- Количество слайдов: 37
1. A Two-Party Stalemate
2. Intense Voter Loyalty to the Two Major Political Parties
3. Well-Defined Voting Blocs Democratic Bloc « White southerners (preservation of white supremacy) « Catholics « Recent immigrants (esp. Jews) « Urban working poor (pro-labor) « Most farmers Republican Bloc « Northern whites (pro-business) « African Americans « Northern Protestants « Old WASPs (support for anti-immigrant laws) « Most of the middle class
Opposing Politic Parties • Democrats • Republican • Appeal to less • Appeal to industrialists, privileged urban bankers, eastern farmers workers, laborers, • Want $ backed by gold southern planters, (keep inflation down); western farmers high tariffs, pensions to • Want increase of $ veterans; gov’t aid to supply; low tariffs; high RRs; limits on farm prices; less gov’t immigration aid to business; less • Enforcement of blue laws: blue laws prohibit activities seen as immoral
4. Very Laissez Faire Federal Govt. « From 1870 -1900 Govt. did very little domestically. « Main duties of the federal govt. : Ø Deliver the mail. Ø Maintain a national military. Ø Collect taxes & tariffs. Ø Conduct a foreign policy. « Exception administer the annual Civil War veterans’ pension.
5. The Presidency as a Symbolic Office « Party bosses ruled. « Presidents should avoid offending any factions within their own party. « The President just doled out federal jobs. Senator Roscoe Conkling Ø 1865 53, 000 people worked for the federal govt. Ø 1890 166, 000 “ “ “
1868 Presidential Election
President Ulysses S. Grant
Grant Administration Scandals « Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption. * Credit Mobilier Scandal: dummy RR company w/ Union Pacific RR that inflated prices * Whiskey Ring: congressmen bribed by distillers to get tax stamps cheap * The “Indian Ring. ”: bribes from dishonest companies to trade on Indian reservations
The Tweed Ring in NYC William Marcy Tweed (notorious head of Tammany Hall’s political machine) [Thomas Nast crusading cartoonist/reporter]
The Election of 1872 « Rumors of corruption during Grant’s first term discredits Republicans. « Horace Greeley runs as a Democrat/Liberal Republican candidate. « Greeley attacked as a fool and a crank. « Greeley died on November 29, 1872!
1872 Presidential Election
The Panic of 1873 « It raises “the money question. ” * * « 1876 Greenback Party formed & makes gains in congressional races The “Crime of ’ 73’! debtors seek inflationary monetary policy by continuing circulation of greenbacks. creditors, intellectuals support hard money. « 1875 Resumption Act of 1875 (Specie Redemption Act. ) -U. S. Treasury prepared to resume the redemption of legal tender notes in specie (gold) as of January 1, 1879 -reduce the number of greenbacks in circulation “contraction” -all "paper coins" (notes with denominations less than one dollar) be removed from circulation and be replaced with silver coins.
And They Say He Wants a Third Term
1880 Presidential Election: Republicans Half Breeds Stalwarts Sen. James G. Blaine (Maine) compromise James A. Garfield Sen. Roscoe Conkling (New York) Chester A. Arthur (VP)
1880 Presidential Election
1881: Garfield Assassinated! *Death causes reexamination of the spoils system Charles J. Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!
Pendleton Act (1883) « Civil Service Act. « The “Magna Carta” of civil service reform. « 1883 14, 000 out of 117, 000 federal govt. jobs became civil service exam positions. « 1900 100, 000 out of 200, 000 civil service federal govt. jobs.
Republican “Mugwumps” « Reformers who wouldn’t re-nominate Chester A. Arthur. (or support James Blaine) « Reform to them create a disinterested, impartial govt. run by an educated elite like themselves. « Social Darwinists. « Laissez faire government to them: Ø Favoritism & the spoils system seen as govt. intervention in society. Ø Their target was political corruption, not social or economic reform!
1884 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland * (DEM) James Blaine (REP)
A Dirty Campaign Ma, Ma…where’s my pa? He’s going to the White House, ha… ha…!
1884 Presidential Election
Cleveland’s First Term « The “Veto Governor” from New York. « First Democratic elected since 1856. « A public office is a public trust! « His laissez-faire presidency: Ø Opposed bills to assist the poor as well as the rich. (1887 Texas Seed Billdenied!) Ø Vetoed over 200 special pension bills for Civil War veterans!
The Tariff Issue « After the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to protect new US industries. « Big business wanted to continue this; consumers did not. « 1885 tariffs earned the US $100 mil. in surplus! « Lower Tariff 1887 - hurts factories and economy « Tariffs became a major issue in the 1888 presidential election.
1888 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland (DEM) Benjamin Harrison * (REP)
Coming Out for Harrison
1888 Presidential Election
Changing Public Opinion « Americans wanted the federal govt. to deal with growing soc. & eco. problems & to curb the power of the trusts: Ø Interstate Commerce Act – 1887: attempt to regulate RRs; sought to prevent monopolies Ø Sherman Antitrust Act – 1890: outlawed trusts that restricted trade between states Ø Mc. Kinley Tariff – 1890 § Based on theory that prosperity flowed directly from protectionism. § Increased already high rates to 48. 4% Ø Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890 (even Mc. Kinley lost his House seat!).
1892 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland again!* (DEM) Benjamin Harrison (REP)
1892 Presidential Election
Cleveland Loses Support Fast! « The only President to serve two nonconsecutive terms. « Blamed for the 1893 Panic. (Overspeculation, overbuilding, ag depression, depression in Europe) « Defended the gold standard. « Used federal troops in the 1894 Pullman strike. « Refused to sign the Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894: set to lower tariffs and tax incomes over $4000 by 2% « Repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 (treasury had to buy 4. 5 mil in silver a mth; in exchange Westerns would support higher tariff
Gilded Age Presidents in a Nutshell The Forgettable “Presidents”
• 18 th-Ulysses S Grant (1869 -1877) – Political Corruption • Credit Mobilier Scandal – Panic of 1873 • 19 th-Rutherford B. Hayes (18771881) – Electoral Count Act (Compromise of 1877) – Jim Crow Laws • 20 th-James A. Garfield (1881) – Assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau on September 19, 1881 (due to his reform of Spoils System)
• 21 st-Chester Arthur (1881 -1885) – Before taking office had benefited from the system • In office-works for reform – Passes Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883 • Classify gov’t jobs and tests fitness for th • 22 nd and 24 -Grover Cleveland (18851889, 1893 -1897) • Supports RR, business (laissez-faire) – In 2 nd term manages to turn many voters to Democratic party- sent troops to break up Pullman strike – Panic of 1893
• 23 rd-Benjamin Harrison (1889 -1893) • Signed Sherman Anti-Trust Act • Approves high tariffs – Hurts economy; dips too deep into treasury to pay pensions • 25 th-William Mc. Kinley (1897 -1901) • Oversees tariff bill and stronger gold standard • Imperialist (more on this later!) • Society begins climb out of depression – assassinated by an anarchist, September 6 th, 1901