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2 Semantic Web Service Tutorial HICSS 39 Katia Sycara Michael Stollberg Stefania Galizia Massimo 2 Semantic Web Service Tutorial HICSS 39 Katia Sycara Michael Stollberg Stefania Galizia Massimo Paolucci Matthew Moran Barry Norton Michal Zaremba Liliana Cabral Mick Kerrigan John Domingue Emilia Cimpian Carnegie Mellon University

3 Agenda • Part I: Introduction to Semantic Web Services 09. 00 – 09. 3 Agenda • Part I: Introduction to Semantic Web Services 09. 00 – 09. 30 • Part II: SWS Description Frameworks 09. 30 – 12. 00 – OWL-S coffee break 10. 15 – 10. 45 – WSMO lunch 12. 00 – 01. 00 • Part III: SWS Techniques and Systems 01. 00 – 01. 45 – Discovery, Composition, Invocation, Mediation – OWL-S IDE, WSMX, IRS • Part IV: Hands-On Session – Tools presentation – OWL-S IDE, WSMX 01. 45 – 04. 00 coffee break 02. 15 – 02. 45 Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

4 PART I: Introduction to Semantic Web Services Michael Stollberg Semantic Web Services, HICSS 4 PART I: Introduction to Semantic Web Services Michael Stollberg Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

Contents • The vision of the Semantic Web • Ontologies as the basic building Contents • The vision of the Semantic Web • Ontologies as the basic building block • Current Web Service Technologies • Vision and Challenges for Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 5

6 The Vision – 500 million users – more than 3 billion pages Static 6 The Vision – 500 million users – more than 3 billion pages Static WWW URI, HTML, HTTP Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

7 The Vision Serious Problems in information • • • Static finding extraction representation 7 The Vision Serious Problems in information • • • Static finding extraction representation interpretation maintenance WWW Semantic Web URI, HTML, HTTP RDF, RDF(S), OWL Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

8 The Vision Dynamic Static Web Services UDDI, WSDL, SOAP bringing the computer back 8 The Vision Dynamic Static Web Services UDDI, WSDL, SOAP bringing the computer back as a device for computation WWW Semantic Web URI, HTML, HTTP RDF, RDF(S), OWL Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

9 The Vision bringing the web to its full potential Dynamic Static UDDI, WSDL, 9 The Vision bringing the web to its full potential Dynamic Static UDDI, WSDL, SOAP Semantic Web Services WWW Semantic Web URI, HTML, HTTP RDF, RDF(S), OWL Web Services Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

10 The Semantic Web • the next generation of the WWW • information has 10 The Semantic Web • the next generation of the WWW • information has machine-processable and machine-understandable semantics • not a separate Web but an augmentation of the current one • ontologies as base technology Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

11 Ontology Definition unambiguous terminology definitions conceptual model of a domain (ontological theory) formal, 11 Ontology Definition unambiguous terminology definitions conceptual model of a domain (ontological theory) formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization machine-readability with computational semantics commonly accepted understanding Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

12 Ontology Example name Concept conceptual entity of the domain Property relationship between concepts 12 Ontology Example name Concept conceptual entity of the domain Property relationship between concepts or properties coherency description between Concepts / Properties / Relations via logical expressions research field is. A – hierarchy (taxonomy) Student Professor attends Relation Axiom Person student no. attribute describing a concept email holds Lecture lecture no. topic holds(Professor, Lecture) => Lecture. topic = Professor. research. Field Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

13 Ontology Technology To make the Semantic Web working we need: • Ontology Languages: 13 Ontology Technology To make the Semantic Web working we need: • Ontology Languages: – expressivity – reasoning support – web compliance • Ontology Reasoning: – large scale knowledge handling – fault-tolerant – stable & scalable inference machines • Ontology Management Techniques: – editing and browsing – storage and retrieval – versioning and evolution Support • Ontology Integration Techniques: – ontology mapping, alignment, merging – semantic interoperability determination Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

14 Web Services • loosely coupled, reusable components • encapsulate discrete functionality • distributed 14 Web Services • loosely coupled, reusable components • encapsulate discrete functionality • distributed • programmatically accessible over standard internet protocols • add new level of functionality on top of the current web => base technology for service oriented architectures (SOA) on the Web Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

15 The Promise of Web Services web-based SOA as new system design paradigm Semantic 15 The Promise of Web Services web-based SOA as new system design paradigm Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

16 WSDL • Web Service Description Language • W 3 C effort, WSDL 2 16 WSDL • Web Service Description Language • W 3 C effort, WSDL 2 final specification phase describes interface for consuming a Web Service: - Interface: operations (in- & output) - Access (protocol binding) - Endpoint (location of service) Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

17 UDDI • Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration Protocol • OASIS driven standardization effort 17 UDDI • Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration Protocol • OASIS driven standardization effort Registry for Web Services: - provider - service information - technical access Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

18 SOAP • Simple Object Access Protocol • W 3 C Recommendation XML data 18 SOAP • Simple Object Access Protocol • W 3 C Recommendation XML data transport: - sender / receiver - protocol binding - communication aspects - content Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

19 Lackings of WS Technology • current technologies allow usage of Web Services • 19 Lackings of WS Technology • current technologies allow usage of Web Services • but: – only syntactical information descriptions – syntactic support for discovery, composition and execution => Web Service usability, usage, and integration needs to be inspected manually – no semantically marked up content / services – no support for the Semantic Web => current Web Service Technology Stack failed to realize the promise of Web Services Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

20 Semantic Web Services Semantic Web Technology • allow machine supported data interpretation • 20 Semantic Web Services Semantic Web Technology • allow machine supported data interpretation • ontologies as data model + Web Service Technology automated discovery, selection, composition, and web-based execution of services => Semantic Web Services as integrated solution for realizing the vision of the next generation of the Web Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

21 Semantic Web Services • define exhaustive description frameworks for describing Web Services and 21 Semantic Web Services • define exhaustive description frameworks for describing Web Services and related aspects (Web Service Description Ontologies) • support ontologies as underlying data model to allow machine supported Web data interpretation (Semantic Web aspect) • define semantically driven technologies for automation of the Web Service usage process (Web Service aspect) Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

22 Web Service Usage Process 1. Deployment 2. Discovery 3. Composition 4. Selection 5. 22 Web Service Usage Process 1. Deployment 2. Discovery 3. Composition 4. Selection 5. Mediation 6. Execution create & publish Web service description determine usable services for a request combine services to achieve a goal choose most appropriate service among the available ones solve mismatches (data, protocol, process) that hamper interoperation invoke Web services following programmatic conventions Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

23 Web Service Execution Support • Monitoring control the execution process • Compensation provide 23 Web Service Execution Support • Monitoring control the execution process • Compensation provide transactional support and undo or mitigate unwanted effects • Replacement facilitate the substitution of services by equivalent ones • Auditing verify that service execution occurred in the expected way Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

24 PART II: Semantic Web Service Ontologies Katia Sycara Michael Stollberg Semantic Web Services, 24 PART II: Semantic Web Service Ontologies Katia Sycara Michael Stollberg Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

25 Contents • OWL-S – Upper Ontology – Service Profile – Process Model – 25 Contents • OWL-S – Upper Ontology – Service Profile – Process Model – Service Grounding • WSMO – WSMO top level notions – Choreography and Orchestration – Mediation • Differences and Commonalities Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

26 OWL-S Katia Sycara Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 26 OWL-S Katia Sycara Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

27 OWL-S Ontology • OWL-S is an OWL ontology to describe Web services • 27 OWL-S Ontology • OWL-S is an OWL ontology to describe Web services • OWL-S leverages on OWL to – Support capability based discovery of Web services – Support automatic composition of Web Services – Support automatic invocation of Web services Complete do not compete – OWL-S does not aim to replace the Web services standards rather OWL-S attempts to provide a semantic layer • OWL-S relies on WSDL for Web service invocation (see Grounding) • OWL-s Expands UDDI for Web service discovery (OWL-S/UDDI mapping) Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

28 OWL-S Upper Ontology • Capability specification • General features of the Service • 28 OWL-S Upper Ontology • Capability specification • General features of the Service • Quality of Service • Classification in Service taxonomies • Mapping to WSDL • communication protocol (RPC, HTTP, …) • marshalling/serialization • transformation to and from XSD to OWL • Control flow of the service • Black/Grey/Glass Box view • Protocol Specification • Abstract Messages Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

29 Service Profiles Service Profile – Presented by a service. – Represents what the 29 Service Profiles Service Profile – Presented by a service. – Represents what the service provides – Two main uses: 1. Advertisements of Web Services capabilities 2. Request of Web services with a given set of capabilities Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

30 OWL-S Profile in a Nutshell • Describes Web service – What capabilities it 30 OWL-S Profile in a Nutshell • Describes Web service – What capabilities it provides: • What transformation the service computes • Type of service and products – General features such as • Agent providing the service • Security requirements • Quality guarantees of service • Primary role: to assist discovery – Allows capability based search – Allows selection based on requirements of the requester • Profile does not specify use/invocation Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

OWL-S Service Profile Capability Description • • • Preconditions – Set of conditions that OWL-S Service Profile Capability Description • • • Preconditions – Set of conditions that should hold prior to service invocation Inputs – Set of necessary inputs that the requester should provide to invoke the service Outputs – Results that the requester should expect after interaction with the service provider is completed Effects – Set of statements that should hold true if the service is invoked successfully. Service type – What kind of service is provided (eg selling vs distribution) • Product – Product associated with the service (eg travel vs books vs auto parts) Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 31

OWL-S Service Profile Additional Properties • Security Parameters – Specify the security capabilities of OWL-S Service Profile Additional Properties • Security Parameters – Specify the security capabilities of a Web service (eg support X 509 Encryption) – Specify the security requirements of a Web service (eg a client should be able to provide X 509 Encryption) • Quality rating – What level of service quality does the Web service provide? • Description with standard business taxonomies – How would the service be classified in standard taxonomies such as UNSPSC or NAICS? This is not a closed set, new properties can be added using existing ontologies Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 32

33 Process Model • Process Model – Describes how a service works: internal processes 33 Process Model • Process Model – Describes how a service works: internal processes of the service – Specifies service interaction protocol – Specifies abstract messages: ontological type of information transmitted • Facilitates – Web service invocation – Composition of Web services – Monitoring of interaction Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

34 Viewpoints of Process Model • Three viewpoints of a Web service – Glass 34 Viewpoints of Process Model • Three viewpoints of a Web service – Glass Box: • The Web service reveals all its internal structure • Which parts of the service it performs in-house, which one it subcontracts, etc – Black Box: • The Web service model does not reveal anything about the internal working of the service • It just specifies what data it gathers and what data it sends back – Grey Box: • The Web service selectively hides some parts of its Process Model, while it publicizes others Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

35 Definition of Process • A Process represents a transformation (function). It is characterized 35 Definition of Process • A Process represents a transformation (function). It is characterized by four parameters – Inputs: the inputs that the process requires – Preconditions: the conditions that are required for the process to run correctly – Outputs: the information that results from (and is returned from) the execution of the process – Results: a process may have different outcomes depending on some condition • Condition: under what condition the result occurs • Constraints on Outputs • Effects: real world changes resulting from the execution of the process Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

Motivation for Results • Processes may terminate in exceptional states: – The credit company Motivation for Results • Processes may terminate in exceptional states: – The credit company may fail to charge the credit card – The book may be out of stock – The deliver of the goods may fail • Results support modeling of non-deterministic outcomes of Web services – The condition specifies when an outcome is generated – Each outcome is characterized by • a set of constraints on outputs • a set of effects Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 36

37 Example of Process Inputs / Outputs Precondition correct. Login. Info(Acc. Name, Password) Condition Result Output Constraints logged. In(Acc. Name, Password) Effect Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

38 Ontology of Processes Process Atomic Invokable bound to grounding Simple Provides abstraction, encapsulation 38 Ontology of Processes Process Atomic Invokable bound to grounding Simple Provides abstraction, encapsulation etc. Composite Defines a workflow composed of process performs Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

39 Process Model Organization • Process Model is described as a tree structure – 39 Process Model Organization • Process Model is described as a tree structure – Composite processes are internal nodes – Simple and Atomic Processes are the leaves • Simple processes represent an abstraction – Placeholders of processes that aren’t specified – Or that may be expressed in many different ways • Atomic Processes correspond to the basic actions that the Web service performs – Hide the details of how the process is implemented – Correspond to WSDL operations Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

40 Composite Processes • Composite Processes specify how processes work together to compute a 40 Composite Processes • Composite Processes specify how processes work together to compute a complex function • Composite processes define 1. Control Flow Specify the temporal relations between the executions of the different sub-processes 2. Data Flow Specify how the data produced by one process is transferred to another process Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

41 Example of Composite Process Sequence Airline Book. Flight Control Flow Links Flight Specify 41 Example of Composite Process Sequence Airline Book. Flight Control Flow Links Flight Specify order of execution Data-Flow Links Specify transfer of data Perform Airline Depart Arrive Get Flights Select Flight Perform statements Specify the execution of a process Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 Flight

42 Perform Construct • Perform provides invocation mechanism – Specify context of process execution 42 Perform Construct • Perform provides invocation mechanism – Specify context of process execution • input data flow • hooks for output data flow • Distinction between definition and invocation of a process – Definition specifies the process’ I/P/R – Perform specify when the process is invoked and with what parameters Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

43 Control Flow • Processes can be chained to form a workflow • OWL-S 43 Control Flow • Processes can be chained to form a workflow • OWL-S supports the following control flow constructs – Sequence/Any-Order: represents a list of processes that are executed in sequence or arbitrary order – Conditionals: if-then-else statements – Loops: while and repeat-until statements – Multithreading and synchronization: split process in multiple threads, and rendezvous (joint) points – Non-deterministic choices: (arbitrarily) select one process of a set Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

44 Data Flow Dataflow allows information that is transferred from process to process. Output 44 Data Flow Dataflow allows information that is transferred from process to process. Output Input: The information produced by one process is transferred to another in the same control construct Input: The information received by a composite process is transferred to the sub-processes Output: The information produced by a subprocess is transferred to a super -process Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

45 Process Model: take home lesson • Service Model describes – Set of processes 45 Process Model: take home lesson • Service Model describes – Set of processes that define the operations performed by the Web service – Control flow describing the temporal flow of processes – Data flow describing the transfer of information between sub-processes Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

46 Service Grounding • • Service Grounding – Provides a specification of service access 46 Service Grounding • • Service Grounding – Provides a specification of service access information. – Service Model + Grounding give everything needed for using the service – Builds upon WSDL to define message structure and physical binding layer Specifies: – communication protocols, transport mechanisms, communication languages, etc. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

47 Rationale of Service Grounding • Provides a specification of service access information. • 47 Rationale of Service Grounding • Provides a specification of service access information. • Service Model + Grounding give everything needed for using the service – Service description is for reasoning about the service • Decide what information to send and what to expect – Service Grounding is for message passing • Generate outgoing messages, and get incoming messages • Mapping XML Schemata to OWL concepts • Builds upon WSDL to define message structure and physical binding layer Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

48 Mapping OWL-S / WSDL 1. 1 • Operations correspond to Atomic Processes • 48 Mapping OWL-S / WSDL 1. 1 • Operations correspond to Atomic Processes • Input/Output messages correspond to Inputs/Outputs of processes Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

49 Example of Grounding Airline Sequence Book. Flight Perform Airline Depart Arrive Flight Get 49 Example of Grounding Airline Sequence Book. Flight Perform Airline Depart Arrive Flight Get Flights Arrive Depart Get Flights Op Flights Airline Flights Select Flight op Flight WSDL Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

50 Result of using the Grounding • Invocation mechanism for OWL-S – Invocation based 50 Result of using the Grounding • Invocation mechanism for OWL-S – Invocation based on WSDL – Different types of invocation supported by WSDL can be used with OWL-S • Clear separation between service description and invocation/implementation – Service description is needed to reason about the service • Decide how to use it • Decide how what information to send and what to expect – Service implementation may be based on SOAP an XSD types – The crucial point is that the information that travels on the wires and the information used in the ontologies is the same • Allows any web service to be represented using OWL-S – For example: Amazon. com Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

Handling stateful vs stateless Web services 1. Stateless Web services • The server does Handling stateful vs stateless Web services 1. Stateless Web services • The server does not maintain the state of the computation • Dataflow links specify how the client communicate the state to the service 2. Stateful Web services • The service does maintain the state • No need of dataflow links since transfer of information is opaque to the client Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 51

Representing Stateful Web services Client Airline Sequence Book. Flight 52 Flight Perform Airline Get Representing Stateful Web services Client Airline Sequence Book. Flight 52 Flight Perform Airline Get Flights Select Flight Arrive Get Flights Op Flights Select Flight op Flight Server Stateless: no information is transferred between the Server two operations Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

Representing Stateless Web services Client Airline Sequence Book. Flight Perform Airline Arrive Get Flights Representing Stateless Web services Client Airline Sequence Book. Flight Perform Airline Arrive Get Flights Op Flights Select Flight Get Flights Server 53 Flights Flight Select Flight op Flight Stateful: information is recorded by the server, no need of transfer between the two operations Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

54 Conclusion OWL-S section • OWL-S provides a language for the description of Web 54 Conclusion OWL-S section • OWL-S provides a language for the description of Web services – Service Profile provides description of capabilities of Web Service • Allows capability-based discovery – Process Model provides the description of how to use a Web service • Allows automatic invocation of Web service – Service Grounding maps Atomic Processes into WSDL operations • Allows separation between description and implementation • Supports description of arbitrary Web services Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

55 Web Service Modeling Ontology WSMO Michael Stollberg Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai 55 Web Service Modeling Ontology WSMO Michael Stollberg Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

56 Outline • WSMO Working Groups • Top Level Notions – Ontologies – Web 56 Outline • WSMO Working Groups • Top Level Notions – Ontologies – Web Services – Goals – Mediators Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

57 WSMO Working Groups Conceptual Model A for SWS A Formal Language for WSMO 57 WSMO Working Groups Conceptual Model A for SWS A Formal Language for WSMO A Rule Language for the Semantic Web Execution Environment for WSMO Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

58 WSMO Top Level Notions Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using 58 WSMO Top Level Notions Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web Services Formally specified terminology of the information used by all other components Semantic description of Web Services: - Capability (functional) - Interfaces (usage) Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogeneities WSMO D 2, version 1. 2, 13 April 2005 (W 3 C submission) Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

59 Non-Functional Properties relevant, non-functional aspects for WSMO elements • Dublin Core Metadata Set: 59 Non-Functional Properties relevant, non-functional aspects for WSMO elements • Dublin Core Metadata Set: – complete item description – used for resource management • Versioning Information – evolution support • Quality of Service Information – availability, stability • Other – owner, financial Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

60 Non-Functional Properties List Dublin Core Metadata Contributor Coverage Creator Description Format Identifier Language 60 Non-Functional Properties List Dublin Core Metadata Contributor Coverage Creator Description Format Identifier Language Publisher Relation Rights Source Subject Title Type Quality of Service Accuracy Network. Related. Qo. S Performance Reliability Robustness Scalability Security Transactional Trust Other Financial Owner Type. Of. Match Version Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

61 WSMO Ontologies Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web Services 61 WSMO Ontologies Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web Services Formally specified terminology of the information used by all other components Semantic description of Web Services: - Capability (functional) - Interfaces (usage) Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogeneities Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

62 Ontology Usage & Principles • Ontologies are the ‘data model’ throughout WSMO – 62 Ontology Usage & Principles • Ontologies are the ‘data model’ throughout WSMO – all WSMO element descriptions rely on ontologies – all data interchanged in Web Service usage are ontologies – Semantic information processing & ontology reasoning • WSMO Ontology Language WSML – conceptual syntax for describing WSMO elements – logical language for axiomatic expressions (WSML Layering) • WSMO Ontology Design – Modularization: import / re-using ontologies, modular approach for ontology design – De-Coupling: heterogeneity handled by OO Mediators Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

63 Ontology Specification • Non functional properties (see before) • Imported Ontologies importing existing 63 Ontology Specification • Non functional properties (see before) • Imported Ontologies importing existing ontologies where no heterogeneities arise • Used mediators OO Mediators (ontology import with terminology mismatch handling) Ontology Elements: Concepts Attributes Relations Functions Instances set of concepts that belong to the ontology, incl. set of attributes that belong to a concept define interrelations between several concepts special type of relation (unary range = return value) set of instances that belong to the represented ontology Axioms Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 axiomatic expressions in ontology (logical statement)

64 WSMO Web Services Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web 64 WSMO Web Services Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web Services Formally specified terminology of the information used by all other components Semantic description of Web Services: - Capability (functional) - Interfaces (usage) Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogeneities Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

65 WSMO Web Service Description - complete item description - quality aspects - Web 65 WSMO Web Service Description - complete item description - quality aspects - Web Service Management - Advertising of Web Service - Support for WS Discovery Non-functional Properties Capability DC + Qo. S + Version + financial functional description client-service interaction interface for consuming WS - External Visible Behavior - Communication Structure - ‘Grounding’ Web Service Implementation (not of interest in Web Service Description) WS WS WS realization of functionality by aggregating other Web Services - functional decomposition - WS composition Choreography --- Service Interfaces --- Orchestration Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

66 Capability Specification • • • Non functional properties Imported Ontologies Used mediators – 66 Capability Specification • • • Non functional properties Imported Ontologies Used mediators – OO Mediator: importing ontologies with data level mismatch resolution – WG Mediator: link to a Goal wherefore service is not usable a priori • • Pre-conditions what a web service expects in order to be able to provide its service. They define conditions over the input. Assumptions conditions on the state of the world that has to hold before the Web Service can be executed Post-conditions describes the result of the Web Service in relation to the input, and conditions on it Effects conditions on the state of the world that hold after execution of the Web Service (i. e. changes in the state of the world) Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

67 Choreography & Orchestration • VTA example: When the service is requested When the 67 Choreography & Orchestration • VTA example: When the service is requested When the service requests Date, Time Date Hotel Service Time Error Flight, Hotel Error Confirmation VTA Service Date, Time Flight Service Error • Choreography = • Orchestration = how to interact with the service to consume its functionality how service functionality is achieved by aggregating other Web Services Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

68 Choreography Interfaces Interface for consuming Web Service • • External Visible Behavior – 68 Choreography Interfaces Interface for consuming Web Service • • External Visible Behavior – those aspects of the workflow of a Web Service where Interaction is required – described by workflow constructs: sequence, split, loop, parallel Communication Structure – messages sent and received – their order (communicative behavior for service consumption) Grounding – executable communication technology for interaction – choreography related errors (e. g. input wrong, message timeout, etc. ) Formal Model – reasoning on Web Service interfaces (service interoperability) – semantically enabled mediation on Web Service interfaces Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

69 Orchestration Aspects Behavior for Interaction with aggregated Web Services Web Service Business Logic 69 Orchestration Aspects Behavior for Interaction with aggregated Web Services Web Service Business Logic State in Orchestration Control Flow 1 WS Data Flow Service Interaction 3 2 4 WS - decomposition of service functionality - other Web services consumed via their choreography interfaces Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

70 WSMO Web Service Interfaces • • • behavior interfaces of Web services and 70 WSMO Web Service Interfaces • • • behavior interfaces of Web services and clients for “peer-2 peer” interaction Choreography and Orchestration as sub-concepts of Service Interface with common description language service interface description aspects: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. represent the dynamics of information interchange during service consumption and interaction support ontologies as the underlying data model appropriate communication technology for information interchange sound formal model / semantics of service interface specifications in order to allow advanced reasoning on them support higher-level process constructs for more complex reasoning tasks provide graphical representation for editing and maintenance Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

71 Service Interface Description User Language (UML 2 Activity Diagrams) graphical representation for choreography 71 Service Interface Description User Language (UML 2 Activity Diagrams) graphical representation for choreography & orchestration descriptions Downwards Translation User Language -> Formal Model: “ontologized ASMs” as sound formalism execution support semantic data model (WSMO) Ontologies as data model: - every resource description based on ontologies - every data element interchanged is ontology instance Grounding: - making service interfaces executable - currently grounding to WSDL Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

72 Ontologized Abstract State Machines • Vocabulary Ω: – ontology schema(s) used in service 72 Ontologized Abstract State Machines • Vocabulary Ω: – ontology schema(s) used in service interface description – usage for information interchange: in, out, shared, controlled • States ω(Ω): – a stable status in the information space – defined by attribute values of ontology instances • Guarded Transition GT(ω): – state transition – general structure: if (condition) then (update) • condition on current state, update = changes in state transition • all GT(ω) whose condition is fulfilled fire in parallel Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

73 WSMO Goals Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web Services 73 WSMO Goals Objectives that a client wants to achieve by using Web Services Formally specified terminology of the information used by all other components Semantic description of Web Services: - Capability (functional) - Interfaces (usage) Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogeneities Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

74 Goals Client Objective Specification along with all information needed for automated resolution • 74 Goals Client Objective Specification along with all information needed for automated resolution • Goal-driven Approach, derived from AI rational agent approach - ontological de-coupling of Requester and Provider - ‘intelligent’ mechanisms detect suitable services for solving the Goal - service re-use & knowledge-level client side support • Usage of Goals within Semantic Web Services – A Requester (human or machine) defines a Goal to be resolved independently (i. e. subjectively) on the knowledge level – SWS techniques / systems automatically determine Web Services to be used for resolving the Goal (discovery, composition, execution, etc. ) – Goal Resolution Management is realized in implementations Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

75 Goal-driven Architecture Client-Side Client defines Service-Side Goal - objective (desired final state) - 75 Goal-driven Architecture Client-Side Client defines Service-Side Goal - objective (desired final state) - input for service usage - goal resolution constraints, preferences, and policies service detection & composition functional Goal Resolution Plan - goal resolution algorithm - decomposition (optional) - service usage / invocation Ontology service usage Domain Knowledge behavioral corresponds to / creation of (Web) Service Implementation (not of interest here) Ontology Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 Ontology

76 Mediation • Heterogeneity … – mismatches on structural / semantic / conceptual / 76 Mediation • Heterogeneity … – mismatches on structural / semantic / conceptual / level – occur between different components that shall interoperate – especially in distributed & open environments like the Internet • Concept of Mediation (Wiederhold, 94): – Mediators as components that resolve mismatches – declarative approach: • semantic description of resources • ‘intelligent’ mechanisms that resolve mismatches independent of content – mediation cannot be fully automated (integration decision) • Levels of Mediation within Semantic Web Services: (1) Data Level: heterogeneous Data Sources (2) Functional Level: heterogeneous Functionalities (3) Protocol & Process Level: heterogeneous Communication Processes Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

77 WSMO Mediators Overview data level mediation terminology representation & protocol 1. . n 77 WSMO Mediators Overview data level mediation terminology representation & protocol 1. . n O 1. . n 1 OO Mediator 1. . n G O/G/ WS / M GG Mediator G Δ-Relation Mediation WS 1 Δ-Relation Mediation WW Mediator Process Level (Communication) 1. . n WS WS / G Process Level (Cooperation) 1. . n WG Mediator Δ-Relation Mediation Legend technique used 1. . n G / WS Process Level (Communication) imports / reuses Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 correlation

78 Mediator Usage Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 78 Mediator Usage Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

79 OWL-S and WSMO Commonalities and Differences Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 79 OWL-S and WSMO Commonalities and Differences Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

80 OWL-S and WSMO • OWL-S = • WSMO = ontology and language to 80 OWL-S and WSMO • OWL-S = • WSMO = ontology and language to describe Web services ontology and language for core elements of Semantic Web Service systems Main Description Elements Correlation: OWL-S profile ≈ WSMO capability + non-functional properties OWL-S Process Model OWL-S Grounding WSMO Service Interfaces current WSMO Grounding Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

81 Mediation in OWL-S and WSMO • OWL-S does not have an explicit notion 81 Mediation in OWL-S and WSMO • OWL-S does not have an explicit notion of mediator – Mediation is a by-product of the orchestration process • E. g. protocol mismatches are resolved by constructing a plan that coordinates the activity of the Web services – …or it results from translation axioms that are available to the Web services • It is not the mission of OWL-S to generate these axioms • WSMO regards mediators as key conceptual elements – Different kinds of mediators: • OO Mediators for ensuring semantic interoperability • GG, WG mediators to link Goals and Web Services • WW Mediators to establish service interoperability – Reusable mediators – Mediation techniques under development Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

82 Semantic Representation • OWL-S and WSMO adopt a similar view on the need 82 Semantic Representation • OWL-S and WSMO adopt a similar view on the need of ontologies and explicit semantics but they rely on different logics – OWL-S is based on OWL/SWRL • OWL represent taxonomical knowledge • SWRL provides inference rules • FLOWS as formal model for process model – WSMO is based on • WSML a family of languages with a common basis for compatibility and extensions in the direction of Description Logics and Logic Programming • Ontologizes Abstract State Machines and formal model for Service Interface Descriptions Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

83 OWL vs WSML OWL Full WSML Full full RDF(S) support OWL DL equals 83 OWL vs WSML OWL Full WSML Full full RDF(S) support OWL DL equals First Order Logic WSML Rule WSML DL Description Logics WSML Flight Description Logics OWL Lite subset WSML Core Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 Logic Programming

84 Summary OWL-S UDDI API Service Interfaces (Choreography + Orchestration) BPEL 4 WS Grounding+ 84 Summary OWL-S UDDI API Service Interfaces (Choreography + Orchestration) BPEL 4 WS Grounding+ WSDL/SOAP Consumption & Interaction Goals and Web Services (capability) Process Model What it does current Web Service technologies Profile Discovery WSMO Grounding (WSDL / SOAP, ontology-based) WSDL/SOAP How to consume & realize Invocation How to invoke Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

85 PART III: Semantic Web Service Techniques and Systems Michael Stollberg Semantic Web Services, 85 PART III: Semantic Web Service Techniques and Systems Michael Stollberg Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

86 Contents • The “Virtual Travel Agency Example” – Goal and Web service description 86 Contents • The “Virtual Travel Agency Example” – Goal and Web service description – discovery – mediation • SWS tools and systems – Web Service Execution Environment WSMX – OWL-S Integrated Development Environment – Internet Reasoning Service IRS Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

87 SWS Challenges • • Web services as loosely coupled components that shall interoperate 87 SWS Challenges • • Web services as loosely coupled components that shall interoperate dynamically and automatically Techniques required for: – Discovery • how are Web services found and selected? – Composition • how to aggregate Web Services into a complex functionality? – Conversation • how to ensure automated interaction of Web Services? – Invocation • how to access and invoke Semantic Web Services? – Mediation • how are data and protocol mismatches resolved? • Systems for automated Web service usage : – resource editing and management – functional components – APIs, execution control, integrated & flexible architectures Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

88 Virtual Travel Agency Use Case • • Michael is employed in DERI Austria 88 Virtual Travel Agency Use Case • • Michael is employed in DERI Austria and wants to book a flight and a hotel for the HICSS -39 conference the start-up company VTA provides tourism and business travel services based on Semantic Web Service technology => how does the interplay of Michael, VTA, and other Web Services look like? contract Flight Booking Service Provider I provides Micha el VTA uses & aggregates Hotel Booking Service Provider II contract Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

89 Domain Ontologies • all terminology used in resource descriptions are based on ontologies 89 Domain Ontologies • all terminology used in resource descriptions are based on ontologies and all information interchanged should be ontology instances • Domain Ontologies needed for this Use Case: Trip Reservation Ontology, Location Ontology, Date and Time Ontology, Purchase Ontology, … possibly more • Ontology Design for the Semantic Web – – “real ontologies, no crappy data models” (Dieter Fensel) (re-)use existing, widely accepted ontologies modular ontology design … is a very difficult and challenging task • determine agreed conceptualization of domain • correct formalization (e. g. misuse of is_a / part_of relations) => requires expertise in knowledge engineering Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

90 Trip Reservation Ontology • defines the terminology for trips (traveling, accommodation, holiday / 90 Trip Reservation Ontology • defines the terminology for trips (traveling, accommodation, holiday / business travel facilities) and reservations • provided by community of interest (e. g. Austrian Tourism Association) • main concepts: – TRIP • describes a trip (a journey between locations) • passenger, origin & destination, means of travel, etc. – RESERVATION • describes reservations for tickets, accommodation, or complete trips • customer, trip, price, payment – RESERVATION REQUEST / OFFER / CONFIRMATION • uses other ontologies: – Location Ontology for origin & destination specification – Date and Time Ontology for departure, arrival, duration information – Purchase Ontology for payment related aspects Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

91 Goal Description • “book flight and hotel for the HICSS-39 for Michael” • 91 Goal Description • “book flight and hotel for the HICSS-39 for Michael” • goal capability postcondition: get a trip reservation for this goal _"http: //www. wsmo. org/examples/goals/hicss 39" imports. Ontology {_"http: //www. wsmo. org/ontologies/trip. Reservation. Ontology", …} capability postcondition defined. By ? trip. Reservation member. Of tr#reservation[ customer has. Value fof#michael, reservation. Item has. Value ? trip. HICSS] and ? trip. HICSS member. Of tr#trip[ passenger has. Value fof#michael, origin has. Value loc#innsbruck, destination has. Value loc#kauai, means. Of. Transport has. Value ? flight, accomodation has. Value ? hotel] and ? flight[airline has. Value tr#staralliance] member. Of tr#flight and ? hotel[name has. Value “Grand Hyatt Kauai Resort”] member. Of tr#hotel. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

92 VTA Service Description • book tickets, hotels, amenities, etc. • capability description (pre-state) 92 VTA Service Description • book tickets, hotels, amenities, etc. • capability description (pre-state) capability VTAcapability shared. Variables {? credit. Card, ? initial. Balance, ? item, ? passenger} precondition defined. By ? reservation. Request[ reservation. Item has. Value ? item, passenger has. Value ? passenger, payment has. Value ? creditcard, ] member. Of tr#reservation. Request and ((? item member. Of tr#trip) or (? item member. Of tr#ticket)) and ? credit. Card[balance has. Value ? initial. Balance] member. Of po#credit. Card. assumption defined. By po#valid. Credit. Card(? credit. Card) and (? credit. Card[type has. Value po#visa] or ? credit. Card[type has. Value po#mastercard]). Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

93 VTA Service Description • capability description (post-state) postcondition defined. By ? reservation[ reservation. 93 VTA Service Description • capability description (post-state) postcondition defined. By ? reservation[ reservation. Item has. Value ? item, customer has. Value ? passenger, payment has. Value ? creditcard ] member. Of tr#reservation. assumption defined. By reservation. Price(? reservation, ? trip. Price) and ? final. Balance= (? initial. Balance - ? ticket. Price) and ? credit. Card[po#balance has. Value ? final. Balance]. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

94 Web Service Discovery Michael has Objective: „book a flight and a hotel for 94 Web Service Discovery Michael has Objective: „book a flight and a hotel for me for the HICSS-39. “ Goal definition Service Registry searches WS Discoverer result set includes Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 VTA

95 Discovery Techniques • different techniques available – – trade-off: ease-of-provision <-> accuracy resource 95 Discovery Techniques • different techniques available – – trade-off: ease-of-provision <-> accuracy resource descriptions & matchmaking algorithms Key Word Matching Possible Accuracy Ease of provision match natural language key words in resource descriptions Controlled Vocabulary ontology-based key word matching Semantic Matchmaking … what Semantic Web Services aim at Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

96 Matchmaking Notions & Intentions Exact Match: = G = WS G, WS, O, 96 Matchmaking Notions & Intentions Exact Match: = G = WS G, WS, O, M ╞ x. (G(x) <=> WS(x) ) Plug. In Match: G, WS, O, M ╞ x. (G(x) => WS(x) ) Subsumption Match: G, WS, O, M ╞ x. (G(x) <= WS(x) ) Intersection Match: G, WS, O, M ╞ x. (G(x) WS(x) ) X Non Match: G, WS, O, M ╞ ¬ x. (G(x) WS(x) ) Keller, U. ; Lara, R. ; Polleres, A. (Eds): WSMO Web Service Discovery. WSML Working Draft D 5. 1, 12 Nov 2004. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

97 Discoverer Architecture • Discovery as central Semantic Web Services technology • Integrated Discoverer 97 Discoverer Architecture • Discovery as central Semantic Web Services technology • Integrated Discoverer Architectures (under construction): Keyword-/ Classification-based Filtering retrieve Service Descriptions Controlled Vocabulary Filtering Resource Repository (UDDI or other) Semantic Matchmaking invoke Web Service usable Web Service Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 efficient narrowing of search space (relevant services to be inspected)

98 Choreography Discovery VTA defines provides Goal Requested Capability book flight & hotel Requested 98 Choreography Discovery VTA defines provides Goal Requested Capability book flight & hotel Requested Interface 1) send request 2) select from offer 3) receive confirmation Capability Interface (Chor. ) 1) get request 2) provide offer 3) receive selection 4) send confirmation VTA WS ‘Trip Booking’ - both choreography interfaces given (“static”) - correct & complete consumption of VTA => existence of a valid choreography? Interface (Orch. ) 1) flight request 2) hotel request 3) book flight 4) book hotel Interface (Chor. ) 1) get request 2) provide offer 3) receive selection 4) send confirmation Flight WS Orch. . . Capability Interface (Chor. ) 1) get request 2) provide offer 3) receive selection 4) send confirmation Hotel WS Orch. . . - VTA Orchestration & Chor. Interfaces of aggregated WS given => existence of a valid choreography between VTA and each aggregated WS? - Choreography Discovery as a central reasoning task in Service Interfaces - ‘choreographies’ do not have to be described, only existence determination Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

99 Choreography Discovery internal business logic of Web Service (not of interest in Service 99 Choreography Discovery internal business logic of Web Service (not of interest in Service Interface Description) • a valid choreography exists if: 1) Signature Compatibility • homogeneous ontologies • compatible in- and outputs 2) Behavior Compatibility • start state for interaction • a termination state can be reached without any additional input Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

100 Behavior Compatibility Example Goal Behavior Interface VTA Behavior Interface ΩG(ωØ) = {Ø} if 100 Behavior Compatibility Example Goal Behavior Interface VTA Behavior Interface ΩG(ωØ) = {Ø} if Ø then request Start ΩG(ω1) = {request(out)} if cnd 1(offer) then change. Req ω1(C) ΩG(ω2 a) = {offer(in), change. Req(out)} ω2(C) if cnd 2(offer) then order ω3(C) ΩG(ω2 b) = {offer(in), order(out)} ω4(C) if conf then Ø Termination ΩVTA(ωØ) = {Ø} if request then offer ΩVTA(ω1) = {request(in), offer(out)} if change. Req then offer ΩVTA(ω2 a) = {change. Req(in), offer(out)} if order then conf ΩVTA(ω2 b) = {order(in), conf(out)} ΩG(ω3) = {offer(in), conf(in)} valid choreography existent Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

101 Orchestration Validation Example VTA Web Service Orchestration if Ø then (FWS, flight. Request) 101 Orchestration Validation Example VTA Web Service Orchestration if Ø then (FWS, flight. Request) if flight. Offer then (HWS, hotel. Request) if selection then (FWS, flight. Booking. Order) if selection, flight. Booking. Conf then (HWS, hotel. Booking. Order) Flight WS Behavior Interface Start (VTA, FWS) if request then offer if order then confirmation Termination (VTA, FWS) Start (VTA, HWS) Termination Hotel WS Behavior Interface if request then offer if order then confirmation (VTA, HWS) Orchestration is valid if valid choreography exists for interactions between the orchestrating and each aggregated Web Service, done by choreography discovery Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

102 Mediation • Heterogeneity as inherent characteristic of (Semantic) Web: – heterogeneous terminology – 102 Mediation • Heterogeneity as inherent characteristic of (Semantic) Web: – heterogeneous terminology – heterogeneous languages / formalisms – heterogeneous communication protocols and business processes • WSMO identifies Mediators as top level element, i. e. central aspect of Semantic Web Services – levels of mediation: data, protocol, processes – WSMO Mediator types • Approach: declarative, generic mismatch resolution – classification of possible & resolvable mismatches – mediation definition language & mediation patterns – execution environment for mappings Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

103 Data Level (OO) Mediation • Related Aspects / Techniques: – Ontology Integration (Mapping, 103 Data Level (OO) Mediation • Related Aspects / Techniques: – Ontology Integration (Mapping, Merging, Alignment) – Data Lifting & Lowering – Transformation between Languages / Formalisms • Terminology Mismatch Classification – Conceptualization Mismatches • same domain concepts, but different conceptualization • different levels of abstraction • different ontological structure => resolution only incl. human intervention – Explication Mismatches • mismatches between: T (Term used) D (definition of concepts), C (real world concept) => automated resolution partially possible Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

104 Ontology Mapping Language • Language Neutral Mapping Language – mapping definitions on meta-layer 104 Ontology Mapping Language • Language Neutral Mapping Language – mapping definitions on meta-layer (i. e. on generic ontological constructs) – independent of ontology specification language – “Grounding” to specific languages for execution (WSML, OWL, F-Logic) • Main Features: – Mapping Document (sources, mappings, mediation service) – direction of mapping (uni- / bidirectional) – conditions / logical expressions for data type mismatch handling, restriction of mapping validity, and complex mapping definitions – mapping constructs: • class. Mapping, attribute. Mapping, relation. Mapping (between similar constructs) • class. Atrribute. Mapping, class. Relation. Mapping, class. Instance. Mapping • instance. Mapping (explicit ontology instance transformation) – mapping operators: • =, <, <=, >, >=, and, or, not • inverse, symmetric, transitive, reflexive • join, split Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

105 Mapping Language Example Ontology O 2 Ontology O 1 Person Human - name 105 Mapping Language Example Ontology O 2 Ontology O 1 Person Human - name Adult - name - age Child michael member. Of Person - name = Michael Stollberg - age = 28 class. Mapping(unidirectional o 2: Person o 1. Adult attribute. Value. Condition(o 2. Person. age >= 18)) this allows to transform the instance ‘michael’ of concept person in ontology O 2 into a valid instance of concept ‘adult’ in ontology O 1 Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

106 Protocol & Process Level Mediation (not of interest in Service Interface Description) WW 106 Protocol & Process Level Mediation (not of interest in Service Interface Description) WW Mediator internal business logic of Web Service (not of interest in Service Interface Description) • if a choreography does not exist, then find an appropriate WW Mediator that: – resolves possible mismatches to establish signature compatibility (OO Mediator usage) – resolves process / protocol level mismatches in to establish behavior compatibility Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

107 Process Mediation – Addressed Mismatches Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 107 Process Mediation – Addressed Mismatches Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

108 Process Mediation Example Processes Mediator itinerary[origin, R destination, date] E Q time U 108 Process Mediation Example Processes Mediator itinerary[origin, R destination, date] E Q time U E S price T origin destination itinerary[origin, destination] date itinerary [route, date, time, price] Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 S E R V I C E

109 Process Mediation Example Processes Mediator itinerary[origin, R destination, date] E Q time U 109 Process Mediation Example Processes Mediator itinerary[origin, R destination, date] E Q time U E S price T origin destination itinerary[origin, destination] date itinerary [route, date, time, price] Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 S E R V I C E

110 Process Mediation Example Processes Mediator itinerary[origin, R destination, date] E Q time U 110 Process Mediation Example Processes Mediator itinerary[origin, R destination, date] E Q time U E S price T origin destination itinerary[origin, destination] date itinerary [route, date, time, price] Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 S E R V I C E

111 Process Mediation Example Processes Mediator itinerary[origin, R destination, date] E Q time U 111 Process Mediation Example Processes Mediator itinerary[origin, R destination, date] E Q time U E S price T origin destination itinerary[origin, destination] date itinerary [route, date, time, price] Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 S E R V I C E

112 Process Mediation Example Processes Mediator itinerary[origin, R destination, date] E Q time U 112 Process Mediation Example Processes Mediator itinerary[origin, R destination, date] E Q time U E S price T origin destination itinerary[origin, destination] date itinerary [route, date, time, price] Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 S E R V I C E

SWS Tools and Systems 1. OWL-S Integrated Development IDE – OWL-S tool suite – SWS Tools and Systems 1. OWL-S Integrated Development IDE – OWL-S tool suite – WS implementation, deployment, discovery, invocation, and verification 2. The Web Service Execution Environment WSMX – – 3. integrated Semantic Web Service system WSMO reference implementation Internet Reasoning Service IRS – infrastructure for Semantic Web services – IRS server acts as broker, as well as publisher – IRS client allows goal-based invocation Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 Carnegie Mellon University 113

114 OWL-S IDE (CMU) Integration of WS implementation, deployment, discovery, invocation and verification Semantic 114 OWL-S IDE (CMU) Integration of WS implementation, deployment, discovery, invocation and verification Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

115 Integrated WS Development cycle • OWL-S IDE aims at automating WSDevelopment and invocation 115 Integrated WS Development cycle • OWL-S IDE aims at automating WSDevelopment and invocation cycle – Based on Eclipse to support WS programmers – (Semi) Automated generation of WSDL and OWL-S descriptions – Consistency checking – Automated publication with UDDI – Integrated Semantic discovery in UDDI – Automated generation of client code Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

WS Development and invocation • Web Service Development – Implement Web service – Produce WS Development and invocation • Web Service Development – Implement Web service – Produce WSDL and OWL-S WS description – Deploy Web service • Advertise to available UDDI • Make service available for invocation • Web Service invocation on client side – Find Web service in UDDI – Translate internal data representation to WS data representation – Invoke Web service consistently with specification of OWL-S Process Model All descriptions should fit together otherwise interaction with Web service fails Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 116

117 Overview OWL-S IDE Integrated OWL-S Editor integrated with Eclipse editing of all OWL-S 117 Overview OWL-S IDE Integrated OWL-S Editor integrated with Eclipse editing of all OWL-S modules Publish Profile Automatic publication, Business Registry OW inquiry and Li ns ide capabilitybased discovery with OWL-S 2 UDDI Semantic UDDI Port. Inquiry UDDI Port Capability Port Green Pages Business Description Yellow Pages Service Properties White Pages Ports and Bindins Java Code Process Generated OWL-S WSDL Code Grounding WSDL 2 OWL-S Converter Embed guided generation of WSDL and schematic OWL-S directly from Java exploiting Java 2 WSDL and WSDL 2 OWL-S tools Matching Engine Converter OWL-S API OWL-S VM provides an execution environment for OWL-S Web services Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 Java Code OWL-S API provide easy processing in Java

118 OWL-S IDE Components • WSDL 2 OWL-S map WSDL descriptions into OWL-S descriptions 118 OWL-S IDE Components • WSDL 2 OWL-S map WSDL descriptions into OWL-S descriptions • OWL-S API transform OWL-S code in an equivalent set of Java classes for easy processing • OWL-S Virtual Machine control interaction with Web service consistently with Process Model and Grounding • OWL-S/UDDI translator translate OWL-S Profiles in UDDI statements • Semantic UDDI integrate UDDI Registry and OWL reasoning to facilitate discovery of Web services Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

119 Web Service Execution Environment (WSMX) integrated Semantic Web service environment as the WSMO 119 Web Service Execution Environment (WSMX) integrated Semantic Web service environment as the WSMO reference implementation www. wsmx. org Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

120 WSMX Motivation • Provide middleware ‘glue’ for Semantic Web Services – Allow service 120 WSMX Motivation • Provide middleware ‘glue’ for Semantic Web Services – Allow service providers focus on their business • Provide a reference implementation for WSMO – Eat our own cake • Provide an environment for goal based service discovery and invocation – Run-time binding of service requester and provider • Provide a flexible Service Oriented Architecture – Add, update, remove components at run-time as needed • Keep open-source to encourage participation – Developers are free to use in their own code • Define formal execution semantics – Unambiguous model of system behaviour Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

121 WSMX Usage - P 2 P SWS Computing complete the functionality for all 121 WSMX Usage - P 2 P SWS Computing complete the functionality for all the boxes Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

122 Design Principles Strong Decoupling & Strong Mediation autonomous components with mediators for interoperability 122 Design Principles Strong Decoupling & Strong Mediation autonomous components with mediators for interoperability Interface vs. Implementation distinguish interface (= description) from implementation (=program) Peer to Peer interaction between equal partners (in terms of control) WSMO Design Principles == WSMX Design Principles == SOA Design Principles Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

123 WSMX Architecture Service Oriented Architecture s Messaging Application Managemen t Semantic Web Services, 123 WSMX Architecture Service Oriented Architecture s Messaging Application Managemen t Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

124 System Entry Points Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 124 System Entry Points Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

125 Web Services Modelling Toolkit Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 125 Web Services Modelling Toolkit Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

126 Web Services Modelling Toolkit • end-user / developer tool • supports creation of 126 Web Services Modelling Toolkit • end-user / developer tool • supports creation of WSMO element descriptions – – domain ontologies Web services descriptions Goal specifications Mediator descriptions • communicates goals and service definitions to execution environments Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

127 WSMX @ Sourceforge. net Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 127 WSMX @ Sourceforge. net Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

128 WSMX Wrap Up • WSMO as conceptual model (reference implementation) • end to 128 WSMX Wrap Up • WSMO as conceptual model (reference implementation) • end to end functionality for executing SWS • has a formal execution semantics • real implementation • open source code base at Source. Forge • event-driven component architecture • growing functionality - developers welcome Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

129 IRS-III: A framework and platform for building Semantic Web Services Stefania Galizia and 129 IRS-III: A framework and platform for building Semantic Web Services Stefania Galizia and Barry Norton Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

130 The Internet Reasoning Service is an infrastructure for publishing, locating, executing and composing 130 The Internet Reasoning Service is an infrastructure for publishing, locating, executing and composing Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

131 Design Principles • Ontological separation of User and Web Service Contexts • Capability 131 Design Principles • Ontological separation of User and Web Service Contexts • Capability Based Invocation • Ease of Use • One Click Publishing • Agnostic to Service Implementation Platform • Connected to External Environment • Open • Complete Descriptions • Inspectable • Interoperable with SWS Frameworks and Platforms Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

Features of IRS-III (1/2) • Based on Soap messaging standard • Provides Java API Features of IRS-III (1/2) • Based on Soap messaging standard • Provides Java API for client applications • Provides built-in brokering and service discovery support • Provides capability-centred service invocation Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 132

Features of IRS-III (2/2) • Publishing support for variety of platforms – Java, Lisp, Features of IRS-III (2/2) • Publishing support for variety of platforms – Java, Lisp, Web Applications, Java Web Services • Enables publication of ‘standard code’ – Provides clever wrappers – One-click publishing of web services • Integrated with standard Web Services world – Semantic web service to IRS – ‘Ordinary’ web service Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 133

134 IRS-III Framework IRS-3 Server IRS Publisher Java IRS Publisher A Goal Specifications + 134 IRS-III Framework IRS-3 Server IRS Publisher Java IRS Publisher A Goal Specifications + SOAP Binding Lisp O Web Service Specifications + Registry of Implementors S Domain Models IRS Publisher Java WS P IRS Publisher SOAP IRS Client Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

135 IRS-III Architecture WSMX Browser Publishing Clients Invocation Client J a v a A 135 IRS-III Architecture WSMX Browser Publishing Clients Invocation Client J a v a A P I Web Service Publishing Platforms Java Code Web Application S O A P SOAP Browser Handler Publisher Handler SOAP Handler Invocation Handler WS Publisher Registry OCML WSMO Library IRS-III Server Lisp. Web Server OWL(-S) Handler Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

Publishing Platform Architecture Publishing Clients SOAP Handler Service Invoker IRS-III Server SOAP WS Service Publishing Platform Architecture Publishing Clients SOAP Handler Service Invoker IRS-III Server SOAP WS Service Registry Service Registrar IRS-III Publishing Platform HTTP Server Web Service 1 Web Service 2 Invocation Client Web Service 3 Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 136

137 IRS-III/WSMO differences • Underlying language OCML • Goals have inputs and outputs • 137 IRS-III/WSMO differences • Underlying language OCML • Goals have inputs and outputs • IRS-III broker finds applicable web services via mediators – Used mediator within WS capability – Mediator source = goal • Web services have inputs and outputs ‘inherited’ from goal descriptions • Web service selected via assumption (in capability) Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

138 IRS-III Demo (including Import from WSMX Toolset) Stefania Galizia and Barry Norton Semantic 138 IRS-III Demo (including Import from WSMX Toolset) Stefania Galizia and Barry Norton Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

139 SWS Creation & Usage Steps • Create a goal description – (e. g. 139 SWS Creation & Usage Steps • Create a goal description – (e. g. exchange-rate-goal) – Add input and output roles – Include role type and soap binding • Create a wg-mediator description – Source = goal – Possibly add a mediation service • Create a web service description – Used-mediator of WS capability = wg-mediator above • Specify Operation <-> Lisp function mapping in Choreography Grounding • Publish against web service description • Invoke web service by ‘achieve goal’ Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

140 Multiple WS for goal • Each WS has a mediator for usedmediator slot 140 Multiple WS for goal • Each WS has a mediator for usedmediator slot of capability – Some WS may share a mediator • Define a kappa expression for assumption slot of WS capability • Kappa expression format – (kappa (? goal) ) • Getting the value of an input role – (wsmo-role-value ? goal ) Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

141 Defining a Mediation Service • Define a wg-mediator • Source = goal • 141 Defining a Mediation Service • Define a wg-mediator • Source = goal • Mediation-service = goal for mediation service • Mediation goal – Mediation goal input roles are a subset of goal input roles • Define mediator and WS as normal Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

142 Valid Relations • Classes are unary relations – e. g. (country ? x) 142 Valid Relations • Classes are unary relations – e. g. (country ? x) • Slots are binary relations – e. g. (is-capital-of ? x ? y) • Standard relations in base (OCML toplevel) ontology =, ==, <, >, member Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

143 European Currency Assumption (kappa (? goal) (member (wsmo-role-value ? goal 'has_source_currency) '(euro pound))) 143 European Currency Assumption (kappa (? goal) (member (wsmo-role-value ? goal 'has_source_currency) '(euro pound))) Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

144 Goal Based Invocation Solve Goal -> WG Mediator -> WS/Capability/Used-mediator Instantiate Goal Description 144 Goal Based Invocation Solve Goal -> WG Mediator -> WS/Capability/Used-mediator Instantiate Goal Description Invocation Web Service Discovery Exchange-rate-goal Has-source-currency: us-dollars Has-target-currency: pound European-exchange-rate-ws Non-european-exchange-rate-ws European-bank-exchange-rate-ws WS -> Capability -> Assumption expression Mediation Invocation Web service selection Mediate input values Invoke selected web service European-exchange-rate ‘$’ -> us-dollar European-exchange-rate Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

145 Hands-On Session (with IRS III) Barry Norton and Stefania Galizia Semantic Web Services, 145 Hands-On Session (with IRS III) Barry Norton and Stefania Galizia Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

146 European Travel Scenario Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 146 European Travel Scenario Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

147 European Travel Demo Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 147 European Travel Demo Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

148 IRS-III Hands On Task • Develop an application for the European Travel scenario 148 IRS-III Hands On Task • Develop an application for the European Travel scenario based on SWS. The application should support a person booking a train ticket between 2 European cities at a specific time and date • Create Goal, Web service and Mediator WSMO descriptions in IRS-III (european-travel-service-descriptions) for available services. Your descriptions should choose a specific service depending on the start and end locations and the type of traveller. Use the assumption slot to do this • Publish available lisp functions against your descriptions • Invoke the web services • Solution to be shown at the end of this session Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

149 Tutorial Setup IRS Server (3000) Domain Models Web Service WSMO Descriptions + Registry 149 Tutorial Setup IRS Server (3000) Domain Models Web Service WSMO Descriptions + Registry of Implementors Goal WSMO Descriptions + SOAP Binding Mediator WSMO Descriptions Travel Services (3001) WSMX IRS Lisp Publisher IRS-III Knowledge Model Browser & Editor Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

Travel Related Knowledge Models Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 Travel Related Knowledge Models Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 150

151 Key Classes, Relations, Instances Is-in-country <city> <country> e. g. (is-in-country berlin germany) -> 151 Key Classes, Relations, Instances Is-in-country e. g. (is-in-country berlin germany) -> true (student ) -> true, for john matt michal (business-person ) -> true, for liliana michael Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

152 Goals 1 - Get train timetable – Inputs: origin and destination cities (city), 152 Goals 1 - Get train timetable – Inputs: origin and destination cities (city), date (date-and-time, e. g. (18 4 2004)) – Output: timetable (string) 2 - Book train – Inputs: passenger name (person), origin and destination cities, departure time-date (list-dateand-time, e. g. (20 33 16 15 9 2004)) – Output: booking information (string) Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

153 Services • 1 service available for goal 1 – No constraints • 6 153 Services • 1 service available for goal 1 – No constraints • 6 services available for goal 2 – As a provider write the constraints applicable to the services to satisfy the goal (assumption logical expressions) • 1 wg-mediator mediation-service – Used to convert time in list format to time in universal format Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

154 Service constraints • Services 2 -5 – Services for (origin and destination) cities 154 Service constraints • Services 2 -5 – Services for (origin and destination) cities in determined countries • Service 4 -5 – Need a mediation service to map goal time-date to service time-date • Services 6 -7 – Services for students or business people in Europe Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

155 Available Functions (1/3) 1 - get-train-times paris london (18 4 2004) 155 Available Functions (1/3) 1 - get-train-times paris london (18 4 2004) "Timetable of trains from PARIS to LONDON on 18, 4, 2004 5: 18 … 23: 36" 2 - book-english-train-journey christoph milton-keynes london (20 33 16 15 9 2004) "British Rail: CHRISTOPH is booked on the 66 going from MILTON-KEYNES to LONDON at 16: 49, 15, SEPTEMBER 2004. The price is 169 Euros. " 3 - book-french-train-journey sinuhe paris lyon (3 4 6 18 8 2004) "SNCF: SINUHE is booked on the 511 going from PARIS to LYON at 6: 12, 18, AUGUST 2004. The price is 27 Euros. " Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

156 Available Functions (2/3) 4 - book-german-train-journey christoph berlin frankfurt 3304251200 156 Available Functions (2/3) 4 - book-german-train-journey christoph berlin frankfurt 3304251200 "First Class Booking German Rail (Die Bahn): CHRISTOPH is booked on the 323 going from BERLIN to FRANKFURT at 17: 11, 15, SEPTEMBER 2004. The price is 35 Euros. " 5 - book-austrian-train-journey sinuhe vienna innsbruck 3304251200 "Austrian Rail (OBB): SINUHE is booked on the 367 going from VIENNA to INNSBRUCK at 16: 47, 15, SEPTEMBER 2004. The price is 36 Euros. " Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

157 Available Functions (3/3) 6 - book-student-european-train-journey john london nice (3 4 6 18 157 Available Functions (3/3) 6 - book-student-european-train-journey john london nice (3 4 6 18 8 2004) "European Student Rail Travel: JOHN is booked on the 916 going from LONDON to NICE at 6: 44, 18, AUGUST 2004. The price is 94 Euros. " 7 - book-business-european-train-journey liliana paris innsbruck (3 4 6 18 8 2004) "Business Europe: LILIANA is booked on the 461 going from PARIS to INNSBRUCK at 6: 12, 18, AUGUST 2004. The price is 325 Euros. " 8 - mediate-time (lisp function) or Java. Mediate. Time/mediate (java) (9 30 17 20 9 2004) 3304686609 Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

158 Example: Goal In IRS-III or In WSMT Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai 158 Example: Goal In IRS-III or In WSMT Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

159 Example: Mediator In IRS-III or In WSMT Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai 159 Example: Mediator In IRS-III or In WSMT Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

160 Example: Service In IRS-III or In WSMT Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai 160 Example: Service In IRS-III or In WSMT Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

161 Example: Publishing Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006 161 Example: Publishing Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

162 Tips • Order matters for input roles – Input roles in goal must 162 Tips • Order matters for input roles – Input roles in goal must match order of arguments to function • Need to specify both input roles and output role • Be careful with soap binding – sexpr as default – String for one line output – Use xml for multiple line output • Input roles for web services inherited from goal • Slot names can not be the same as class names • Goal <-> web service linking mediator in the capability used mediators Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

163 Closing, Outlook, References, Acknowledgements Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 163 Closing, Outlook, References, Acknowledgements Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

164 Tutorial Wrap-up • The targets of the presented tutorial were to: – understand 164 Tutorial Wrap-up • The targets of the presented tutorial were to: – understand aims & challenges within Semantic Web Services – understand OWL-S and WSMO: • design principles & paradigms • ontology elements • . . an overview of ‘hot topics’ within the Semantic Web and Semantic Web Services • . . OWL-S and WSMO Tools and System Presentation • . . do-it-yourself Hands-On Session => you should now be able to correctly assess emerging technologies & products for Semantic Web Services and utilize these for your future work Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

165 OWL-S and WSMO • North-American and European initiatives with converging aims • Offer 165 OWL-S and WSMO • North-American and European initiatives with converging aims • Offer a SWS platforms to be used by B 2 C and B 2 B applications • Provide a backbone for advanced integration and automation of industrial and business processes • Are the most developed SWS technologies up to now available to be used in commercial and industrial applications • Developments towards refining and interconnecting them Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

166 Future work – OWL-S • OWL-S is close to conclusion, but a few 166 Future work – OWL-S • OWL-S is close to conclusion, but a few issues still need to be addressed – An exception mechanism is still missing – There is a need of an exec instruction for loading and executing Process Models dynamically – A new Grounding for WSDL 2 should be developed • Additional issues that OWL-S does not address – Security and Policies are not directly expressed in OWL -S yet – There are no facilities for Contracting and agreement – There are no facilities for Web service management Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

167 Future work – OWL-S (2) • Standardization – The OWL-S coalition is planning 167 Future work – OWL-S (2) • Standardization – The OWL-S coalition is planning to submit a W 3 C note to draw attention and create momentum for W 3 C standardization activities on Semantic Web services – Members of the OWL-S coalition are already active in standardization committee such as UDDI, WSDL 2 and WS Coordination • The Future of OWL-S – OWL-S is nearing its completion and it will converge in the results of the SWSI working group or future standardization activities – The OWL-S coalition plans to remain in existence to maintain and further develop the language if needed Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

168 Future work - WSMO • Further develop and consolidate concepts and implementation aspects 168 Future work - WSMO • Further develop and consolidate concepts and implementation aspects of WSMO, WSML and WSMX – Choreography and orchestration – Business process execution – Web services composition – Process and protocol mediation • Open to new ideas, contributions and suggestions Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

169 Future Work WSMO (2) • Standardization … • WSMO & WSMX – applied 169 Future Work WSMO (2) • Standardization … • WSMO & WSMX – applied in several case studies within EU funded projects • WSMO Studio development • WSMX v 2 to be release in November Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

170 Future Work IRS • IRS III further integration with WSMX toolset on-going • 170 Future Work IRS • IRS III further integration with WSMX toolset on-going • IRS-III to be applied in: – Business Processes Modelling (w/ SAP in DIP, and new EU project SUPER) – Geographical Information Systems (DIP project) – Biomed Modelling (new EU project Living Human Digital Library) – e. Learning (new EU project LUISA) Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

171 Future Work IRS (2) • IRS orchestration and choreography to be extended to 171 Future Work IRS (2) • IRS orchestration and choreography to be extended to three-level model: – Graphical language: – Workflow language: – Executable language: UML Activity Diagrams Cashew • extends OWL-S • aligns with Workflow Patterns • expresses choreography, Ontologized as well as orchestration Abstract State Machines Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

172 Beyond OWL-S and WSMO • Although OWL-S and WSMO are the main initiatives 172 Beyond OWL-S and WSMO • Although OWL-S and WSMO are the main initiatives on Semantic Web services, they are not the only activities • Semantic Web Services Interest Group – Interest group founded at W 3 C to discuss issues related to Semantic Web Services (http: //www. w 3. org/2002/ws/swsig/) • SWSI: International initiative to push toward a standardization of SWS (http: //www. swsi. org) • WSDL-S: Semantic Annotation of WSDL interfaces • Semantic Web services are entering standardization – W 3 C working groups currently starting – OASIS working groups currently starting => eventually major influence on next generation Web technology Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

173 References OWL-S • The main repository of papers on OWL-S is at http: 173 References OWL-S • The main repository of papers on OWL-S is at http: //www. daml. org/services/owl-s/pub-archive. html that contains many papers produced by the coalition as well as from the community at large • The main source of information on OWL-S is the Web site http: //www. daml. org/services/owl-s • The rest of this section will report what we believe to be the most influential papers on OWL-S as well as paper referred in this tutorial Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

174 References OWL-S • Fundamental David Martin, Massimo Paolucci, Sheila Mc. Ilraith, Mark Burstein, 174 References OWL-S • Fundamental David Martin, Massimo Paolucci, Sheila Mc. Ilraith, Mark Burstein, Drew Mc. Dermott, Deborah Mc. Guinness, Bijan Parsia, Terry Payne, Marta Sabou, Monika Solanki, Naveen Srinivasan, Katia Sycara, "Bringing Semantics to Web Services: The OWL-S Approach", Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Semantic Web Services and Web Process Composition (SWSWPC 2004), July 6 -9, 2004, San Diego, California, USA. The DAML Services Coalition (alphabetically Anupriya Ankolenkar, Mark Burstein, Jerry R. Hobbs, Ora Lassila, David L. Martin, Drew Mc. Dermott, Sheila A. Mc. Ilraith, Srini Narayanan, Massimo Paolucci, Terry R. Payne and Katia Sycara), "DAML-S: Web Service Description for the Semantic Web", Proceedings of the First International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC), Sardinia (Italy), June, 2002. DAML Services Coalition (alphabetically A. Ankolekar, M. Burstein, J. Hobbs, O. Lassila, D. Martin, S. Mc. Ilraith, S. Narayanan, M. Paolucci, T. Payne, K. Sycara, H. Zeng), "DAML-S: Semantic Markup for Web Services", in Proceedings of the International Semantic Web Working Symposium (SWWS), July 30 -August 1, 2001. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

175 References OWL-S • Discovery Lei Li and Ian Horrocks. A software framework for 175 References OWL-S • Discovery Lei Li and Ian Horrocks. A software framework for matchmaking based on semantic web technology. In Proc. of the Twelfth International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2003), 2003 B. Benatallah, M. Hacid, C. Rey, F. Toumani Towards Semantic Reasoning for Web Services Discovery, . In Proc. of the International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2003), 2003 Daniel J. Mandell and Sheila A. Mc. Ilraith. Adapting BPEL 4 WS for the Semantic Web: The Bottom-Up Approach to Web Service Interoperation. In Proceedings of the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2003), Massimo Paolucci, Takahiro Kawamura, Terry R. Payne, Katia Sycara; Importing the Semantic Web in UDDI. In Proceedings of Web Services, E-business and Semantic Web Workshop, 2002 Massimo Paolucci, Takahiro Kawamura, Terry R. Payne, Katia Sycara; "Semantic Matching of Web Services Capabilities. " In Proceedings of the 1 st International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2002), 2002 Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

176 References OWL-S • Composition and Invocation Evren Sirin, Bijan Parsia, Dan Wu, James 176 References OWL-S • Composition and Invocation Evren Sirin, Bijan Parsia, Dan Wu, James Hendler, and Dana Nau. HTN planning for web service composition using SHOP 2. In Journal of Web Semantics, To appear, 2004 Katia Sycara, Massimo Paolucci, Anupriya Ankolekar and Naveen Srinivasan, "Automated Discovery, Interaction and Composition of Semantic Web services, " Journal of Web Semantics, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2003, pp. 27 -46 Massimo Paolucci, Anupriya Ankolekar, Naveen Srinivasan and Katia Sycara, "The DAML-S Virtual Machine, " In Proceedings of the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC), 2003, Srini Narayanan and Sheila Mc. Ilraith ``Analysis and Simulation of Web Services" Computer Networks, 42 (2003), 675 -693, Elsevier Science, 2003 Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

177 References OWL-S • Formal Models and Verification Anupriya Ankolekar, Massimo Paolucci, and Katia 177 References OWL-S • Formal Models and Verification Anupriya Ankolekar, Massimo Paolucci, and Katia Sycara Spinning the OWL-S Process Model -- Toward the Verification of the OWL-S Process Models In Proceedings of Workshop on Semantic Web Services: Preparing to Meet the World of Business Applications (ISWC 2004) Narayanan, S. and Mc. Ilraith, S. ``Simulation, Verification and Automated Composition of Web Services''. IN the Proceedings of the Eleventh International World Wide Web Conference (WWW-11), May, 2002 Anupriya Ankolekar, Frank Huch and Katia Sycara. "Concurrent Semantics for the Web Services Specification Language DAML-S. " In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Coordination Models and Languages, York, UK, April 811, 2002. Anupriya Ankolekar, Frank Huch, Katia Sycara. "Concurrent Execution Semantics for DAML-S with Subtypes. " In The First International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC), 2002. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

178 References OWL-S • Policies and Security Ronald Ashri, Grit Denker, Darren Marvin, Mike 178 References OWL-S • Policies and Security Ronald Ashri, Grit Denker, Darren Marvin, Mike Surridge, Terry Payne, Semantic Web Service Interaction Protocols: An Ontological Approach, 3 rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2004), Hiroshima, Japan Lalana Kagal, Grit Denker, Tim Finin, Massimo Paolucci, Naveen Srinivasan and Katia Sycara, "An Approach to Confidentiality and Integrity for OWL-S", forthcoming in Proceedings of AAAI 2004 Spring Symposium. Grit Denker, Lalana Kagal, Tim Finin, Massimo Paolucci, Naveen Srinivasan and Katia Sycara, "Security For DAML Web Services: Annotation and Matchmaking" In Proceedings of the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2003), Sandial Island, Fl, USA, October 2003, pp 335 -350. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

179 References OWL-S • Applications Schlenoff, C. , Barbera, A. , Washington, R. , 179 References OWL-S • Applications Schlenoff, C. , Barbera, A. , Washington, R. , “Experiences in Developing an Intelligent Ground Vehicle (IGV) Ontology in Protégé” In Proceedings of the 7 th International Protege Conference, Bethesda, MD, July 6 - 8, 2004. Aabhas V Paliwal, Nabil Adam, Christof Bornhövd, and Joachim Schaper Semantic Discovery and Composition of Web Services for RFID Applications in Border Control In Proceedings of Workshop on Semantic Web Services: Preparing to Meet the World of Business Applications (ISWC 2004) Mithun Sheshagiri, Norman Sadeh and Fabien Gandon, Using Semantic Web Services for Context-Aware Mobile Applications, Proceedings of Mobi. Sys 2004 Workshop on Context Awareness, Boston, June 2004 Zhexuan Song, Yannis Labrou and Ryusuke Masuoka, "Dynamic Service Discovery and Management in Task Computing, " pp. 310 - 318, Mobi. Quitous 2004, August 22 -26, 2004, Boston, USA Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

180 References WSMO • The central location where WSMO work and papers can be 180 References WSMO • The central location where WSMO work and papers can be found is WSMO Working Group: http: //www. wsmo. org • WSMO languages – WSML Working Group: http: //www. wsml. org • WSMO implementation – WSMX working group : http: //www. wsmx. org – WSMX open source can be found at: https: //sourceforge. net/projects/wsmx/ Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

181 References WSMO • [WSMO Specification]: Roman, D. ; Lausen, H. ; Keller, U. 181 References WSMO • [WSMO Specification]: Roman, D. ; Lausen, H. ; Keller, U. (eds. ): Web Service Modeling Ontology, WSMO Working Draft D 2, final version 1. 2, 13 April 2005. • [WSMO Primer]: Feier, C. (ed. ): WSMO Primer, WSMO Working Draft D 3. 1, 18 February 2005. • [WSMO Choreography and Orchestration] Roman, D. ; Scicluna, J. , Feier, C. (eds. ): Ontology-based Choreography and Orchestration of WSMO Services, WSMO Working Draft D 14, 01 March 2005. • [WSMO Use Case] Stollberg, M. ; Lausen, H. ; Polleres, A. ; Lara, R. (ed. ): WSMO Use Case Modeling and Testing, WSMO Working Drafts D 3. 2; D 3. 3. ; D 3. 4; D 3. 5, 05 November 2004. • [WSML] de Bruijn, J. (Ed. ): The WSML Specification, WSML Working Draft D 16, 03 February 2005. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

182 References WSMO • • • [Arroyo et al. 2004] Arroyo, S. , Lara, 182 References WSMO • • • [Arroyo et al. 2004] Arroyo, S. , Lara, R. , Gomez, J. M. , Berka, D. , Ding, Y. and Fensel, D: "Semantic Aspects of Web Services" in Practical Handbook of Internet Computing. Munindar P. Singh, editor. Chapman Hall and CRC Press, Baton Rouge. 2004. [Berners-Lee et al. 2001] Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler, and Ora Lassila, “The Semantic Web”. Scientific American, 284(5): 34 -43, 2001. [Chen et al. , 1993] Chen, W. , Kifer, M. , and Warren, D. S. (1993). HILOG: A foundation for higher-order logic programming. Journal of Logic Programming, 15(3): 187 -230. Domingue, J. Cabral, L. , Hakimpour, F. , Sell D. , and Motta, E. , (2004) IRS -III: A Platform and Infrastructure for Creating WSMO-based Semantic Web Services WSMO Implementation Workshop (WIW), Frankfurt, Germany, September, 2004 [Fensel, 2001] Dieter Fensel, “Ontologies: Silver Bullet for Knowledge Management and Electronic Commerce”, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

183 References WSMO • • • [Gruber, 1993] Thomas R. Gruber, “A Translation Approach 183 References WSMO • • • [Gruber, 1993] Thomas R. Gruber, “A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications”, Knowledge Acquisition, 5: 199 -220, 1993. [Grosof et al. , 2003] Grosof, B. N. , Horrocks, I. , Volz, R. , and Decker, S. (2003). Description logic programs: Combining logic programs with description logic. In Proc. Intl. Conf. on the World Wide Web (WWW 2003), Budapest, Hungary. [Kifer et al. , 1995] Kifer, M. , Lausen, G. , and Wu, J. (1995). Logical foundations of object-oriented and frame-based languages. JACM, 42(4): 741 -843. [Pan and Horrocks, 2004] Pan, J. Z. and Horrocks, I. (2004). OWL-E: Extending OWL with expressive datatype expressions. IMG Technical Report IMG/2004/KR-SW-01/v 1. 0, Victoria University of Manchester. Available from http: //dl-web. man. ac. uk/Doc/IMGTR-OWL-E. pdf. [Stencil Group] - www. stencilgroup. com/ideas_scope_200106 wsdefined. html Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

184 References Discovery B. Benatallah, M. Hacid, C. Rey, F. Toumani Towards Semantic Reasoning 184 References Discovery B. Benatallah, M. Hacid, C. Rey, F. Toumani Towards Semantic Reasoning for Web Services Discovery, . In Proc. of the International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2003), 2003 Herzog, R. ; Lausen, H. ; Roman, D. ; Zugmann, P. : WSMO Registry. WSMO Working Draft D 10 v 0. 1, 26 April 2004. Keller, U. ; Lara, R. ; Polleres, A. (Eds): WSMO Web Service Discovery. WSML Working Draft D 5. 1, 12 Nov 2004. Keller, U. ; Lara, R. ; Lausen, H. ; Polleres, A. ; Fensel, D. : Automatic Location of Services. In Proc. of the 2 nd European Semantic Web Symposium (ESWS 2005), Heraklion, Crete, 2005. M. Kifer, R. Lara, A. Polleres, C. Zhao, U. Keller, H. Lausen and D. Fensel: A Logical Framework for Web Service Discovery. Proc. 1 st. Intl. Workshop SWS'2004 at ISWC 2004, Hiroshima, Japan, November 8, 2004, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613 -0073 Lara, R. , Lausen, H. ; Toma, I. : (Eds): WSMX Discovery. WSMX Working Draft D 10 v 0. 2, 07 March 2005. Lei Li and Ian Horrocks. A software framework for matchmaking based on semantic web technology. In Proc. of the Twelfth International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2003), 2003. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

185 References Discovery Lei Li and Ian Horrocks. A software framework for matchmaking based 185 References Discovery Lei Li and Ian Horrocks. A software framework for matchmaking based on semantic web technology. In Proc. of the Twelfth International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2003), 2003 Daniel J. Mandell and Sheila A. Mc. Ilraith. Adapting BPEL 4 WS for the Semantic Web: The Bottom-Up Approach to Web Service Interoperation. In Proceedings of the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2003), Massimo Paolucci, Takahiro Kawamura, Terry R. Payne, Katia Sycara; Importing the Semantic Web in UDDI. In Proceedings of Web Services, E-business and Semantic Web Workshop, 2002 Massimo Paolucci, Takahiro Kawamura, Terry R. Payne, Katia Sycara; "Semantic Matching of Web Services Capabilities. " In Proceedings of the 1 st International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2002), 2002 Preist, C. : A Conceptual Architecture for Semantic Web Services. In Proceedings of the 3 rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2004), 2004, pp. 395 - 409. Stollberg, M. ; Keller, U. ; Fensel. D. : Partner and Service Discovery for Collaboration on the Semantic Web. Proc. 3 rd Intl. Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2005), Orlando, Florida, July 2005. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

186 References IRS III J. Domingue, L. Cabral, F. Hakimpour, D. Sell and E. 186 References IRS III J. Domingue, L. Cabral, F. Hakimpour, D. Sell and E. Motta: IRS-III: A Platform and Infrastructure for Creating WSMO-based Semantic Web Services. Proceedings of the Workshop on WSMO Implementations (WIW 2004) Frankfurt, Germany, September 29 -30, 2004, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613 -0073, online http: //CEURWS. org/Vol-113/paper 3. pdf. J. Domingue and S. Galizia: Towards a Choreography for IRS-III. Proceedings of the Workshop on WSMO Implementations (WIW 2004) Frankfurt, Germany, September 29 -30, 2004, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613 -0073, online http: //CEUR-WS. org/Vol-113/paper 7. pdf. Cabral, L. , Domingue, J. , Motta, E. , Payne, T. and Hakimpour, F. (2004). Approaches to Semantic Web Services: An Overview and Comparisons. In proceedings of the First European Semantic Web Symposium (ESWS 2004); 10 -12 May 2004, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Motta, E. , Domingue, J. , Cabral, L. and Gaspari, M. (2003) IRS-II: A Framework and Infrastructure for Semantic Web Services. In proceedings of the 2 nd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2003) 20 -23 October 2003, Sundial Resort, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. These papers and software downloads can be found at: http: //kmi. open. ac. uk/projects/irs Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

187 Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the contribution of the past and present 187 Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the contribution of the past and present members of the OWL-S coalition for their hard work in the development of the language. Furthermore, we would like to thank the community at large for contributing to tools and ideas. Furthermore, we would like to thank to all the members of the WSMO, WSML, and WSMX working groups for their advice and input into this tutorial. Special thanks to Sheila Mc. Ilraith, Craig Schlenoff, Daniel Elenius and Naveen Srinivasan for providing slides and suggestions on this tutorial. Slide design by Roberta Hart-Hilber, DERI Austria Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006

188 Acknowledgements The development of OWL-S has been funded almost exclusively by the DAML 188 Acknowledgements The development of OWL-S has been funded almost exclusively by the DAML DARPA program. The WSMO working groups are funded by the European Commission under the projects DIP, Knowledge Web, SEKT, SWWS, and ASG; by Science Foundation Ireland under the DERI-Lion project; and by the Vienna city government under the FIT-IT Programme in the projects RW 2 and TCP. IRS development is funded by the European Commission under the DIP project, and formerly IBROW, and by the UK EPSRC under the AKT project, and formerly MIAKT. Semantic Web Services, HICSS 39, Kauai (Hawaii), 04 January 2006