fuel availability v. Waste management v. Social stigma Continues to be under threat 15

Energy Potential from Non-Conventional Energy Sources RESOURCE/SYSTEM POTENTIAL WIND POWER SMALL HYDRO( up to Energy Potential from Non-Conventional Energy Sources RESOURCE/SYSTEM POTENTIAL WIND POWER SMALL HYDRO( up to 25 MW) BIOMASS POWER Biomass based Power Biomass Gasifiers ENERGY RECOVERY FROM URBAN & INDUSTRIAL WASTE SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER 45000 MW 15000 MW 19500 MW ------2700 MW 3595. 00 MW 1705. 00 MW 20 MW PER SQ. KM 2. 64 MW TOTAL 82, 200 MW Yet to gather momentum ACHIEVEMENT (AS ON 31. 03. 2005) 749. 53 MW 66. 23 MW 41. 98 MW 6160. 38 MW 16

Generation Addition - Wind Advantages v. Nil fuel cost v. Non polluting v. Suitable Generation Addition - Wind Advantages v. Nil fuel cost v. Non polluting v. Suitable for Distributed Generation Temptation to build Limitations v. High Capital cost v. Low availability - about 20% v. Grid un-stability Threatened due to risks involved 17

Generation Addition - Solar Advantages v. Abundant source v. Suitable for Distributed Generation v. Generation Addition - Solar Advantages v. Abundant source v. Suitable for Distributed Generation v. Non polluting Desire to explore Limitations v. High Capital cost v. Technology Technological limitation 18

Generation Addition - Biomass Advantages : v. Solid, liquid or gaseous waste can be Generation Addition - Biomass Advantages : v. Solid, liquid or gaseous waste can be used as a fuel for the production of electric power v. Potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions v. Reduced dependence on oil as biofuels are the only liquid transportation fuels available v. Support rural economies Talk of the town Limitations : v. Land requirements are enormous v. Transport issues Inertia to take risk/ Limited investors 19

Generation Addition - Suggestions v Investment in Power sector is too huge to be Generation Addition - Suggestions v Investment in Power sector is too huge to be sustained by private players. It is, therefore, imperative that Government continues to play major role in generation addition programme. v Capacity addition programme to be expedited through Public, Private & Public/Private Joint investments. Government has to continue as major player 20

Generation Addition - Suggestions v Coal to remainstay to meet base load in near Generation Addition - Suggestions v Coal to remainstay to meet base load in near future as required experience & technical know how is available, however, v. We may have to share base load with Nuclear/ Hydro. v. Imported fuel including coal can only supplement that too, to a limited extent. It can not be a reliable source. Coal based plants to be mainstay 21

Generation Addition - Suggestions v. To bridge the demand supply gaps expeditiously, following is Generation Addition - Suggestions v. To bridge the demand supply gaps expeditiously, following is a must. v. Massive standardisation of equipment, Sub-systems & Plant layouts v. POWERGRID’s efforts in standardisation has led to reduced project cycle time by about 2 years and project implementation without disputes v. Reserve 50% of orders on BHEL planwise. Balance 50% to be tendered on ICB basis. v. BHEL necessarily to bid. The lowest gets the order. Further, this will establish the benchmark price. v. Cost based determination of tariff to continue with regulation till a sustainable demand supply balance is achieved. v. It is important to build expeditiously coal based projects rather than enter into endless debate of unit size, technology etc. These are necessary but not a must. Time is the essence 22

Generation Addition - Suggestions v Hydro Projects, both macro and micro, need to be Generation Addition - Suggestions v Hydro Projects, both macro and micro, need to be developed expeditiously preferably on war footing basis mainly for energy security and to achieve required thermal/ hydro mix of 60: 40 v. For development of hydro projects, set up an Authority with following objectives: v. Single source to clear projects v. Its decision to be challenged only in the Hon’ble Supreme Court that too with time limit v. To be fully answerable for development and running of Hydro projects v. Preferably, the Authority may be apolitical else cutting across political boundaries v. Run of the River Hydro Schemes to be run as base load – Needs special attention. v. Hydro storage plant to be built to address peak shortages – Would be more reliable & cheaper than D. G. sets. Potential for Hydro Generation to be unleashed 23

Generation Addition - Suggestions v. Gas & oil based Power Plants to be set Generation Addition - Suggestions v. Gas & oil based Power Plants to be set up v. With assured fuel linkages & with long term sustainable pricing mechanism v. To be generally used for peaking purpose & as base load for major load centres v. Nuclear power is technically proven, however, fuel availability needs to be addressed. Target should be to establish about 15 -20 % of installed capacity in a period of 20 years. v. Generally located near load centres, of course taking into account safety issues on account of militancy, war etc. 24

Generation Addition - Suggestions v For commercial sustenance, grid design, operability & safety, it Generation Addition - Suggestions v For commercial sustenance, grid design, operability & safety, it is desirable to set up power plants with 85 to 90% of generation capacity on long term contract basis. The remaining 10 to 15 % to cater to market. This would enable : v. Avoid gaming v. Act as a catalyst to peg the prices for long term contracts v. Generate competition v. To cater to seasonal & day to day variations v. This would also serve the same purpose as 15% unallocated quota from central generating units v Load centre generation plants to the extent of 50 % for major & important cities - a must for quick start & stop to meet exigencies, grid stability etc. v With increased population of major cities it is even important to set up power plants at several locations to cater to exigencies 25

ENERGY CONSERVATION 26 ENERGY CONSERVATION 26

b. Energy Conservation v. Shall mitigate the gap between demand supply as well as b. Energy Conservation v. Shall mitigate the gap between demand supply as well as reduce environmental emissions v. Saving potential vadditional 5000 MW at end of X plan vadditional 4000 MW at end of XI plan vadditional 5500 MW at end of XII plan v. Regulatory & promotional roles v. Systematic & urgent action plan to make it a national movement 28

Security & Reliability v. Through : a) Transmission & Sub-transmission Network b) Grid Management Security & Reliability v. Through : a) Transmission & Sub-transmission Network b) Grid Management v Load Despatch & dedicated Communication facilities c) Distribution Network 29

TRANSMISSION & SUB-TRANSMISSION NETWORKS 30 TRANSMISSION & SUB-TRANSMISSION NETWORKS 30

TRANSMISSION & SUB-TRANSMISSION NETWORKS v. Investment in the Sector Electricity outlook 2003 published by TRANSMISSION & SUB-TRANSMISSION NETWORKS v. Investment in the Sector Electricity outlook 2003 published by International Energy Association (IEA) envisages an investment of about US $ 16 Trillion in Energy sector from 2003 -30 or US $ 568 billion / year. Out of this v US $ 10 Trillion in Power Sector (60%), out of this, v US $ 5. 5 Trillion in Transmission & Distribution (T&D) which is 55% of total investment in power sector 32

Present Status v. Priority to generation v 50: 50 investment in generation and T&D Present Status v. Priority to generation v 50: 50 investment in generation and T&D recommended, however, at present 72: 28 v. Popular belief that T&D will automatically develop if generation is established v. Almost similar thought process exists in developed and developing countries 33

Energy Resource Map v. Hydro potential in NER and upper part of NR v. Energy Resource Map v. Hydro potential in NER and upper part of NR v. Coal reserves mainly in ER v. For optimal utilisation of resources – strong National Grid 34

POWERGRID – The Central Transmission Utility v. Started Commercial operation in 1992 -93 with POWERGRID – The Central Transmission Utility v. Started Commercial operation in 1992 -93 with the mission of Establishment and operation of Regional & National Power Grid v. Carries 45% of Country’s generated electricity v. Transmission Network - 56, 317 Ckt. Kms. of EHV v. Sub-Stations – 95 v. Network availability - above 99. 7% 35

Challenges in setting up Transmission Networks and National Grid v Right of Way, Conservation Challenges in setting up Transmission Networks and National Grid v Right of Way, Conservation of forests, flora & fauna v Resettlement & Rehabilitation v Integrated Transmission System planning and selection of proper technology to mitigate above issues 36

Addressing the Right of Way Issues etc v Hybrid system comprising of HVDC & Addressing the Right of Way Issues etc v Hybrid system comprising of HVDC & EHVAC v v v Transmission System upto 800 k. V with multi Ckts. Or more Upgrading & Uprating of existing transmission corridors Extra High Towers with multi circuits to avoid deforestation and protection of wild life Compact Towers to reduce Right Of Way Use of fixed & variable Series Compensator (FACTS) High Temperature Conductors for increased Loading 37

Chicken Neck Area 38 Chicken Neck Area 38

MULTI CIRCUIT TOWER DOUBLE CIRCUIT TOWER ( 70 Mtr. High) ( 45 Mtr. High) MULTI CIRCUIT TOWER DOUBLE CIRCUIT TOWER ( 70 Mtr. High) ( 45 Mtr. High) 1 2 1 3 2 4 39

220 KV S/C Chukha-Birpara line upgraded with 400/220 KV multi-circuit line in Jaldapara Sanctuary 220 KV S/C Chukha-Birpara line upgraded with 400/220 KV multi-circuit line in Jaldapara Sanctuary without felling of single tree 40

Forest & Wild Life Protection 50 mtrs 9 -25 mtrs. 41 Forest & Wild Life Protection 50 mtrs 9 -25 mtrs. 41

140 meter tall tower 42 140 meter tall tower 42

800 k. V Normal Tower 800 k. V Compact Tower ROW – 85 mtrs 800 k. V Normal Tower 800 k. V Compact Tower ROW – 85 mtrs ROW – 64 mtrs 43

Proposed 400 k. V Compact Single pole tower at Delhi & Noida 44 Proposed 400 k. V Compact Single pole tower at Delhi & Noida 44

Benefits of Series Compensation Direct benefits v Saving in investment v Increase in capacity Benefits of Series Compensation Direct benefits v Saving in investment v Increase in capacity Indirect benefits v No additional corridor 45

Addressing resettlement & Rehabilitation Issues v Transmission Projects - Environmentally clean and non Polluting Addressing resettlement & Rehabilitation Issues v Transmission Projects - Environmentally clean and non Polluting v Not covered under Environment (Protection) act, 1986 except in two Districts i. e. Gurgaon and Alwar v Yet POWERGRID is the first PSU to develop Environmental and Social Policy & Procedures (ESPP) in 1998 and upgraded it in line with changes and International best practices in 2005 to pre-empt all possible Environment & Social issues through proper & timely management 46

PRINCIPLES OF ESPP Environmental v Avoidance, minimisation & mitigation of (Forest, National parks & PRINCIPLES OF ESPP Environmental v Avoidance, minimisation & mitigation of (Forest, National parks & Sanctuaries, Monuments etc. ) v Conservation & protection of natural resources v Efficient & safe technology practices Social v Avoidance, minimisation & mitigation in habituated area, tribal area through land management. v Public consultation v Health & safety v Progressive entitlements to Project Affected Person 47

Benefits of ESPP v Total Forest involvement reduced from 6% to 2% after implementation Benefits of ESPP v Total Forest involvement reduced from 6% to 2% after implementation of ESPP since 1998 v Timely project implementation without any rehabilitation and resettlement disputes. Land use pattern traversed in 27000 Ckt. Km (till 1998) Forest 2% 28% 6% Agricultural land Revenue land 64% Others 48

Integrated Transmission System Development - Suggestions v v Planning It needs a paradigm shift Integrated Transmission System Development - Suggestions v v Planning It needs a paradigm shift from our existing approach of v “N-1” redundancy criteria for the system to feed major cities, cluster of industries etc. , to v“N-2” where same voltage level exists/planned v“N-1” criteria for each voltage level where different voltage level exist / planned v For HVDC system, “N-1” criteria may continue to follow with redundancy in parallel AC network 49

Integrated Transmission System Development - Suggestions v Laying of high capacity EHV multi-circuit towers Integrated Transmission System Development - Suggestions v Laying of high capacity EHV multi-circuit towers near major load centres, forest areas and near cluster of generating stations (e. g Singrauli, Korba, Arunachal Pradesh etc. ) to address sustainable Right-of-Way issue v It is desirable to undertake upgradation/uprating of existing transmission lines through Hot line erection to utilise ROW v Establishment of GIS in cities, near major load centres/cluster of generating stations and/or replace existing S/s with GIS to address soaring prices of land 50

Integrated Transmission System Development - Suggestions Operation & Maintenance v Patrolling of transmission line Integrated Transmission System Development - Suggestions Operation & Maintenance v Patrolling of transmission line through Helicopter and thermovision scaning v Hot line washing through Helicopter v Design review of transformer 51

National Grid – A Continuing Process Development of National Grid on continual basis with National Grid – A Continuing Process Development of National Grid on continual basis with sufficient inter regional power transfer capacity is critical for long term sustenance of the sector Inter regional (National Grid) power transfer capacity could be achieved on following criteria : v. To cater to unallocated power (10 -15% of Central Sector Generation) and also 15% merchant share from IPPs/other generators v. To cater to 10% of Captive Power Projects surpluses which is equivalent to 2% of installed capacity v 5% extra capacity to take care of extreme seasonal variation viz. very cold/hot, heavy rains or natural calamities like flood, earthquake etc. Say Total 25 % National Grid capacity envisaged as – By 11 th Plan (2012) : 37, 000 MW By 12 th Plan (2017) : 50, 000 MW 52

Present National Grid Inter-regional Capacity 9, 500 MW By 2012 Inter-regional Capacity>37, 150 MW Present National Grid Inter-regional Capacity 9, 500 MW By 2012 Inter-regional Capacity>37, 150 MW National Grid’s Growth matching with Generation & Demand Generation Growth (GW) Inter-regional exchange • Invest Defd : USD 6 Bn Investment Requirement th Plan : US$1000 during 11 Billion Inter-regional capacity Generation: US$50 Billion Trans, Distr & RE : US$50 Billion 53

1 SUB TRANSMISSION 54 1 SUB TRANSMISSION 54

1 SUB TRANSMISSION v Commensurate development of Sub-transmission at 220 k. V/132 k. V/66/33 1 SUB TRANSMISSION v Commensurate development of Sub-transmission at 220 k. V/132 k. V/66/33 k. V networks is a must v However, Sub-transmission sector is a small entity – v. Not having enough fund as well as trained manpower v. Limited growth prospect and difficulty in commercial sustainability v. Least priority on O&M of system due to lack of fund etc 55

Transmission & Sub-Transmission Development - Suggestions v Development of HVDC/ 800 k. V/400 k. Transmission & Sub-Transmission Development - Suggestions v Development of HVDC/ 800 k. V/400 k. V network with CTU v 1000 k. V lines to supplement 765 k. V network to v v v economise on Right of Way for long term sustenance Uprate and upgrade existing transmission corridors to enhance their capacity in a big way Regional level Sub-transmission entities may be formed clubbing all the respective State’s sub-transmission assets (220 k. V/132 k. V/110/66/33 k. V) They would be responsible for network development and its O&M Chairman of each Regional Sub-transmission entity shall be on rotation basis from the participating States Central Govt. agencies to monitor the development and performance of these entities 56

Grid Management Load Despatch & Communication Facilities 57 Grid Management Load Despatch & Communication Facilities 57

Grid Management Crucial for effective management of the Grid NLDC ERLDC WRLDC NRLDC SRLDC Grid Management Crucial for effective management of the Grid NLDC ERLDC WRLDC NRLDC SRLDC NERLDC SLDC SUB LDC RTU RTU Hierarchical Diagram of 58

Grid Management v NLDC : Being set up by POWERGRID v RLDCs already set Grid Management v NLDC : Being set up by POWERGRID v RLDCs already set up and being managed by POWERGRID v State Load Despatch Centre (SLDC) backed up by sub state Load Despatch Centres already set up 59

Grid Management v Transparent communication exists between RLDCs and SLDCs/ Sub SLDCs v Similar Grid Management v Transparent communication exists between RLDCs and SLDCs/ Sub SLDCs v Similar transparency needed between SLDC, distributors and consumers v Transparency and effective communication leads to v. Increased awareness v. Commercialisation v. Economy 60

Grid Performance v Grid Disturbance v. No major Grid Disturbance in last 3½ years Grid Performance v Grid Disturbance v. No major Grid Disturbance in last 3½ years v. No. of Partial Grid disturbances reduced from sixties / v v v seventies to single digit Frequency v. Frequency excursions mostly in the operating band as specified in GRID CODE Voltage v. Improvement in voltage profile Inter-regional exchanges v. Increased from 8, 145 MUs (2000 -01) to 34, 800 MUs(2005 -06) v. Higher peak / comsumer Demand met from existing generating capacity 61

Grid Disturbances (Nos) 62 Grid Disturbances (Nos) 62

100. 00 90. 00 80. 00 % OF TIME 70. 00 60. 00 50. 100. 00 90. 00 80. 00 % OF TIME 70. 00 60. 00 50. 00 40. 00 30. 00 PRE ABT / ULDC 20. 00 POST ABT / ULDC 10. 00 1995 -96 1996 -97 1997 -98 1998 -99 1999 -00 2000 -01 2001 -02 2002 -03 2003 -04 2004 -05 2005 -06 YEAR Northern. Region Western Region Southern Region Eastern Region 63

TIME IN HRS ---> 23: 01 22: 01 21: 01 20: 01 19: 01 TIME IN HRS ---> 23: 01 22: 01 21: 01 20: 01 19: 01 18: 01 17: 01 16: 01 15: 01 14: 01 2005 13: 01 12: 01 11: 01 10: 01 9: 01 8: 01 7: 01 6: 01 5: 01 4: 01 3: 01 2: 01 1: 01 0: 01 VOLTAGE IN KV ---> COMPARISION OF BANGALORE VOLTAGE ON TYPICAL DAYS IN LAST FOUR YEARS 420 2003 400 380 2004 360 340 320 2002 300 64

MUs -- Inter Regional Exchange Year -- 65 MUs -- Inter Regional Exchange Year -- 65

Economy achieved through Inter Regional Exchange & effective Grid Management v In FY 2005 Economy achieved through Inter Regional Exchange & effective Grid Management v In FY 2005 -06, energy exchange of 34800 MU worth Rs. v 7000 Crore took place, which broadly translates to deferred investment of Rs. 27000 Crore, equivalent to setting up of 6800 MW power generation capacity. Enhanced utilization of un-harnessed capacity v. Rs. 13000 Crore worth of energy transacted through open market mechanism in 2005 -06. v. Saving of Rs. 1750 Crore achieved by backing down expensive liquid fuel generation v. Southern Region started conserving water to meet peak demand v. Kadamparai & Srisailam Hydro Power Plants started operation in pumped storage mode to meet peak 66 demand

Grid Management – Future Perspective v Development of intelligent Grid with State-of-the. Art features Grid Management – Future Perspective v Development of intelligent Grid with State-of-the. Art features like v. Wide Area Management v. Adoptive islanding v. Self healing Grids v. Probabilistic Assessment, Dynamic Stability Assessment and Voltage Stability Assessment (VSA) technique etc. SLDCs to be managed by POWERGRID 67

Inter-National Exchanges 68 Inter-National Exchanges 68

International Grid Interconnections - Benefits v Economy in generation v. Advantage from time diversity International Grid Interconnections - Benefits v Economy in generation v. Advantage from time diversity v. Reduction in operation cost through improved v v v resource management Reduction in investment for spinning reserves Improved reliability, stability and efficiency Reduced length of transmission line v. Reduction in capital cost v. Reduction in losses Facilitate clean development - reduced GHG emission Better hydro-thermal mix 69

South Asian Countries Around India China Nepal Bhutan India Bangladesh 70 South Asian Countries Around India China Nepal Bhutan India Bangladesh 70

India – Bhutan Grid Interconnection – An Experience v Chukha HEP (4 x 84 India – Bhutan Grid Interconnection – An Experience v Chukha HEP (4 x 84 MW), Bhutan connected with Indian system v Kurichu HEP (4 x 15 MW) of Bhutan connected to Indian Grid v 132 k. V Geylegphug Salakati v Tala HEP(1020 MW) to be interconnected with Indian grid by 2006 71

Advantages of India – Bhutan Grid Interconnection v Bhutan v. Economic benefit - about Advantages of India – Bhutan Grid Interconnection v Bhutan v. Economic benefit - about US$ 58 million annually through exchange of Chukha & Kurichu Power v India v. Access to clean power v. Improved grid controllability and stability 72

India – Nepal Grid Interconnection v Presently 16 nos. links at 132/33/11 k. V India – Nepal Grid Interconnection v Presently 16 nos. links at 132/33/11 k. V voltage level v About 50 MW power being exchanged v Net export to Nepal (about 10% of demand of Nepal met v through imports from India) Supply of 70 MU/annum from Tanakpur (India) to Nepal 73

Interconnection – Future Scope v More hydro projects envisaged to come up in Bhutan Interconnection – Future Scope v More hydro projects envisaged to come up in Bhutan v. Punatsangechu - II v. Mangdechu v. Sankosh : : 1000 MW 600 MW 4060 MW v High Capacity HVDC Transmission System envisaged 74

Interconnection – Future Scope. . Contd v v India - Nepal v. Indo-Nepal Power Interconnection – Future Scope. . Contd v v India - Nepal v. Indo-Nepal Power Exchange Committee recommended for construction additional 132 k. V lines v Anandnagar (India - (Butwal (Nepal ( v Motihari (India( - Birganj Nepal v Sitamarhi (India) – Dhalkebar (Nepal( v. Large potential projects being considered for development and export of power to India v West Seti HEP 750 MW v Arun HEP 685 MW v Pancheshwar HEP 6, 500 MW India – Sri Lanka v. Proposal for interconnection of Sri Lanka with Southern Regional Grid of India has been under discussion 75

Interconnection – Future Scope. . Contd v India – Myanmar v. Tamanthi HEP in Interconnection – Future Scope. . Contd v India – Myanmar v. Tamanthi HEP in Myanmar – 2300 MW v India Bangladesh v. East Zone of Bangladesh (generation dominated) shares border with the NER of India v Bangladesh can supply power to NER India v. West Zone of Bangladesh (load dominated) shares border with the Eastern Region of India v India can supply power to Western Bangladesh India may consider expeditious solutions to expedite such exchanges 76

DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS 77 DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS 77

Distribution & Rural Electrification v Issues ailing the distribution system are: v. Inadequate infrastructure Distribution & Rural Electrification v Issues ailing the distribution system are: v. Inadequate infrastructure v. Age old distribution system, both in cities and villages v. Almost nonexistent system of maintenance of infrastructure v. Non recovery of full tariff v. Real time monitoring and communication with consumers missing v. Least priority to Rural Areas v Even though 75% of the economy is rural based – vso as the political mass 78

Distribution & Rural Electrification v To improve the same, Go. I has taken following Distribution & Rural Electrification v To improve the same, Go. I has taken following steps : v. For towns, Accelerated Power development & Reforms v v v Programme (APDRP) v. For rural areas, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vikas Yojana (RGGVY) APDRP: works worth Rs. 17, 612 Cr. undertaken RGGVY: works worth Rs. 16, 000 Cr. undertaken These schemes are being implemented by : v. State Electricity Boards and Central PSUs v. CPSUs on behalf of State Electricity Boards 79

Distribution & Rural Electrification v To address all the above issues, following are suggested Distribution & Rural Electrification v To address all the above issues, following are suggested : v. A. Segregate Rural from Urban Distribution System v. B. Separation of Wire from Supply 80

A. Segregation of Urban and Rural Distribution System Central / State Transmission 800/400 KV A. Segregation of Urban and Rural Distribution System Central / State Transmission 800/400 KV State Sub- Transmission / Private Distribution 220/132 / 66 KV State / Central Rural Electrification agency 33/11 KV Urban Electricity Infrastructure. Privatise/State Govt. 33/11 KV 81

A. Segregation of Urban and Rural Distribution System - Advantages A 1. URBAN AREAS A. Segregation of Urban and Rural Distribution System - Advantages A 1. URBAN AREAS v These areas become commercially attractive due to v. Limited coverage area v. Less capital requirement v. Manageable wire infrastructure both during installation and operation v. Fair control on theft v Almost ‘Nil’ subsidies involved v Much higher consumption (70 – 75%) v Therefore, private investment could be successfully brought in urban areas. 82

A. Segregation of Urban and Rural Distribution System - Advantages A 2. RURAL AREAS A. Segregation of Urban and Rural Distribution System - Advantages A 2. RURAL AREAS v Rural Area gets due priority v Following issues associated with Rural Areas get focused attention v. Remote location v. Meager consumption thus low returns v. Wide spread area resulting in high installation cost v. High subsidies v Thus, Infrastructure Development in rural v areas may have to continue with the v Government. 83

B. Separation of Wire Business & Supply - Urban v X. Wire Business - B. Separation of Wire Business & Supply - Urban v X. Wire Business - Setting up of infrastructure up to Distribution Transformer (33/11/0. 4 k. V) and its O&M May be Privatised/continued with State Government v Y. Supply Business – Supply to end consumers from Distribution Transformers (11/0. 4 k. V) including Metering, Billing and Collection v. It is a fit case to be offered to Private entity(s)/ local bodies / Franchisees etc. 84

B. Separation of Wire Business & Supply - Urban Block level Wire business begins B. Separation of Wire Business & Supply - Urban Block level Wire business begins here 132/66 KV STATE / PRIVATE Distribution Transformer 33/11/0. 4 KV Wire business ends here Supply business begins here Domestic Commercial & Industry PRIVATE Metering Billing Collection 85

B. Separation of Wire Business & Supply - Rural WIRE BUSINESS: Two models are B. Separation of Wire Business & Supply - Rural WIRE BUSINESS: Two models are suggested v. Model I - Development of Rural electricity infrastructure and O&M by the State v 90% grant to be provided for developing infrastructure v O&M cost to be borne by the State v A central agency to oversee the establishment of wire from concept to commissioning, its O&M and future expansion. v. Model II – A Central Agency for establishment and O&M of Rural electricity infrastructure v 100% grant by Go. I for establishing wire v O&M of wires, about 2. 5 -3% of establishment cost, may be given as grant by Go. I 86

B. Separation of Wire Business & Supply - Rural v SUPPLY BUSINESSv. Setting up B. Separation of Wire Business & Supply - Rural v SUPPLY BUSINESSv. Setting up of supply network from Distribution Transformer (11/0. 4 k. V) of a village to end consumers v. Installation of Meters, Billing and Collection v. May be offered to Local bodies / Panchayats / Franchaisess etc. v. BPL consumers to be clubbed into a number of clusters with single meter feeding to each cluster 87

B. Separation of Wire Business & Supply - Urban Wire business begins here Block B. Separation of Wire Business & Supply - Urban Wire business begins here Block level 132/66 KV STATE / Central Agency Distribution Transformer 33/11/0. 4 KV Wire business ends here Single Phase Supply business begins here Three Phase PRIVATE BPL Domestic Metering Agriculture Billing Industry Collection 88

Advantages of Separation of Wire & Supply v Single agency for development of wire Advantages of Separation of Wire & Supply v Single agency for development of wire network from v v v v concept to commissioning, its operation & maintenance and future expansion Reliability and availability of “wire system” assured Open access at the lowest level feasible Economic viability of the wire agency Supply agency not burdened with infrastructure development and its O&M Supply agency can disconnect nonpaying customers Self monitored theft control as Consumer becomes custodian of the local facilities Enable clear visibility of Go. I grant through the pricing of cost to serve various categories of consumers 89

Employees – A Stake Holder Money, being one of the important motivating factor, Government Employees – A Stake Holder Money, being one of the important motivating factor, Government & Private Companies have been making earnest attempt to address the same v Suggestion v. To bring in efficiency in Power Sector, which is presently experiencing shortage of suitable manpower, we may consider to form Joint Venture companies with the employees v. To begin with, small projects may be taken up v. Such a joint Venture company be managed by an Independent Board of Directors for transparency. 90

Summarising v v v v Increase in Generation – more reliance on Nuclear & Summarising v v v v Increase in Generation – more reliance on Nuclear & Hydro Imported fuel to meet limited requirements Hydro Authority with full responsibility Expeditious Harnessing of non-conventional energy resources Development of strong National Grid to continue Development of HVDC / 800 k. V / 400 k. V network with CTU Formation of Regional level Sub-transmission entities clubbing all the respective State’s sub-transmission assets (220 k. V/132 k. V/110/66/33 k. V) Isolation of Rural Electrification Infrastructure from Urban areas and separation of wire business from supply to shield the wire business from the risk of collection, making it a viable entity 91

Summarising v Formation of a central agency for establishment / v v v oversee Summarising v Formation of a central agency for establishment / v v v oversee and O&M of Rural electricity infrastructure Sustenance through people --Right people at the right place Start dialogue with neighbouring countries for power exchange Needs paradigm shift from present Trans. planning approach especially for system feeding to major cities, cluster of major industries to v“N-2” where same voltage level exists/planned v“N-1” criteria for each voltage level where different voltage level exists/planned 92

Thank You 93 Thank You 93

Through : a) Transmission & Sub-transmission Network b) Grid Management Security & Reliability Load Through : a) Transmission & Sub-transmission Network b) Grid Management Security & Reliability Load Despatch & dedicated Communication facilities c) Distribution Network 94

TRANSMISSION & SUBTRANSMISSION NETWORKS 95 TRANSMISSION & SUBTRANSMISSION NETWORKS 95

A. Segregation of Urban & Rural Distribution - Advantages A 2. RURAL AREAS • A. Segregation of Urban & Rural Distribution - Advantages A 2. RURAL AREAS • Rural Area gets due priority • Following issues associated with Rural Areas get focused attention § Remote location § Meager consumption thus low returns § Wide spread area resulting in high installation cost § High subsidies Thus, Infrastructure Development in rural areas may have to continue with the Government. 96

97 97

Rs. 1. 75 A. Generation B. Central / state Transmission, 800/400/220/132/66 KV B = Rs. 1. 75 A. Generation B. Central / state Transmission, 800/400/220/132/66 KV B = Rs. 0. 26 Rural Electricity Infrastructure- Rs. 1. 75+0. 26=Rs. 2. 01 Urban Electricity Infrastructure. Privatise/State Govt. 98

Actual Cost C = Rs. 1. 09 Village level 11/0. 4 KV Wire business Actual Cost C = Rs. 1. 09 Village level 11/0. 4 KV Wire business ends here D = Rs. 0. 53 Single Phase Cost to Serve Supply business begins here Three Phase A+B+C+D= Rs. 2. 01+1. 09+0. 53=3. 63 BPL Domestic Agriculture Commercial & Industry 99

Through RGGVY C = Rs. 0. 28 Village level 11/0. 4 KV Wire business Through RGGVY C = Rs. 0. 28 Village level 11/0. 4 KV Wire business ends here D = Rs. 0. 25 Single Phase BPL Cost to Serve A+B+C+D= Rs. 2. 01+0. 28+0. 25=2. 54 Domestic Agriculture Supply business begins here Three Phase Commercial & Industry 100

Rural Electricity Infrastructure Price = Say Rs. 1. 3 per Unit – does not Rural Electricity Infrastructure Price = Say Rs. 1. 3 per Unit – does not include cost of rural infrastructure (Rs. 1. 09 per unit) – a visible subsidy by Go. I grant Supply arrangement Agriculture Domestic Price = Subsidsed Cost, Say Rs. 2. 54 per Unit Industrial+ Commercial Price = Actual Cost, Say Rs. 3. 63 per Unit Below Poverty Level (BPL) • Single meter for cluster of houses with Rationing of supply (limited energy) • Cross subsidy from Industrial consumers 101

Through : a) Transmission & Sub-transmission Network b) Grid Management Security & Reliability Load Through : a) Transmission & Sub-transmission Network b) Grid Management Security & Reliability Load Despatch & dedicated Communication facilities c) Distribution Network 102

TRANSMISSION & SUBTRANSMISSION NETWORKS 103 TRANSMISSION & SUBTRANSMISSION NETWORKS 103

A. Segregation of Urban & Rural Distribution - Advantages A 2. RURAL AREAS • A. Segregation of Urban & Rural Distribution - Advantages A 2. RURAL AREAS • Rural Area gets due priority • Following issues associated with Rural Areas get focused attention § Remote location § Meager consumption thus low returns § Wide spread area resulting in high installation cost § High subsidies Thus, Infrastructure Development in rural areas may have to continue with the Government. 104

 India – Dominated by Coal Bangladesh Bhutan Nepal – High dependence on hydro India – Dominated by Coal Bangladesh Bhutan Nepal – High dependence on hydro Pakistan Sri – Dominated by natural gas – Largely petroleum and natural gas Lanka – Dependence on petroleum 105

Opportunities for Interconnection Evolving Open Electricity market Countries with limited resources would be benefited, Opportunities for Interconnection Evolving Open Electricity market Countries with limited resources would be benefited, e. g. Sri Lanka Thermal resources – cheaper to transport in electricity form; Hydro resources – can only be transported in electricity form Huge hydro Resources of Bhutan can be effectively utilised 106

 Efficiency Gain A large portion of losses beyond DT is taken care by Efficiency Gain A large portion of losses beyond DT is taken care by supplier/trader Reduction in manpower of the “wire” company as metering at 11 KV level only Metering, Billing and Collection by supplier/trader A cluster of BPL consumers shall be provided supply from a single meter 107