Скачать презентацию ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ Remote Sensing ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ Скачать презентацию ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ Remote Sensing ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ

3aff9e01c687cf9271ded909b8bb2541.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 77

 ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ Remote Sensing ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ Satellites & Sensors ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ Remote Sensing ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ Satellites & Sensors

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ چﺮﺧﺶ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ چﺮﺧﺶ

Orbit name Low Earth Orbit Medium Earth Orbit Geosynchronous Orbit initials LEO Orbit altitude Orbit name Low Earth Orbit Medium Earth Orbit Geosynchronous Orbit initials LEO Orbit altitude (km Details / comments above Earth's surface) 200 - 1200 MEO 1200 - 35790 GSO 35790 Geostationary Orbit GEO 35790 High Earth Orbit Above 35790 HEO Orbits once a day, but not necessarily in the same direction as the rotation of the Earth - not necessarily stationary Orbits once a day and moves in the same direction as the Earth and therefore appears stationary above the same point on the Earth's surface. Can only be above the Equator.

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ چﺮﺧﺶ ü ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﺯﻣیﻦ آﻬﻨگ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ چﺮﺧﺶ ü ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﺯﻣیﻦ آﻬﻨگ ü ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣیﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﺩیﺪ ﺛﺎﺑﺘی ﺍﺯ یک ﺍیﺴﺘگﺎﻩ ﺯﻣیﻨی ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ü ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ 09753 کیﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ چﺮﺧﺶ ü ﺗﻘﺮیﺒﺎ ﻫﺮ 02ﺭﻭﺯ یکﺒﺎﺭ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ چﺮﺧﺶ ü ﺗﻘﺮیﺒﺎ ﻫﺮ 02ﺭﻭﺯ یکﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺍﺯ یک ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻣی کﻨﻨﺪ کﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﻢ ﺧﻮﺭﺷیﺪ ﺍﺯ آﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻣی گﺬﺭﺩ ü ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﺧﻮﺭﺷیﺪ آﻬﻨگ ü ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻘﺮیﺒی 007 ﺗﺎ 009 کیﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ Polar Eliptical Sun-sychoronous Equatorial Geosynchronous

 ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑیﻀﻮی ) (Elliptical Orbit • • ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍیﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑیﻀﻮی ) (Elliptical Orbit • • ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍیﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺑیﻀﻮی ﺑﻪ چﺮﺧﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻣی آیﻨﺪ. ﺯﻣیﻦ ﺩﺭ یکی ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﻗﻄﺐ ﺍیﻦ ﺑیﻀی ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣیگیﺮﺩ. ﺍیﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍی ﺩﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺍﻭﺝ ﻭ ﺣﻀیﺾ ﻣی ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﻫﻨگﺎﻣیکﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺍﻭﺝ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣیگیﺮﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﺶ کﺎﻫﺶ یﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗآﺜیﺮ ﻧیﺮﻭی ﺟﺎﺫﺑﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺯﻣیﻦ کﺸیﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﺶ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﻣیﺸﻮﺩ ﻫﻨگﺎﻣیکﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺰﺩیکی ﺯﻣیﻦ ﻣی ﺭﺳﺪ ﺑﺪﻟیﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺯیﺎﺩی کﻪ پیﺪﺍ کﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ پﺮﺗﺎﺏ ﻣی ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍیﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ. ﺍیﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻗﻄﺒی ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻗﻄﺒی ﺭﺍ ﻧیﺰ پﻮﺷﺶ ﻣیﺪﻫﻨﺪ.

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ چﺮﺧﺶ ü ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻣﺪﺍﺭ پﺎییﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ چﺮﺧﺶ ü ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻣﺪﺍﺭ پﺎییﻦ ü ﻋﻤﺪﺗﺎ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻧﻈﺎﻣی ﻭ ﺟﺎﺳﻮﺳی ﻭ ﺷﺎﺗﻠﻬﺎی ﻓﻀﺎﺋی ﻣی ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ü ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻘﺮیﺒی 002 ﺗﺎ 008 پﺎﺋیﻦ ﺗﺮیﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭی کﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ کیﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ ﻣی ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺩﺭ آﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑگیﺮﻧﺪ، ﻣﺪﺍﺭ پﺎﺋیﻦ یﺎ ) (LEO ﻣی ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. LEO ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭی Low Earth Orbit ﻣی ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍیﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ 002 -008 کیﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺯﻣیﻦ ﻣیﺒﺎﺷﺪ. ﺍﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺑﺪﻟیﻞ ﺍیﻨکﻪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗآﺜیﺮ ﺟﺎﺫﺑﻪ ﺯﻣیﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧگیﺮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺯﻣیﻦ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻧکﻨﻨﺪ ﺑﺎیﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺴیﺎﺭ ﺯیﺎﺩی ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺮکﺰ ﺯﻣیﻦ ﺑچﺮﺧﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻧیﺮﻭی گﺮیﺰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮکﺰ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﻧیﺮﻭی ﺟﺎﺫﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﻟیﺪ کﻨﻨﺪ.

 ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗی • • ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗی ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﺳﻨکﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗی • • ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗی ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﺳﻨکﺮﻭﻥ یﺎ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻧی ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻌیﺖ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭی ﺯﻣیﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻨﻈﺮ ﻣی ﺭﺳﻨﺪ. ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ پﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗی ﺑﺴیﺎﺭ گﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﻣی ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﺍیﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻋﻤﻮﻣآ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ یک ﺭﻟﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭی ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ یک ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭی ﺯﻣیﻦ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺑکﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﻩ ﻣی ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺍیﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗی ، ﺳیگﻨﺎﻟﻬﺎی ﺗﻠﻮیﺰﻧی ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻤﺎﻣی ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍی ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣی ﺳﺎﺯﺩ. ﺍیﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻤچﻨیﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍیﻨﺘﺮﻧﺘی ﺭﺍ )ﻫﻤچﻨﺎﻧکﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ آﻦ ﻫﺴﺘیﺪ ( ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣی کﻨﺪ. چﻨﺎﻧچﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺨﻮﺍﻫیﺪ پیﺎﻣی ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮیﻘﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ آﺴیﺎ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ کﻨیﺪ ﺩیگﺮ یک ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻧﻤی ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ

Satellite Military Satellite Civilian Satellite Meteoral Applications Earth Resource Applications Geostationary Polar Orbit Manned Satellite Military Satellite Civilian Satellite Meteoral Applications Earth Resource Applications Geostationary Polar Orbit Manned Sat. Unmanned Sat. 250 Km Space Race Mercury Tiros, Noaa, Nimbus 700 -900 Km Geos , Meteo. Sat , HIMA Synchronized Metrology Thermal Sensor Microwave Sky Land Mirror Space Shuttle Apollo Visible Sensor HCMM Gemini First Generation Land. Sat 1 -4 Second generation Sea Sat , ERS Land. Sat 5 -7 , Spot , Ikonuse

 ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی آﻨﻬﺎ ﻧکﺎﺕ ﻓﻨی ﻣﻬﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ü ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی آﻨﻬﺎ ﻧکﺎﺕ ﻓﻨی ﻣﻬﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ü ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﻣکﺎﻧی ü ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﺯﻣﺎﻧی ü ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﻃیﻔی ü ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﺭﺍﺩیﻮ ﻣﺘﺮیک ü ﻗﺎﺑﻠیﺖ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ ﺑیﻨی ü ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ü ﻗیﻤﺖ ﻫﺮ کیﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ

 ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی آﻨﻬﺎ ü ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﻣکﺎﻧی • ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺘی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی آﻨﻬﺎ ü ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﻣکﺎﻧی • ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺘی ﺍﺯ ﺯﻣیﻦ کﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺸﺨیﺺ ﺍﺳﺖ • ﻫﺮ چﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ، ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎیی ﺗﻔکیک پﺪیﺪﻩ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ • ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﻣکﺎﻧی یک ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺎیﺪ کﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ پﺪیﺪﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺭ کﻮچکﺘﺮیﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﺵ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﺎﺭﺿﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﺨیﺺ ﺩﺍﺩ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ : ﺍگﺮ ﺑﺨﻮﺍﻫیﻢ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ پﺎﺭک ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎیی کﻨیﻢ، ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﻣکﺎﻧی ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ، ﺑﺎیﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻘﺮیﺐ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻗﻄﺮ کﻮچکﺘﺮیﻦ ﺗﺎﺝ پﻮﺷﺶ ﺩﺭﺧﺖ ﻧﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺍگﺮ

Kutztown GEOEYE-1 Kutztown GEOEYE-1

 ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی آﻨﻬﺎ ü ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﻃیﻔی • ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی آﻨﻬﺎ ü ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﻃیﻔی • ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ پﻬﻨﺎی ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻃیﻔی کﻪ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﺳﺖ • ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎی ﺟﻤﻊ آﻮﺭی ﺩﺍﺩﻩ: 1 ﺗک ﺑﺎﻧﺪی) (Single Band یﺎ یک ﻧﺎﺣیﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻃیﻒ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃیﺲ 2 ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ چﻨﺪﻃیﻔی) (Multi Spectral ﺩﺭ چﻨﺪیﻦ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻃیﻒ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃیﺴی ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ MSS 3 ﻓﺮﺍﻃیﻔی) (Hyper. Spectral کﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ چﻨﺪ ﺻﺪ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﻃیﻔی ﺟﻤﻊ آﻮﺭی ﻣی کﻨﻨﺪ

 ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎیپﺮﺍﺳپکﺘﺮﺍﻝ: ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺑﺮﺩ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ)…, (Hyperion , Ali, ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎیپﺮﺍﺳپکﺘﺮﺍﻝ: ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺑﺮﺩ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ)…, (Hyperion , Ali, Proba ﻫﻮﺍﺑﺮﺩ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ , (Hymap , casi , AVRIS , DBHS ). …

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻪ ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ ü ﺩﻭﺭﺑیﻨﻬﺎی ﻓﻀﺎﺋی ﻋکﺲ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻪ ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ ü ﺩﻭﺭﺑیﻨﻬﺎی ﻓﻀﺎﺋی ﻋکﺲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋی ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺳیﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ ﻣﺮکﺰی ، ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻓﺘﻮگﺮﺍﻣﺘﺮی ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺷﺎﺗﺮ ﻋکﺲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋی ﺭﻭی ﺻﻔﺤﻪ کﺎﻧﻮﻧی ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﻣیگﺮﺩﺩ ﻭ 0003 - KFA ﻭ 053 - TK 0001 - KFA

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻪ ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ ü ﺳیﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎی ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭی ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻪ ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ ü ﺳیﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎی ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭی ﺭﺍﺩﺍﺭ ) (SAR ﺑﺮﺍی ﺗﻬیﻪ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ ﻧﻮﺍﺭی پﺎﻟﺴﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ پی ﺩﺭ پی ﻭﺗﻮﺳﻂ آﻨﺘﻦ ﻭیژﻪ ﺍی ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺯﻣیﻦ ﻣی ﻓﺮﺳﺘﺪ. ﺳیﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺍﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ گیﺮی ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺯﺳﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺯگﺸﺖ پﺎﻟﺲ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍیﻦ پﺎﻟﺴﻬﺎ پﺪیﺪﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌییﻦ ﻭ

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻪ ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ Push Broomü ﺷﺎﻣﻞ یک ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻪ ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ Push Broomü ﺷﺎﻣﻞ یک ﺳﺮی آﺸکﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺯ ﺧﻄی ﺩﺭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ کﺎﻧﻮﻧی ﻋﺪﺳی ﻣی ﺑﺎﺷﺪ کﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎی ﺗﻮﺟیﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺟی ﻫﺮ ﺧﻂ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻂ ﻣﺠﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ , IRS , SPOT MOMS

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻪ ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ Whish Broomü ﺍیﻦ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻪ ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ Whish Broomü ﺍیﻦ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ یک یﺎ چﻨﺪ پیکﺴﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ یک ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻣی ﻧﻤﺎیﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ یک آیﻨﻪ ﺩﻭﺍﺭ یک ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ پﻮیﺶ ﻣی ﻧﻤﺎیﺪ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ MSS ﺩﺭ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ Land. Sat

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ی Push Broom ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍیﺠﺎﺩ ﺩیﺪ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ Cross ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ی Push Broom ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍیﺠﺎﺩ ﺩیﺪ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ Cross Track ü ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻣکﺎﻥ ﺍیﺠﺎﺩ ﺩیﺪ ﻣﺎیﻞ ﺍﻣکﺎﻥ ﺗﻬیﻪ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺗﺼﺎﻭیﺮ ﻣﺠﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ Spot , IRS

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ی Push Broom ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍیﺠﺎﺩ ﺩیﺪ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ Along ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ی Push Broom ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍیﺠﺎﺩ ﺩیﺪ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ Along Track ü ﺩﺭ ﺍیﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺍﻣکﺎﻥ ﺍیﺠﺎﺩ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ یک ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ MOMS, Jers

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ی Push Broom ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍیﺠﺎﺩ ﺩیﺪ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ Flexible ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ی Push Broom ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍیﺠﺎﺩ ﺩیﺪ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ Flexible ü

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ • : Active ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺝ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ • : Active ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺝ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﺯﺗﺎﺑﺶ آﻦ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ • – : Passive ﺍﺧﺬ ﺍﻧﺮژی گﺴیﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭیﺎ ﺑﺎﺯﺗﺎﺑیﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎیﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ Sonar Radar Lidar Satellite sensors Air photos Cameras Video recorders – –

 ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﻣکﺎﻧی ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔکیک ﻣکﺎﻧی ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ Space Imaging Satellite (US( Satellite Landsat Image. Sat Terra MODIS )Israel/US( Enhanced Aqua MODIS Thematic SPOT 4 and 5 Satellite Mapper + Vegetation IKONOS EO-1 ENVISAT-1 Advanced Land Imager AATSR Quick. Bird 2 SPOT-4 NOAA AVHRR Digital globe (Earth Terra ASTER Orbview 3 Watch)(U S( Orbimage(US( IRS-P 6 LISS 3 )Orbital SPOT 5 Sciences HRV-IR ( ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ پﺮﺗﺎﺏ Ikonos 1 1999 Ikonos 2 Bands 1999 ﺳپﺘﺎﻣﺒﺮ Resolution 24 7 multispectral, EROS 36 bands. A Pan EROS A 1 30 -60 m 1998 250– 1000 m Blue, Green, EROS B 1 Bands Red, NIR, MIR EROS B 2 Blue, Green, 9 multispectral, Red, NIR, Pan Green, Red, Pan EROS B 3 NIR, SWIR, 3 EROS B 4 Blue, Green, TIR Green, Red, NIR, Pan EROS B 5 MIR, Pan Red, NIR, 3 Early. Bird 1 TIR Quick. Bird 1 (multi) 2000 5 ﺩﺳﺎﻣﺒﺮ 15 m (Pan) 1000 m 2003 Resolution 2004 4 m. (multi) 30 m (multi) 2004 1000 meters 1 m. (Pan) 10 m (Pan) 2005 2. 44 -2. 88 m. 20 m. (multi) 2005 10 m. (Pan) 61 -72 cm. 1100 meters 1997 (Pan) 2000 Green, Red, NIR, 4 m. (multi) 15 -90 meters Blue, Green, 2 Quick. Bird 2001 81 ﺍﻛﺘﺒﺮ 6 SWIR , 5 TIR Red, NIR, Pan 1 m. (Pan) Orb. View-3 2002 Green, Red, NIR, 24 meters Green, Red, 5 m. (pan) Orb. View-4 2001 MIR NIR, MIR 10 m (multi) 20 m (MIR) 2002 France SPOT 5 Russia RESURS-DK 2003 India Cartosat-1(IRS-P 5( 2003 ﺧیﻠی کﻢ< 003 ﻣﺘﺮ ü 30 < 003ﻣﺘﺮ<کﻢ ü ﻣﺘﺮ 3 < 03ﻣﺘﺮ<ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ü ﻣﺘﺮ 3 ﻣﺘﺮ<ﺑﺎﻻ< 0/5 ﻣﺘﺮ ü

Spatial resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper Greenville, NC Spatial resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper Greenville, NC

Spatial resolution SPOT Palm Springs, CA Spatial resolution SPOT Palm Springs, CA

Spatial resolution IKONOS Sydney Olympic Park Spatial resolution IKONOS Sydney Olympic Park

Temporal Resolution • Number of days between overhead passes at the same location – Temporal Resolution • Number of days between overhead passes at the same location – Landsat - 16 days – AVHRR - daily – IKONOS - 1 to 3 days

Push Broom ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ی Push Broom ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ی

 ﺑﺮﺭﺳی ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺼﺎﻭیﺮ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ü ﺍﻫﻤیﺖ ﻭ ﺟﺎیگﺎﻩ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺑﺮﺭﺳی ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺼﺎﻭیﺮ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ü ﺍﻫﻤیﺖ ﻭ ﺟﺎیگﺎﻩ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ü ﺗﻌﺮیﻒ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ü ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃیﺲ ﻭ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ آﻦ ü ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ü ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی آﻨﻬﺎ ü ﺑﺮﺭﺳی ﺗﺼﺎﻭیﺮ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ

 ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی آﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪی آﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ( )ﺭﻭﺯ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ (km ) CCD ﺍﺑ ﻌﺎﺩ ﻳﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ )پﻴﻜﺴﻞ ( پﻬﻨﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ Pan (km) 11 Pan (m) MS (m) Pa n Vi s IR ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻮﻣﺘﺮﻱ ( )ﺑﻴﺖ Flexible 8/0 26/3 1 11 1. 5 680 12µm 13500 Flexible 80/1 - - 11 1. 8 480 µm 7800 Flexible 61/0 44/2 1 3 1 11 1 450 Flexible 5/2 - - 10 5 617 7µm Cross track 2/5 2/21 1 2 1 6 3 780 Cross track 8/5 5/23 1 2 1 6 5 Cross track 0/10 0/20 1 2 1 8 - 2 - 1 - - Along track - 0/5 - 1 1 ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ IKONOS 12. 5 EROS A 1 16. 5 Quick. Bir d 2 12000 30 IRS-P 5 7µm 409*3 6 63 IRS-1 D 817 7µm 409*3 6 70 IRS-1 C 5 830 13µm 6000 60 SPOT 4 - - 220 260 l/mm 18*72 40 cm KVR 1000 - - 270 60 l/mm 30*30 cm 80 KFA 1000

Digital Globe Company(USA) MS Res. (m) ACCURACY CE 90 Satellite Band Lunching Time Swath Digital Globe Company(USA) MS Res. (m) ACCURACY CE 90 Satellite Band Lunching Time Swath Width (km) Pan Res. (m) World. View-1 Pan+RGB+NIR 18. 09. 2007 17. 6 0. 5 - <4 M World. View-2 Pan+8 MS 08. 10. 2009 16. 4 0. 46 1. 85 <3. 5 M World. View-3 Pan+8 MS+8 SWI R+12 CAVIS* 13. 08. 2014 13. 1 0. 31 1. 24 <3. 5 M World. View-4 Pan+RGB+NIR 11. 2016 13. 1 0. 31 1. 24 <4 M Geoeye-1 Pan+RGB+NIR 06. 09. 2008 15. 2 0. 41 1. 65 <4 M Pléiades 1 Earth Watch 17. 12. 2011 20 0. 5 2 <10 M • 8 -band multispectral (coastal, blue, green, yellow, red edge, NIR-1 and NIR-2) • 8 -band shortwave infrared (SWIR) • 12 -band CAVIS (corrects for Clouds, Aerosols, Vapors, Ice and Snow

 ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ Spot ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ Spot

Spot ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ 1. Artist view of SPOT 4 - © 1998 – CNES 1. Spot ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ 1. Artist view of SPOT 4 - © 1998 – CNES 1. Artist view of SPOT 5 - © 2002 – CNES

Spot ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ • SPOT image of Izmit, Turkey • smoke obscures image in post-earthquake Spot ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ • SPOT image of Izmit, Turkey • smoke obscures image in post-earthquake image

Radar Bands • Radar pulses are sent and received in discrete wavelength regions (designated Radar Bands • Radar pulses are sent and received in discrete wavelength regions (designated with letters) • Controlled by the federal government so as not to interfere with commercial broadcasting and emergency frequencies • Most commonly used: ƒ Ka-band: 0. 8 – 1. 1 cm (1. 0 cm) C-band: 3. 8 - 7. 5 cm (5. 3 cm) L-band: 15. 0 - 30. 0 cm (23. 5 cm) X-band: 2. 4 – 3. 8 cm (3. 0 cm) S-band: 12 cm P-band: 30. 0 - 100. 0 cm (68 cm)

www. ayazi. ir www. ayazi. ir

SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) • newer platform • 12. 5 m pixel size • SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) • newer platform • 12. 5 m pixel size • radio wave frequencies used • active, not passive (spacecraft generates radar wave, records reflectance • only a single band of reflectance • values represent strength of reflected signal

SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) • SAR image of Washington, DC • textures are easily SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) • SAR image of Washington, DC • textures are easily differentiated

 ؟ ؟