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ﺗکﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻲ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ Information Technology ﺭﺿﺎ ﺷﺎﻫﻘﺪﻣﻲ گﺮﻭﻩ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻭ ﻓﻴﺰﻳک پﺰﺷکﻲ Reza@sbmu. ac. ir
ﺳﺮﻓﺼﻞ ü آﺸﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ کﺎﻣپﻴﻮﺗﺮ ª ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨچﻪ کﺎﻣپﻴﻮﺗﺮ ª ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻋﻤﻠکﺮﺩ کﺎﻣپﻴﻮﺗﺮﻭ ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ آﻦ ª آﺸﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ª آﺸﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎ ª ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ
ﺳﺮﻓﺼﻞ ) ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ( ü آﺸﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻳﻨﺪﻭﺯ ª کﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺎﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻭ پﻮﺷﻪ ﻫﺎ) ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ،ﺣﺬﻑ،ﻧﺎﻣگﺬﺍﺭﻱ،ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻧﺎﻡ ﻭ. . . ª ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ª ﻓﺎﻳﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ Drag & Dropª Clipboardª
ﺳﺮﻓﺼﻞ ) ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ( ü آﺸﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ کﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ Ms. Paintª ü آﺸﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻱ Microsoft Office Wordª Excelª Power Pointª
ﺳﺮﻓﺼﻞ ) ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ( ü آﺸﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ª ﺷﺒکﻪ چﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ چگﻮﻧﻪ کﺎﺭ ﻣﻴکﻨﺪ. ª ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺴﻬﺎی آﻦ ª ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ª ﺑﺎﻧک ﻫﺎی ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗی Data. Base ª پﺴﺖ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴک ﻭ گﺮﻭﻫﻬﺎی ﺧﺒﺮی ª ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ
ﺳﺮﻓﺼﻞ ) ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ( ü ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ یک ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺗی ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﻧﻔﻮﺭﻣﺎﺗﻴک پﺰﺷکی ) (Medical Informatics
ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ü ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ کﺘﺐ ICDL – International Computer Driving License ü The Internet for PHYSICIANS Roger P. Smith
ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻱ ﺩیگﺮ ﺟﻤﻼﺕ ﺯیﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑیﺎﻥ ﻣی ﺑیﻞ گیﺘﺲ ﺭﺋیﺲ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺳﺲ ﺷﺮکﺖ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭی ﻣیکﺮﻭﺳﺎﻓﺖ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮکﺖ ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ: ﺍگﺮ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭی ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺯ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺘی ﻫﻤﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭی کﺎﻣپیﻮﺗﺮ پیﺸﺮﻓﺖ کﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ، ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﺗﻮﻣﺒیﻞ ﻫﺎیی ﺳﻮﺍﺭ ﻣیﺸﺪیﻢ کﻪ: • ﺳﺮﻋﺘﺸﺎﻥ ۰۰۰۲۲ ﻣﺎیﻞ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﻮﺩ! • ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﻨﺰیﻦ ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ۴ ﻟیﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ۰۰۰۱ ﻣﺎیﻞ ﺑﻮﺩ! ﺩﻻﺭ ﺑﻮﺩ! • ﺑﻬﺎی ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ۵۲ ﺭﺋیﺲ ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺑیﻞ گیﺘﺲ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺯیﺮ پﺎﺳﺦ ﻣی ﺩﻫﺪ: ﺍگﺮ چﻨیﻦ ﻣی ﺷﺪ: • ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻫیچ ﺩﻟیﻠی ﻣﺎﺷیﻦ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻑ ﻣی کﺮﺩ! • ﻫﺮ ﺩﻓﻌﻪ کﻪ ﺧﻂ ﻫﺎی ﻭﺳﻂ ﺧیﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮ ﻧﻘﺎﺷی ﻣی کﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎیﺪ یک ﻣﺎﺷیﻦ ﺟﺪیﺪ ﻣی ﺧﺮیﺪیﺪ! • گﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺑیگﺎﻩ ﻣﺎﺷیﻦ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺧیﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺮکﺖ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣی ﺍیﺴﺘﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺷﻤﺎ چﺎﺭﻩ ﺍی ﺟﺰ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺭﺕ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘیﺪ! • ﻫﺮ ﺑﺎﺭ کﻪ ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺯ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺟﺪیﺪی ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻣیکﺮﺩ ﺧﺮیﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﺎﺷیﻦ ﺑﺎیﺪ ﺭﺍﻧﻨﺪگی ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﻝ یﺎﺩ ﻣی گﺮﻓﺘﻨﺪ چﻮﻥ ﻫیچ یک ﺍﺯ ﻋﻤﻠکﺮﺩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ کﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻫﺎی ﻣﺎﺷیﻦ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺪﻝ ﻗﺒﻠی ﻧﺒﻮﺩ! • ﻓﻘﻂ یک ﻧﻔﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺷیﻦ ﻣی ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺴﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ کﻨﺪ ﻣگﺮ ﺍﻧکﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺧﺮیﺪ ﻣﺎﺷیﻦ ﻣﺪﻝ ۵۹ یﺎ NT ﺑﺮﺍی ﺍﻥ ﺻﻨﺪﻟی ﻫﺎی ﺑیﺸﺘﺮی ﺧﺮیﺪﺍﺭی ﻣی کﺮﺩیﺪ! • ﺻﻨﺪﻟی ﻫﺎی ﺟﺪیﺪ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﻣی کﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺪﻥ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﺑکﻨﻨﺪ! • گﺎﻫی ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ کﺎﺭﻫﺎیی ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ گﺮﺩﺵ ﺑﻪ چپ ﻣﺎﺷیﻦ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻣی ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻥ ﻧیﺰ ﺍﺯ کﺎﺭ ﻣی ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺍیﻦ گﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ چﺎﺭﻩ ﺍی ﺟﺰ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘیﺪ! • چﺮﺍﻏﻬﺎی ﺍﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻌیﺖ ﺑﻨﺰیﻦ، ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺏ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ یک ﻧﻤﺎیﺸگﺮ ﺧﻄﺎ ﺗﻌﻮیﺾ ﻣی ﺷﺪﻧﺪ! • ﺑﺮﺍی ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ کﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﺎﺷیﻦ ﺑﺎیﺪ ﺩکﻤﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺭﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻣی ﺯﺩﻧﺪ! ﺍﺻﻼ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺩ ﺭﺍﻧﻨﺪگﺎﻥ • ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺯ ﺧﺮیﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﺎﺷیﻦ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺮیﺪ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﺭﺍﻩ ﻫﺎیی ﻣی کﺮﺩ کﻪ ﻣﻤکﻦ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺗﻼﺵ ﺑﺮﺍی پﺎک کﺮﺩﻥ ﺍیﻦ گﺰیﻨﻪ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ کﺎﻫﺶ کیﻔیﺖ ﻋﻤﻠکﺮﺩ ﺗﺎ ۰۵ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻭ ﺑیﺸﺘﺮ ﻣیﺸﺪ! ﻧﺨﻮﺭﺩ. ﻫﺮ گﻮﻧﻪ • کیﺴﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨگﺎﻡ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻑ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻤﺎ ﻣی پﺮﺳیﺪ: ? Are You Sure
ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﻲ کﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺧﻮﻧﻴﺪ ﻣکﺎﻟﻤﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻔﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺍکﺰ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭﻩ ﻣﺎﻳکﺮﻭﺳﺎﻓﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧگﻠﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ : ﻣﺮکﺰ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭﻩ : چﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ کﺎﻣپﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﺪ؟ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : ﻳک کﺎﻣپﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ! * ﻣﺮکﺰ : ﺳﻌﻲ کﺮﺩﻳﻦ ﺩکﻤﻪ ﺭﻭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ؟ ﺳﻼﻡ، ﻣﻦ ? ﺳﻠﻴﻦ? ﻫﺴﺘﻢ. ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﻧﻢ ﺩﻳﺴکﺘﻢ ﺭﻭ ﺩﺭﺑﻴﺎﺭﻡ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ :
ﺩﻗﻴﻘ چﻪ کﺎﺭ کﺮﺩﻳﻦ؟ ﻣﺮکﺰ : ﺍﻵﻦ 8 F ﺭﻭ ﺑﺰﻧﻴﻦ. ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : کﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﻲ کﻨﻪ. ﻣﺮکﺰ : ﻭ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : ﻣﻦ کﻠﻴﺪ F ﺭﻭ 8 ﺑﺎﺭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻡ ﻫﻤﻮﻧﻄﻮﺭ کﻪ گﻔﺘﻴﺪ، ﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻲ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺍﻓﺘﻪ * ﻣﺮکﺰ : ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻨﻴﺪ کﻪ ﺑﻪ کﺎﻣپﻴﻮﺗﺮﺗﻮﻥ ﻭﺻﻠﻪ؟ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : کﻴﺒﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳگﻪ کﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﻲ کﻨﻪ. ﻣﺮکﺰ : کﻴﺒﻮﺭﺩﺗﻮﻥ ﺭﻭ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻳﺪ ﻭ چﻨﺪ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ. ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : ﻧﻪ، ﻣﻦ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﻧﻢ پﺸﺖ کﺎﻣپﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺮﻡ. ﻣﺮکﺰ : کﻴﺒﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺎ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺍﻭﻣﺪ؟ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : ﺑﺎﺷﻪ. ﻣﺮکﺰ : ﺍﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ کﻴﺒﻮﺭﺩ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. کﻴﺒﻮﺭﺩ ﺩﻳگﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﻭﻧﺠﺎ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ؟ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : ﺑﻠﻪ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : چﺮﺍ، ﻳکﻲ ﺩﻳگﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﻫﺴﺖ. ﺍﻭﻩ. . . ﺍﻭﻥ ﻳکﻲ کﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ کﻨﻪ * ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : ﺍﻭﻥ 7 ﻫﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺰﺭگﻪ ؟ ﻣﺮکﺰ : ﺭﻣﺰ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ کﻮچک a ﻣﺜﻞ ،apple ﻭ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺑﺰﺭگ V ﻣﺜﻞ ،Victor ﻭ ﻋﺪﺩ 7 ﻫﺴﺖ. * ﻣﺮکﺰ : ﺷﻤﺎ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻨﻴﺪ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ کﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﻳﺪ؟ ﻳک ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺑﺸﻪ. . . ﻣﺮکﺰ : ﻣﻴﺸﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑگﻴﺪ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ چﻲ ﺑﻮﺩ؟ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : ﺑﻠﻪ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻨﻢ. ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﺪﻡ ﻫﻤکﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﻳﻦ کﺎﺭ ﺭﻭ کﺮﺩ. ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : پﻨﺞ ﺗﺎ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﻩ * ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : Netscape ﻣﺮکﺰ : چﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ آﻨﺘﻲ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ کﻨﻴﺪ ؟ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : ﺍﻭﻩ، ﺑﺒﺨﺸﻴﺪ. . Internet Explorer ﻣﺮکﺰ : ﺍﻭﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ آﻨﺘﻲ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. * ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : ﻣﻦ ﻳک ﻣﺸکﻞ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﺩﺍﺭﻡ. ﻳکﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺳﺘﺎﻡ ﻳک Screensaver ﺭﻭﻱ کﺎﻣپﻴﻮﺗﺮﻡ گﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ، ﻭﻟﻲ ﻫﺮﺑﺎﺭ کﻪ ﻣﺎﻭﺱ ﺭﻭ ﺣﺮکﺖ ﻣﻴﺪﻡ، ﻏﻴﺐ ﻣﻴﺸﻪ ! * ﻣﺮکﺰ : ﻣﺮکﺰ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﺮکﺖ ﻣﺎﻳکﺮﻭﺳﺎﻓﺖ، ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﻧﻢ کﻤکﺘﻮﻥ کﻨﻢ؟ ﻟﻄﻔ ﺑگﻴﺪ چﻘﺪﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻴکﺸﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨکﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﻧﻴﻦ کﻤکﻢ کﻨﻴﺪ؟ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ : ﻋﺼﺮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﺨﻴﺮ! ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ 4 ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺻﺒﺮ کﺮﺩﻡ. ﻣﻴﺸﻪ
An Exhibition at the National Museum of American History Information Age: People, Information & Technology These photographs are from the exhibition, Information Age: People, Information & Technology in the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The exhibition displays visually and interactively how electrical information technology has changed our society over the last 150 years.
Information ﻧﻤﺎیﺶ ﻓیﺰیکی ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻋﻤﻠکﺮﺩ کﺎﻣپیﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺳیﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍیﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ
چگﻮﻧگی ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻓﻴﺰﻳکی ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ
ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻓﻴﺰﻳکی ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ü ﻧﻤﺎیﺶ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﻗﻌیﺖ ﻣکﺎﻧیکی ü ﻧﻤﺎیﺶ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎ کﻤیﺖ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮیکی پیﻮﺳﺘﻪ ü ﻧﻤﺎیﺶ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎ کﻤیﺖ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮیکی گﺴﺴﺘﻪ
ﺍﺟﺪﺍﺩ ﻣکﺎﻧیکی کﺎﻣپیﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎی ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻭﻧیکی The Slide Rule – 1625: logarithmic scales that slide past The abacus - a simple each other for approximations to multiplication; in counting aid, Babylonia continual use by scientists right up until the handheld (now Iraq), fourth calculator introduced by Hewlett Packard in 1972. century B. C. Charles Babbage – 1820, conceives of a massive steampowered mechanical calculator that uses punch-cards similar to those used by the Jacquard loom and can perform simple conditional operations. Unfortunately Babbage never saw his project finished, ran out of personal funds and Government sponsorship soon dried up as well. Lady Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace and daughter of Lord Byron, the poet, documents Babbage's work and writes programs for Babbage. Mechanical Precursors to the Electronic Computer
ﻧﻤﺎیﺶ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎ کﻤیﺖ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮیکی پیﻮﺳﺘﻪ- Analog ü ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﺳیگﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ. ü ﺑیﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺑی ﻧﻬﺎیﺖ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ü ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻧﻮیﺰ )ﺯﻣﺎﻥ( t )ﻭﻟﺘﺎژ( v
Analog Computers 2 3 + 5
Early Calculating Machines through those of today ü Analytical engine ü The 1890 Census machine ü ENIAC
ﻧﻤﺎیﺶ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎ کﻤیﺖ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮیکی گﺴﺴﺘﻪ- Digital ü ü )ﻭﻟﺘﺎژ( v ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﺳیگﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻫﺮ ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺩﺍﺭﺍی یک ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻓیﺰیکی ) (Physical ﻭ یک ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘی ) (Logical ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﺎﻻی ﺧﻂ آﺴﺘﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﻄﻖ ” 1“ ﻭ پﺎییﻦ آﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻖ” 0” ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻧﻮیﺰ 1 ü ﺩﻭ ﺳﻄﺤی Binary ﺍﺳﺖ. ü ﻫﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ یک )Binary Digit یک (Bit ﺍﺳﺖ. 8 Bit = 1 Byte ü ü ﻫﺮ ﺑیﺖ ﺩﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣی ﺩﻫﺪ n ü ﺑﺎ n ﺑیﺖ 2 ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺭﺍ ﻣی ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩ. 8 652 = 2 , ü 8 Bit = 1 Byte 61 63556 = 2 ü 0 0 )ﺯﻣﺎﻥ( t 1 0
ü Kilo ü Mega(million) ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ü Giga (billion) ﻣﻴﻠﻴﺎﺭﺩ ü Tera (trillion) ﺗﺮﻳﻠﻴﻮﻥ 1024= 210 1024 Kilo 1024 Mega 1024 Giga
Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 10000 Decimal Hex Octal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 20 23 22 21 20 3 2 1 0 8 4 2 1 1 0 1 1 1*8 + 0*4 + 1*2 + 1*1 = 11
ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ü ü Text Audio Image Video ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻴگﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻳکﻲ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ü ü Text ASCII Table A ----- 65 This is a text. B ----- 66 ------ 84, 105, 115, 32, 97, 32, … a ----- 97 American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
ü Unicode A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode character repertoire has multiple representation forms, including UTF-8, UTF 16, and UTF-32. Most Windows interfaces use the UTF-16 form. ü Unicode Character System (UCS) An international standard character set reference that is part of the Unicode standard. The most widely held existing version of the UCS standard is UCS-2, which specifies 16 -bit character values currently accepted and recognized for use to encode most of the world's languages. ü Unicode Transmission Format 8 (UTF-8) A character set for protocols evolving beyond the use of ASCII. The UTF-8 protocol provides for support of extended ASCII characters and translation of UCS-2, an international 16 -bit Unicode character set. UTF-8 enables a far greater range of names than can be achieved using ASCII or extended ASCII encoding for character data.
ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Unicode® control characters Unicode control characters are tags that help with text flow and direction for languages such as Arabic and Hebrew. To install these languages, use Regional and Language Options in Control Panel. These descriptions are adapted from The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 2. 0. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Developers Press, February 1997. Left-to-right mark (LRM) Right-to-left mark (RLM) Acts exactly like right-to-left characters, except that it is not displayed. RLM does not have any other semantic effect. Zero width joiner (ZWJ) Prevents the joining of consecutive characters on output. Zero width non-joiner (ZWNJ) Adds a non-joiner between two characters to prevent them from forming a cursive connection with each other when rendered. Start of left-to-right embedding (LRE) Signals that a piece of text is to be treated as embedded left-to-right. For example, an English quotation in the middle of an Arabic sentence could be marked as being embedded left-toright text. (LRE affects word order, not character order. ) Start of right-to-left embedding (RLE) Signals that a piece of text is to be treated as embedded right-to-left. For example, a Hebrew phrase in the middle of an English quotation could be marked as being embedded right-toleft. (RLE affects word order, not character order. ) Start of left-to-right override (LRO) Overrides bidirectional character types when required for special cases, such as for part numbers. LRO forces characters to be treated as strong left-to-right characters. Start of right-to-left override (RLO) Overrides bidirectional character types when required for special cases, such as for part numbers. RLO forces characters to be treated as strong right-to-left characters. Pop directional formatting (PDF) Terminates the effects of the last explicit code (either embedding or override) and restores the bidirectional state to what it was before the last LRE, RLO, or LRO control characters. National digit shapes substitution (NADS) Uses national digit shapes to display the U+0030 -U+0039 (ASCII numerals). The national digit shapes are determined by the current user locale. Nominal (European) digit shapes (NODS) Uses the nominal digit shapes for the digits U+0030 -U+0039 (ASCII digits). Nominal digit shapes are Western digits. Activate symmetric swapping (ASS) Indicates whether the term LEFT or RIGHT in pairs of character names, such as parentheses, should be interpreted as meaning opening or closing, respectively. (The default state is activated. ) Inhibit symmetric swapping (ISS) Turns off the symmetric swapping of characters such as parenthesis, so that left and right continue to mean left and right facing, as opposed to opening and closing, when symmetric swapping is on. Activate Arabic form shaping (AAFS) Controls the shaping behavior of the Arabic compatibility characters. During the presentation process, certain letterforms may be joined together in cursive connection or ligatures. The shaping selector codes indicate that the character shape determination (glyph selection) process used to achieve this presentation effect is to be either activated or inhibited. (The default state is inhibited. ) Inhibit Arabic form shaping (IAFS) Inhibits the character shaping determination process, so that characters are not shaped based on position. Record Separator (Block separator) (RS) Begins a new line after each line separator. Unit Separator (Segment separator) (US)
: ; / ~ ! # $ ^ & Colon Semicolon slash Back Slash Tilde Exclamation mark Number Sign Dollar Hat ampersand @ | ‘ At Sign Pipe “ Single Quote, apostrophe Quotation
ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ Text Audio Image Video ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ü ü ﻣﺘﻦ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻴگﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻳکﻲ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ Audio Analog To Digital 40, 42, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 49, 48, 47, … ü ü
ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ü ü ﻣﺘﻦ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻴگﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻳکﻲ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ Image ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ü ü 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 01 , 0 , 0 , 21, 51, 0 , 0 , 0 . . 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 Text Audio Image Video
ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ü ü ﻣﺘﻦ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻴگﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻳکﻲ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 01 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 21, 51, 01, 0 , 0 , 0 . . . . 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ü ü Text Audio Image Video
Computer Generations ü 1 st Generation 1945 -1959 ü 2 nd Generation 1959 -1963 ü 3 rd Generation 1964 -1971 ü 4 th Generation 1971 – 1984 ü 5 th Generation 1984 – 1990 ü 6 th Generation 1990 – now
1 st Generation 1945 -1959 ü Made to order operating instructions ü Different binary coded programs told it how to operate ü Difficult to program and limited versatility and speed ü Vacuum tubes ü Magnetic drum storage
2 nd Generation 1959 -1963 ü Transistors ü Memory – magnetic core ü Assembly language ü Printers and memory ü Programming languages ü Careers
3 rd Generation 1964 -1971 ü Quartz clock ü Integrated circuit ü Operating systems
4 th Generation 1971 – 1984 ü LSI – Large Scale Integration ü VLSI – Very Large Scale Integration ü Chip ü General consumer usage ü Networks
5 th Generation 1984 – 1990 ü Parallel processing ü Multi-processing ü Chip advancement
6 th Generation 1990 – now ü This is the future ü What new advancements lie ahead? ü What changes will be big enough to create this new generation?
ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer post WWII / Univ. Pennsylvania and US Government 18, 000 vacuum tubes and 5 million soldered joints!
UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer was commercially available from Remington Rand in 1951; it incorporated stored memory and a CPU central processing unit
Vacuum tubes were used in ENIAC; large and hot! Transistors were invented in 1948 and used in computers by 1956
IBM 360 was the computer prototype of the 1960’s and included printer, tape and disk storage, and stored programs such as COBAL (Common business oriented language) and FORTRAN (formula translator); By the mid-1980’s IBM earned over $100 billion in profits.
IBM 650 was a cluster of computers that processed data for large institutions; in the movie ‘ 2001’ what was the name of the computer that ran the US space mission?
DEC PDP 8 was a minicomputer that we used in the lab in 1972; it represents the transition from mainframes to PC’s. By the mid 1970’s, personal desktop computers were being mass marketed by Commodore, Radio Shack, and Apple.
Radio Shack TRS 801 from 1977
1350 In 1971, Intel extended To avoid government intervention integrated circuit technology for monopolistic business practices, to place all computer IBM permitted Bill Gates and his operations on a single chip. Microsoft to produce a compatible Personal computers were first version of the IBM PC DOS disk manufactured for small operating system. groups of hobbyists. In 1981, IBM introduced the PC or personal computer. 1360
Homebrew Computer Club, from Smithsonian exhibit
The mouse was fundamental to the development of the Graphical User Interface. GUI revolutionized use of computers through the concept of icons and point and click control which replaced cumbersome text command strings. In a TV ad during the 1984 superbowl, the Macintosh computer was introduced by Apple. Microsoft later ‘adapted’ this concept into the Windows operating system.
The IBM Punch Card “do not fold, spindle, or mutilate”
This paper tape contains the first version of a BASIC language interpreter written by Bill Gates and Paul Allen for the MITS Altair 8800 computer while both were students at Harvard University. The Altair was a computer kit that appeared as the cover story of the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics magazine. The BASIC interpreter allowed Altair owners to program their machines using English-like commands. Altair BASIC was the first mass -produced commercial program written by Gates's company, known at the time as "Micro Soft. "
History of Data Storage (Portability is Everything) • Punch cards: cards stored both operating instructions and data • Ticker tape: feed of individual punch cards was too slow…the ticker • • • tape, a thin strip of paper "streamed" to get a consistent data slow Magnetic tape: both punch cards and ticker tape were far too slow Magnetic disk: able to read data "randomly" from a disc coated in magnetically-switchable bits, rather than from a linear tape. Data speeds and storage capacity improved Floppy and Zip disks: removeable storage … explodes the personal computing industry; from 1. 44 Mb ‘floppies’ to 100 -750 Mb zip disks Multi-platter drives and RAID systems : Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks … introduced the concept of redundancy in computer systems for reliability Optical storage: In 1962 the diode laser was developed, allowing mass manufacture of optical drives; from music and software read-only to recordable 700 Mb CD and 4. 7 Gb DVD USB Flash Memory Key Storage: 16 Mb to 1 Gb, $21 -313; does not require a disk dive rather uses a USB interface
Internet World Wide Web Fiber-optic cable revolutionized computer communication. Growth in connectivity from LAN local area network in an office building to internet www world wide web. The latest innovation is mobile or wireless, such as wireless internet system at the School of Medicine.
The Handheld Calculator ushers in the era of personal electronic computers. The HP-35 Scientific Calculator (1972) was the world's first handheld scientific calculator and HP's first product that contained both integrated circuits and LEDs, combining miniaturization and portability with powerful computing technology. PDA – Personal Digital Assistant 1996, original Palm Pilot: PDA’s rely on stylus/touch-screen technology and handwriting recognition programs for data entry. PDA’s keep addresses and calendars, crunch numbers, play games or music and download information from the Internet. They're designed to complement a personal computer, not replace one; communication between PDA and PC is referred to as data synchronization. May have wireless features including e-mail and cell phone.
The Origin of Computer Bugs Thomas Edison talked about bugs in electrical circuits in the 1870 s. When the first computers were built during the early 1940 s, people working on them found bugs in both the hardware of the machines and in the programs that ran them. In 1947, engineers working on the Mark II computer at Harvard University found a moth stuck in one of the components. They taped the insect in their logbook and labeled it "first actual case of bug being found. " The words "bug" and "debug" soon became a standard part of the language of computer programmers.
ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﻠکﺮﺩ کﺎﻣپیﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ
ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ IBM Cards and keypunch
General Purpose Computers • What makes a PC different? • Today your PC can’t play Final Fantasy IX. • Tonight you go buy the Final Fantasy IX CD-ROM • Tomorrow your PC can play the game! • PC’s are general-purpose computers.
The Stored Program • Idea is simple: • Build a machine that can execute certain instructions. • Then, write down different lists of instructions (programs) to accomplish different things. • One program plays an adventure game • Another program lets you write papers • Another lets you surf the Internet
Wirth’s Law ü The software gets slower faster than the hardware gets faster ü What does this mean?
). History (cont ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ • Punched Cards stored program . for weaving patterns • Jacquard’s Loom )0181 (circa کﺎﺭﺕ پﺎﻧچ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌییﻦ ﻣیکﻨﺪ کﺎﺭﺕ پﺎﻧچ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌییﻦ ﻣیکﻨﺪ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ Soft. Ware Hardware
ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺻﻠی ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ Process Unit – ﻭﺍﺣﺪ پﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ Input ﻭﺭﻭﺩی Central Processing Unit (CPU) پﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺮکﺰی Main Memory – ﺣﺎﻗﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی RAM ROM Peripheral Memory – ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒی Random Access Memory Read Only Memory Out. Put ﺧﺮﻭﺟی
Schematic Diagram of a Personal Computer. . . bus Printer Mouse Ports Keyboard Disk controller Graphics card Modem CPU RAM Monitor Sound card Speakers Network card Computer
Most people’s computer. . . CRT Display “The Box” CD-ROM Drive Floppy Disk Drive Keyboard Mouse
Motherboard HDD (Hard Disk Drive) Inside “The Box” CPU (Central Processing Unit) SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module) Power Supply
ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺻﻠی ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ Process Unit – ﻭﺍﺣﺪ پﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ Input ﻭﺭﻭﺩی Central Processing Unit (CPU) پﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺮکﺰی Main Memory – ﺣﺎﻗﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی RAM ROM Peripheral Memory – ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒی Random Access Memory Read Only Memory Out. Put ﺧﺮﻭﺟی
ﺗﻘﺴیﻢ ﺑﻨﺪی ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺻﻠی ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ Read/Write Memory (RWM) ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻧی ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻨی Process Unit – ﻭﺍﺣﺪ پﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ Read Only Memory (ROM) ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻧی Central Processing Unit (CPU) Programmable ROM (PROM) پﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺮکﺰی Input Erasable PROM (EPROM) Out. Put ﻭﺭﻭﺩی Electrically EPROM (EEPROM) or Flash Rom ﺧﺮﻭﺟی Main Memory – ﺣﺎﻗﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی RAM ROM Peripheral Memory – ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒی Random Access Memory Read Only Memory
ﺗﻘﺴیﻢ CPU ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺻﻠی ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﻇﺎیﻒ ﺑﻨﺪی ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻧی ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻨی ) Read/Write Memory (RWM ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی ﻭﺍﺣﺪ پﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ – Process Unit ﺗﻔﺴیﺮ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍی ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱﻓﻘﻂ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻧی ) Read Only Memory (ROM ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺯ پیﺶ ﺗﻌﺮیﻒ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ: ) Central Processing Unit (CPU ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘی • ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺭیﺎﺿی) Programmable ROM (PROM پﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺮکﺰی Input Out. Put ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی • ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺩﺭ ) Erasable PROM (EPROM ﺧﺮﻭﺟیﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘگﺎﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻭﺭﻭﺩی / ﺧﺮﻭﺟی ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ • Electrically EPROM (EEPROM) or Flash Rom ﻭﺭﻭﺩی • ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺮﻃی • ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺏ ﺣﺎﻗﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی – Main Memory ROM RAM ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒی – Peripheral Memory Read Only Memory Random Access Memory
ﺗﻘﺴیﻢ CPU ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺻﻠی ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺜﺎﻟی ﺍﺯ ﺑﻨﺪی CPU ﻓﺮﺿیﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﻭﻇﺎیﻒ یک ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺯیﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻧی ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻨی ) Read/Write Memory (RWM ﺍﺻﻠی ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ پﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺗﻌﺮیﻒ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ یک CPU ﻓﺮﺿی – Process Unit ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺗﻔﺴیﺮ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍی ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱﻓﻘﻂ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻧی ) Read Only Memory (ROM 01 ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺭﻭﺩی ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺯ پیﺶ ﺗﻌﺮیﻒ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ: ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ) Central Processing Unit (CPU ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘی 21 ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕﺩﺭ ﺧﺮﻭﺟی ﺭیﺎﺿی) Programmable ROM (PROM • ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ پﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺮکﺰی Input • Out. Put ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی 41 ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺩﺭ ) Erasable PROM (EPROM ﺟﻤﻊ کﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺑﻌﺪی • ﺧﺮﻭﺟیﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘگﺎﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻭﺭﻭﺩی / ﺧﺮﻭﺟی ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ 61 Electrically EPROM (EEPROM) or Flash Rom ﻭﺭﻭﺩی ﺑﺮﻭ ﺑﻪ آﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﻌﺪی ﺣﺎﻗﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی – Main Memory ﻣﺜﺎﻟی ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺮﻃیﺩﺭ CPU ﻓﺮﺿی • ﺍﺯ چﻨﺪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ROM • ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺏ RAM 1, 61, 21 , 01 : 1 Program 1, 61, 21, 01, 41, 01 : 2 Program ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒی – Peripheral Memory 2, 61, 21, 01, 41, 01 : 3 Program Read Only Memory Random Access Memory
ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺻﻠی ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ Process Unit – ﻭﺍﺣﺪ پﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ Input ﻭﺭﻭﺩی Central Processing Unit (CPU) CPU Cache پﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺮکﺰی Main Memory – ﺣﺎﻗﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی RAM ROM Operating System Peripheral Memory – ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒی Random Access Memory Read Only Memory OFF Out. Put ﺧﺮﻭﺟی
ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺻﻠی ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ON Process Unit – ﻭﺍﺣﺪ پﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ Basic Input Output System ( BIOS ) Central Processing Unit (CPU) CPU Cache پﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺮکﺰی • Power On Self Test (POST) Input Out. Put • Test Hardware, Devices, Ram, CPU ﻭﺭﻭﺩی ﺧﺮﻭﺟی Main Memory – ﺣﺎﻗﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی • Look for Bootable device and Load Operating System (BOOT) from it (Floppy, RAM ROM CD, HDD, USB, Network ) Operating System Peripheral Memory – ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒی Random Access Memory Read Only Memory
ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺻﻠی ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ Process Unit – ﻭﺍﺣﺪ پﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ Input ﻭﺭﻭﺩی Central Processing Unit (CPU) CPU Cache پﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺮکﺰی BOOT Main Memory – ﺣﺎﻗﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی RAM ROM Operating System Peripheral Memory – ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒی Random Access Memory Read Only Memory ON OFF Out. Put ﺧﺮﻭﺟی
ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺻﻠی ﺗﺸکیﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ Process Unit – ﻭﺍﺣﺪ پﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ON OFF Basic Input Output System ( BIOS ) Central Processing Unit (CPU) CPU Cache پﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺮکﺰی • Power On Self Test (POST) Input Out. Put • Test Hardware, Devices, Ram, CPU ﻭﺭﻭﺩی ﺧﺮﻭﺟی BOOT Main Memory – ﺣﺎﻗﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی • Look for Bootable device and Load Operating System (BOOT) from it (Floppy, RAM ROM CD, HDD, USB, Network ) Operating System Peripheral Memory – ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒی Random Access Memory Read Only Memory
ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺳیﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ چیﺴﺖ؟ ü ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺍی ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﺑیﻦ کﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ü ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺳیﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ª ﺍﺟﺮﺍی ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎی کﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ª ﺳﺎﺩﻩ کﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ کﺎﻣپیﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺮﺍی کﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ª ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻬیﻨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ
ﻭﻇﺎیﻒ ﺳیﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ چیﺴﺖ؟ ü ﺗﻔﺴیﺮ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍی ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ کﺎﺭﺑﺮ ü ﻣﺪیﺮیﺖ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒی ü ﻣﺪﺑﺮیﺖ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠی
Four Components of a Computer System ª Hardware – provides basic computing resources Ø CPU, memory, I/O devices ª Operating system Ø Controls and coordinates use of hardware among various applications and users ª Application programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users Ø Word processors, compilers, web browsers, database systems, video games ª Users Ø People, machines, other computers
Text User Interface ( command prompt ) Run -> cmd
Graphic User Interface (GUI ) Folder Shortcut Icons Window Task. Bar Resident Programs Start Button Quick Lunch Desktop Icon Tray
ﻓﺎیﻞ - FILE ü ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍی ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ یک ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ،ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗی کﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ یک ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣیگیﺮﺩ یﺎ ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩی کﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ کﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﺍیﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ü ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﺻﻠی ﺫﺧیﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯی کﻪ کﺎﻣپیﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻣیﺴﺎﺯﺩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺪ. ü ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍی ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ کﻪ کﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﻣیﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ آﻨﺮﺍ ﺗﻐییﺮ ﺩﻫﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺫﺧیﺮﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺯیﺎﺑی کﻨﺪ، ﺣﺬﻑ کﻨﺪ یﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳیﻠﻪ ﺧﺮﻭﺟی ﻣﺜﻞ چﺎپگﺮ ﺑﻔﺮﺳﺘﺪ یﺎ ﺑﺎ پﺴﺖ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻭﻧیک ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ کﻨﺪ.
ﻓﻮﻟﺪﺭ – پﻮﺷﻪ - Folder ü ﻇﺮﻓی ﺑﺮﺍی ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻓﺎیﻞ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ. ü یک پﻮﺷﻪ ﻭﺳیﻠﻪ ﺍی ﺑﺮﺍی ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺩیﺴک ﺍﺳﺖ. ü ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ پﻮﺷﻪ ﻓﺎیﻞ ﻫﺎ ﻭ پﻮﺷﻪ ﻫﺎی ﺩیگﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ.
ﻧﺎﻡ ﻓﺎیﻞ یﺎ ﻓﻮﻟﺪﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻓﺎیﻞ ﺍﺯ کﺎﺭﺍکﺘﺮﻫﺎی ) | > < " ? * : / ( ﻧﻤیﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ. ü ﺩﺭ DOS Nnnnnnn. xxx ü ﺣﺪﺍکﺜﺮ 8 ﻭ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ یک کﺎﺭﺍکﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﺍی ﻧﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺣﺪﺍکﺜﺮ 3 ﻭ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﺎﺭﺍکﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﺍی پﺴﻮﻧﺪ ü پﺴﻮﻧﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻑ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻓﺎیﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺩﺭ Windows کﺎﺭﺍکﺘﺮﻫﺎی dot ﻭ Space ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻧﺎﻡ ﻓﻮﻟﺪﺭﻫﺎی ﺳیﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺜﻞ , Documents and Settings 23 Windows, or System ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤی ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻮﺽ کﺮﺩ. ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ آﺨﺮیﻦ dot پﺴﻮﻧﺪ ﻓﺎیﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ کﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ آﻨﺮﺍ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣیکﻨﺪ.
File Attribute Files and folders have property sheets, which display information such as : ü size, ü location, ü the date the file or folder was created. ü File or folder attributes which indicate whether a file is ª read-only, ª hidden, ª ready for archiving (backing up), ª compressed, ª encrypted, and ª whether the file contents should be indexed for fast file searching. ü Type of file. ü Name of the program that opens the file. ü Number of files and subfolders contained in the folder. ü Last time the file was modified or accessed.
Shortcut ü Shortcuts to local or network programs, files, folders, or Internet addresses
ü disk A storage device that is attached to a computer. ü drive An area of storage that is formatted with a file system and has a drive letter. The storage can be a floppy disk, a CD, a hard disk, or another type of disk. You can view the contents of a drive by clicking its icon in Windows Explorer or My Computer. ü drive letter The naming convention for disk drives on IBM and compatible computers. Drives are named by letter, beginning with A, followed by a colon. ü desktop ª The on-screen work area on which windows, icons, menus, and dialog boxes appear.
آﺪﺭﺱ یک ﻓﺎیﻞ C: Documents and SettingsReza ShahghadamiMy DocumentsBluetoothdevice. doc 1 - C: colon ﻧﺎﻡ ﺩﺭﺍیﻮ ﺑﺎ کﺎﺭﺍکﺘﺮ 2 - Documents and SettingsReza ShahghadamiMy DocumentsBluetooth Path ﻣﺴیﺮ یﺎ 3 - device. doc ﻧﺎﻡ ﻓﺎیﻞ
Using wildcard characters A wildcard character is a keyboard character such as an asterisk (*) or a question mark (? ) that is used to represent one or more characters when you are searching for files, folders, printers, computers, or people. Wildcard characters are often used in place of one or more characters when you do not know what the real character is or you do not want to type the entire name. Wildcard character Uses Asterisk (*) Use the asterisk as a substitute for zero or more characters. If you are looking for a file that you know starts with "gloss" but you cannot remember the rest of the file name, type the following: gloss* This locates all files of any file type that begin with "gloss" including Glossary. txt, Glossary. doc, and Glossy. doc. To narrow the search to a specific type of file, type: gloss*. doc This locates all files that begin with "gloss" but have the file name extension. doc, such as Glossary. doc and Glossy. doc. Question mark (? ) Use the question mark as a substitute for a single character in a name. For example, if you type gloss? . doc, you will locate the file Glossy. doc or Gloss 1. doc but not Glossary. doc.
Personal folders overview ü My Documents is your personal folder. It contains two specialized personal folders, My Pictures and My Music. ü Windows creates personal folders for every user on the computer. When there is more than one person using the computer, each personal folder is identified by the user's name. ü Windows also provides a Shared Documents folder for files you want to share with other users.
Basic Windows features ü Shortcut ü Selection (Ctrl, Shift, Range, Ctrl+A) ü Drag & Drop ªDrag able objects ªDroppable Objects ü Clipboard ªCut Ctrl + x ªCopy Ctrl + c ªPaste Ctrl + v Clip. Board
Help and Support Center Help
Windows keyboard shortcuts overview General keyboard shortcuts Press To CTRL+C Copy. CTRL+X Cut. CTRL+V Paste. CTRL+Z Undo. DELETE Delete. SHIFT+DELETE Delete selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin. CTRL while dragging an item Copy selected item. CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item Create shortcut to selected item. F 2 Rename selected item. CTRL+RIGHT ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word. CTRL+LEFT ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word. CTRL+DOWN ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph. CTRL+UP ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph. CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys Highlight a block of text. SHIFT with any of the arrow keys Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text within a document. CTRL+A Select all.
Windows keyboard shortcuts overview General keyboard shortcuts F 3 Search for a file or folder. ALT+ENTER View properties for the selected item. ALT+F 4 Close the active item, or quit the active program. ALT+Enter Displays the properties of the selected object. ALT+SPACEBAR Opens the shortcut menu for the active window. CTRL+F 4 Close the active document in programs that allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously. ALT+TAB Switch between open items. ALT+ESC Cycle through items in the order they were opened. F 6 Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop. F 4 Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer. SHIFT+F 10 Display the shortcut menu for the selected item. ALT+SPACEBAR Display the System menu for the active window. CTRL+ESC Display the Start menu. ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name Display the corresponding menu. Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu Carry out the corresponding command. F 10 Activate the menu bar in the active program. RIGHT ARROW Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu. LEFT ARROW Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu. F 5 Refresh the active window. BACKSPACE View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer. ESC Cancel the current task. SHIFT when you insert a CD into the CD-ROM drive Prevent the CD from automatically playing.
Windows keyboard shortcuts overview Dialog box keyboard shortcuts Press To CTRL+TAB Move forward through tabs. CTRL+SHIFT+TAB Move backward through tabs. TAB Move forward through options. SHIFT+TAB Move backward through options. ALT+Underlined letter Carry out the corresponding command or select the corresponding option. ENTER Carry out the command for the active option or button. SPACEBAR Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box. Arrow keys Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons. F 1 Display Help. F 4 Display the items in the active list. BACKSPACE Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box.
Windows keyboard shortcuts overview Natural keyboard shortcuts Windows logo key Application key
Windows keyboard shortcuts overview Accessibility keyboard shortcuts Application key Windows logo key Press To Right SHIFT for eight seconds Switch Filter. Keys on and off. Left ALT +left SHIFT +PRINT SCREEN Switch High Contrast on and off. Left ALT +left SHIFT +NUM LOCK Switch Mouse. Keys on and off. SHIFT five times Switch Sticky. Keys on and off. NUM LOCK for five seconds Switch Toggle. Keys on and off. +U Open Utility Manager.
Windows keyboard shortcuts overview Windows Explorer keyboard shortcuts Press To END Display the bottom of the active window. HOME Display the top of the active window. NUM LOCK+ASTERISK on numeric keypad (*) Display all subfolders under the selected folder. NUM LOCK+PLUS SIGN on numeric keypad (+) Display the contents of the selected folder. NUM LOCK+MINUS SIGN on numeric keypad (-) Collapse the selected folder. LEFT ARROW Collapse current selection if it's expanded, or select parent folder. RIGHT ARROW Display current selection if it's collapsed, or select first subfolder.
Menu Bar Windows Explorer Address Bar Folders Explorer Bar Standard Buttons Links Bar
ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺭﺳﺎﻧی Information Communication Technology (ICT)
ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺭﺳﺎﻧی چیﺴﺖ؟ ü ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺭﺳﺎﻧی = ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺐ آﻦ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺒیﻦ ﻣﺤیﻂ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ
آﺸﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ Information System ü ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ) : ( Data ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ ﻋﻠی – 000022 – 5831/5/41 ü ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ) : ( Information ª ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺎﺗﻲ کﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ. ª ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑیﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻋﻠی ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﺭیﺦ 5831/5/41 ﺑﺎ پﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ 000022 ﺭیﺎﻝ ﺗﺮﺧیﺺ گﺮﺩیﺪ.
ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﺎیی ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ü ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ ü ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ پﺎیﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ü ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻭیﺴﻬﺎی ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ )ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﻫﺘﻞ، ﺑﻠیﻂ ﻗﻄﺎﺭ،ﻫﻮﺍپیﻤﺎﻭ. . . ( ü ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗی ﺻﻮﺗی ) ﺗﻠﻔﻦ، ﻣﻮﺳیﻘی، ﺳﺨﻨﺮﺍﻧی ü ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﻮیﺮی ü ﺳﺮﻭیﺴﻬﺎی ﻣﺠﺎﺯی ) Virtual ﻣﻮﺯﻩ ، ﻓﺮﻭﺷگﺎﻩ، کﻼﺱ ﺩﺭﺱ، ﺩﺍﻧﺸگﺎﻩ، ﺑیﻤﺎﺭ
ﻣﺤیﻂ ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺭﺳﺎﻧی ü ﻏیﺮ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻭﻧیکی ª ﺭﻭﺯﻧﺎﻣﻪ، ﻣﺠﻠﻪ، ﺑﺮﻭﺷﻮﺭ، کﺎﺗﺎﻟﻮگ ª ﻓﺮﻡ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻧﻈﺮﺳﻨﺠی ª ﺗﻠﻮیﺰیﻮﻥ، ﺭﺍﺩیﻮ ü ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻭﻧیکی ª کﺘﺎﺏ، ﻣﺠﻠﻪ ﻭ ﺳﺎیﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻭﻧیک ª ﺳﺮﻭیﺴﻬﺎی ﺍیﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ Ø ﻭﺏ ﺳﺎیﺖ Ø پﺴﺖ ﺍﻟکﺘﺮﻭﻧیک ﻭ گﺮﻭﻫﻬﺎی ﺧﺒﺮی News FeedØ ª ﺑﺎﻧک ﻫﺎی ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗی ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ یﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﺒکﻪ ﻭ ﺍیﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ
ﻓﻨآﻮﺭی ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ) Information Technology (IT ﻋﻠﻢ ü ﺟﻤﻊ آﻮﺭی ، ü پﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ، ü ﺫﺧیﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯی ﻭ ﺑﺎﺯیﺎﺑی ، ü ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦ آﻮﺭیﻬﺎی کﺎﻣپیﻮﺗﺮی ﻭ ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗی
Informatics Application and Research Areas
گﺮﺩﺵ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ پﺎیگﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﺪیﺪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺳیﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗی Knowledge Database پﺎیگﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ پﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ - Process ﺗﺼﻤیﻢ - Decision ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ
گﺮﺩﺵ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺳیﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗی
چﺮﺧﻪ ﺗﺸﺨیﺺ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ Diagnostic-therapeutic cycle
Three Stages of Human Activities: Observation, Thinking or Reasoning, and Action, for Different Areas ﻓﻌﺎﻟیﺖ ﻫﺎی ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣیﻨﻪ ﻫﺎی ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ، ﺗﻔکﺮ یﺎ Stage 1 General Scientific research Observation Measurement Health care Computer processing Patient data collection Data entry 2 Reasoning Theory Diagnosis Data processing 3 Action Experiment Therapy Output generation
Data Compression ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﺸﺮﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ
ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ) ( Resources ﺩﺭ ﻳک کﺎﻣپﻴﻮﺗﺮ ü ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻓﺎﻳﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ü ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ) چﺎپگﺮ، ،CDRom ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻭ. . . ü ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ کﺎﻣپﻴﻮﺗﺮ ) ،CPU ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ،RAM ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴک
ﺷﺒکﻪ Network ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ کﺎﻣپﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ کﻪ 1. ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻭ 2. ﺍﻣکﺎﻥ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ. ü ﺑﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍک گﺬﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ – Resource Sharing
کﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ Type ﻓﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺕ ) کﺎﺑﻞ ﻫﺎی ﺗﻠﻔﻦ ( 1 Cat ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ 4 ﻣگﺎﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ 2 Cat ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ 01 ﻣگﺎﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ 3 Cat ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ 02 ﻣگﺎﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ 4 Cat ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ 001 ﻣگﺎﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ 5 Cat
کﺎﺑﻞ کﻮﺍکﺴﻴﺎﻝ Unshielded Twisted pair )UTP کﺎﺑﻞ ﻓﻴﺒﺮ ﻧﻮﺭی BNC)Bayone -Neill - Concelman) (RJ- 11 کﺎﻧکﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎی ﺗﻠﻔﻦ RJ-45 (RJ: Registered Jack)
ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ Interconnected Networks ü ﺑﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍک گﺬﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ – Resource Sharing Internet ü ﺍگﺮ ﺑﻪ یک ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍیﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺷﻮیﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍیﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻫﺴﺘیﻢ.
ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ Client – Server Connection ü Request Response Server Client
آﺪﺭﺱ یک کﺎﻣپیﻮﺗﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍیﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ Internet Protocol Address ü ü چﻬﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ کﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻢ چﺪﺍ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ. ü ﻫﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ یک ﺑﺎیﺖ ﻭ ﺑیﻦ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺗﺎ 552 ﺍﺳﺖ. 2. 542. 311. 561 ü 3. 9. 9. 291 ü 11. 24. 812. 712 ü پﺮﻭﺗکﻞ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃی ﺩﺭ ﺍیﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ TCP/IP ﺍﺳﺖ. ) (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ کﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﺯ IP ﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺳپﺮﺩﻥ آﻦ ﻣﺸکﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭﻟی کﺎﻣپیﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣیکﻨﻨﺪ. ﺑﺮﺍی ﺭﺍﺣﺘی کﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ آﺪﺭﺱ ﺩﻫی ﺳﺮﻭیﺲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍی آﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺗﻌﺮیﻒ گﺮﺩیﺪ.
Fully Qualified Domain Name(FQDN) ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺣﻮﺯﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣیﺸﻮﺩ Domain ﻧﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ یﺎ ü. ﺍﺳﺖ IP Address ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ یک آﺪﺭﺱ ﺍیﻨﺘﺮﻧﺘی یﺎ ü. ﺍﺯﺳﻤﺖ ﺭﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ چپ ﺗﻔﺴیﺮ ﻣیﺸﻮﺩ ü. ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻬﺎی ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ آﻦ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻢ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻣیﺸﻮﻧﺪ ü ü www. sbmu. ac. ir ü www. yahoo. com ü www. ms. sbmu. ac. ir ü www. google. com ü www. sbu. ac. ir ü www. nlm. nih. org ü www. Mit. edu
What is the Internet? 1. The Internet is ª ª a network of networks, linking computers to computers sharing the TCP/IP protocols. 2. Each computer on internet runs software to provide or "serve" information and/or to access and view information. 3. The Internet is the transport vehicle for the information stored in files or documents on another computer. 4. It can be compared to an international communications utility servicing computers. 5. The Internet itself does not contain information. It is a slight misstatement to say a "document was found on the Internet. " It would be more correct to say it was found through or using the Internet.
Internet services : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Electronic mail (e-mail). Permits you to send and receive mail. Provides access to discussion groups often called Listservs® after the software they operate under. Telnet or remote login. Permits your computer to log onto another computer and use it as if you were there. FTP or File Transfer Protocol. Allows your computer to rapidly retrieve complex files intact from a remote computer and view or save them on your computer. Gopher. An early, text-only method for accessing internet documents. Gopher has been almost entirely subsumed in the World Wide Web, but you may still find gopher documents linked to in web pages. The World Wide Web (WWW or "the Web"). The largest, fastest growing activity on the Internet.
DOMAIN , TOP LEVEL DOMAIN (TLD) Hierarchical scheme for indicating logical and sometimes geographical venue of a web-page from the network. In the US, common domains are . edu (education), . gov (government agency), . net (network related), . com (commercial), . org (nonprofit and research organizations). Outside the US, domains indicate country: . ca (Canada), . uk (United Kingdom), . au (Australia), . jp (Japan), . fr (France), etc.
EXTENSIONS Extensions are categories of Internet domain names. There are several of them to choose from: . com represents the word "commercial, " and is the most widely used extension in the world. Most businesses prefer a. com domain name because it is a highly recognized symbol for having a business presence on the Internet. . net represents the word "network, " and is most commonly used by Internet service providers, Web-hosting companies or other businesses that are directly involved in the infrastructure of the Internet. Additionally, some businesses choose domain names with a. net extension for their intranet Websites. . org represents the word "organization, " and is primarily used by non-profits groups or trade associations. . biz is used for small business Web sites. . info is for credible resource Web sites and signifies a "resource" web site. It's the most popular extension beyond. com, . net and. org. . us is for American Web sites and is the newest extension. It has the largest amount of available names in inventory.
. cc was originally the country code for Coco's Keeling Islands. It is unrestricted and may be registered by anyone, from any country. . bz was originally designated as the country code for Belize, but is now commonly used by small business who can't get the name they want using the. biz extension. It is unrestricted and may be registered by anyone, from any country. . tv is for rich content/multi-media Web sites, commonly used within the entertainment or media industry. . gs is the country code for the South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands. It is unrestricted and may be registered by anyone, from any country. . ms is the country code for Montserrat. It is unrestricted and may be registered by anyone, from any country. . tc is the country code for the Turks & Caicos Islands. It is unrestricted and may be registered by anyone, from any country. . vg is the country code for the British Virgin Islands. It is unrestricted and may be registered by anyone, from any country. . ws was originally designated as the country code for Western Samoa, but is now commonly used as an acronym for "Web sites. " It is unrestricted and may be registered by anyone, from any country. . name is the only domain extension specifically designed for personal use. It is commonly used for easy to remember e-mail addresses and personal web sites that display photos or personal information about an individual.
ﻳک ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ چگﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ؟ Uniform Resource Locator URL http: //www. example. microsoft. com/Images/pic. gif پﺮﻭﺗکﻞ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ
Example http: //update. microsoft. com. ij 1 tli. com/microsoftofficeupdate/KB 9 10737/default. aspx? ln=enus&email=reza@sbmu. ac. ir&id=31531126250948489230068889 2142305190302644
Dear user of the pajouhan. com mailing service! http: //pajouhan. com. vvverfp. co. uk/owa/servi We are informing you that because of the security ce_directory/settingsphp? email=reza@pajou upgrade of the mailing service your mailbox han. com&from=pajouhan. com&fromname=r (reza@pajouhan. com) settings were changed. In order eza to apply the new set of settings click on the following link: http: //pajouhan. com/owa/service_directory/settings. ph p? email=reza@pajouhan. com&from=pajouhan. com&f romname=reza Best regards, pajouhan. com Technical Support.
ﺍﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﻦ Hyper Text ü ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ: ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ گﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ü ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻲ ﺍﺯ کﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ گﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ گﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ ﻭ Html ﺷکﻞ گﺮﻓﺖ. Request Response Client Server
Html ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻳک ﻓﺎﻳﻞ Reza
ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭ پﻮﻳﺎ Static Pages ü Dynamic Pages ü Server Client Static Pages Request 1 ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ -2 ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ گﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ Dynamic Pages 1 ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ 2 ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ -3 ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ گﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ Response
ﻣﺮﻭﺭگﺮ ﻭﺏ Web Browser ﺑﻪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻳﻲ کﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﻭﺭگﺮ ﻭﺏ ﻳﺎ Web Browser ﻣﻲ گﻮﻳﻨﺪ. • ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ گﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﻲ گﺮﺩﻧﺪ • ﺍﻣکﺎﻥ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ پﺮﻭﺗکﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ. • Hyper Text Transfer Protocol – HTTP • ﺍﻣکﺎﻥ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ آﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ. ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻓﺎﻳﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺩﻳگﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ آﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺮﻭﺭکﺮ ﻭﺏ ﻧﺼﺐ گﺮﺩﺩ کﻪ ﺑﻪ آﻨﻬﺎ Plug In ﻣﻲ گﻮﻳﻨﺪ. Opera , Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator . . . , Maxthon , Mozila Fire. Fox
Server-Side Programming ü More secure. Can be driven by database ü CGI (Common Gateway Interface) ªOriginal way to interface a database to a web page ªCGI scripts often written in PERL or other languages ü ASP (Active Server Pages) ªMicrosoft standard for dynamic web pages ªOften used with databases stored on a web server ªRequires Microsoft web server ü JSP (Java Server Pages) ªJava applets running on web server ü PHP ªJava-like language scripting language ªRuns on Microsoft or Unix/Linux web server
The Environment The following information taken from: http: //www. omniupdate. com/company/releases/release 31. jsp According to Google™ there approximately 8 billion web pages on the World Wide Web today. Those pages are served by about 50 million different web sites which amount to an average of 160 pages per site.
HTML ü ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮچﺴﺐ ﻳﺎ Tag ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﻭﺭگﺮ ﺍﻋﻼﻡ ﻣﻴگﺮﺩﺩ. ü ﺍکﺜﺮ ﺗگ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﻭﺝ ) ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﻭ پﺎﻳﺎﻥ( ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ گﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ.
Life is good.
- Make me an unordered list.
- One programmer
- Ten SDKs
- Great Internet Apps
Html Tag Examples Converts inner text to a hyperlink. The hyperlink text cannot contain other formatting tags. Test Test Converts inner text to a bold style. Breaks to a new line. Converts inner text to an italic style. ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻳک پﺎﺭﺍگﺮﺍﻑ ﻣی گﺮﺩﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ، ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮی ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣی . آﻴﺪ
ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻳک ﺧﻂ ﺍﻓﻘی
Html Tag Examples – Image MapBook. Mark hdgfh Hyper. Link to Book. Mark
Site: . edu Site: . ac. ir Site: sbmu. ac. ir File. Type: . ppt
Search operators If you're not finding what you're searching for after using our basic search tips, try a search operator. Add these symbols or words to your search terms in the Google search box to gain more control over the results that you see. Don’t worry about memorizing the operators - you can use the Advanced Search page to generate many of these searches. When you search using an operator, don't add any spaces between the operator and your query. A search for site: nytimes. com will work, but site: nytimes. com will not. Search for an exact word or phrase "search query" Use quotes to search for an exact word or set of words. This option is handy when searching for song lyrics or a line from literature. "imagine all the people" Tip: Only use this if you're looking for a very precise word or phrase, because otherwise you could be excluding helpful results by mistake. Exclude a word -query Add a dash (-) before a word or site to exclude all results that include that word. This is especially useful for synonyms like Jaguar the car brand jaguar the animal. jaguar speed -car or pandas site: wikipedia. org Tip: You can also exclude results based on other operators, like excluding all results from a specific site. Search within a site or domain site: query If you are looking for more results from a certain website, include site: in your query. For example, you can find all mentions of "olympics" on the New York Times website like this: olympics site: nytimes. com Tip: Also search within a specific top-level domain like. org or. edu or country top-level domain like. de or. jp. olympics site: . gov Search for pages that link to a URL link: query Using the link: operator, you can find pages that link to a certain page. For example, you can find all the pages that link to google. com. link: google. com Tip: You can also search for links to specific pages, like google. com/images. link: google. com/images Search for pages that are similar to a URL related: query To find sites that are similar to a URL you already know, use the related: operator. For example, when you search for related sites to the New York Times, you'll find other news publication sites you may be interested in. related: nytimes. com Include a "fill in the blank" query * query Use an asterisk (*) within a query as a placeholder for any unknown or wildcard terms. Use with quotation marks to find variations of that exact phrase or to remember words in the middle of a phrase. "a * saved is a * earned"
Google Image Search The Advanced Image Search page lets you tailor results in the following ways: • Search for a specific phrase (this is also possible by "surrounding your search with quotes"). • Search for words related to your search. • Exclude words (you can also do this in the search box by putting a minus sign right before the -word you want to exclude). • Filter by image size and aspect ratio. • Filter by image coloration. • Filter by site or domain. • Filter by usage rights labeling. ﻫﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﺍی ﺑﺰﺭگ Ø ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ Ø ﻧﻤﺎﺩ Ø ﻫﺮ ﺭﻧگی ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺭﻧگی Ø ﺳیﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺳﻔیﺪ Ø ﺷﻔﺎﻑ Ø ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ چﻬﺮﻩ Ø ﻋکﺲ Ø ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻫﻨﺮی Ø ﺳیﺎﻩ ﻗﻠﻢ Ø ﺍﻧیﻤیﺸﻦ Ø ﻫﻤﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ ۴۲ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ Ø گﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﻔﺘﻪ گﺬﺷﺘﻪ Ø ü ü
Google Image Advanced Search
What are Blogs? ü "Blog/Web. Log: a web page containing brief, chronologically arranged items of information. A blog can take the form of a diary, journal, what's new page, or links to other web sites. " Scott, Peter. (2001) “Blogging: Creating Instant Content for the Web. ” Internet Librarian 2001, Pasadena, CA http: //library. usask. ca/%7 Escottp/il 2001/definitions. html
Why blog? ü Easy method of web publication ª Not necessary to know HTML ª Content is easily reusable and distributed via RSS; can add updated content to websites ü Management of information for personal or organizational use ü Web based ü Instant ü Reverse chronological ü Links, within entries and collected separately ü Community participation ü Types: personal, political, community, academic, corporate, professional, subject specialists, institutional, news, service ü Bloglines and blogrolls
B. 1 RSS Feeds from a blogsite n n n This topic seems to be coming up … An ‘ad’ for the original
This topic seems to be coming up … An ‘ad’ for the original
B. 2. Aggregators & Syndicate RSS RSS or HTML RSS Retrieves and categorizes RSS from blog (and other) sites And provides a categorized feed to users, or a Web listing: n n n http: //aggregator. weblogs. co. uk/ (a Blog aggregator) http: //aggregator. weblogs. co. uk/ http: //meerkat. oreilly. com (an RSS feed aggregator)  http: //meerkat. oreilly. com http: //www. newzcrawler. com (an RSS desktop client)  http: //www. newzcrawler. com
Summary ü Blogging is for individuals ü RSS (and syndication) help build connectivity, and communities ü Aggregators support simple APIs so it’s easy to build functions that integrate these tools with others (blogsites, portals, other. . ) ª Richer communities via richer functionality ª No conscious high-level architecture: people just try new ideas, and seeing what works (or doesn’t) ª A heterogenous collection of apps, sharing using simple protocols, APIs. ü Each application and protocol is simple (limited scope, easy to use ), and open (encourages reuse, extension) URL as a reference / API is key to this model
RSS ü Really Simple Syndication, Rich Site Summary, RDF (Resource Description Framework) Site Summary. ü Aggregators: web vs. software ª Bloglines (web) ª Liferea (free opensource software) ü Search blog content ª Feedster ü Metablog – Blog without a Library ü Non blog content ª ª ª Open Directory Project Chronicle of Higher Education New York Times Find Articles Yahoo Feeds, Yahoo News RSS Journals ü Library Applications ª In the ILS ª New Books and Library News ü In e-mail Thunderbird
Other blogging programs ü If you want more functionality, use a serverbased program (you’ll need your own space on a server with ability to install software) ªWord. Press (free and open source)http: //wordpress. org/ ØAVAILBLE HERE AT CORNELL for work projects! Contact Aaron Suggs (ams 337@cornell. edu) ªMovable Type (free and paid versions)http: //www. sixapart. com/movabletype/
E Mail Post Office 1 Post Office 2 ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﺳﺎﻥ Account - User ID - Password Mail Server 1 Mail Server 2 User ID @ ( Mail Server or Domain Name) reza@mail. sbmu. ac. ir reza@sbmu. ac. ir shahghadami@yahoo. com
E Mail Standar Folders ü In. Box ü Out. Box ü Draft ü Sent Items ü Deleted Items ü Spam/Junk/Bulk User Defined Folders ü University ü Friends ü. . . Input Letters Spam Detection Engine
ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ Email ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗی کﻪ ﺩﺭ ü From ü To ü Subject ü Body ü Attachment ü CC ü BCC
ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎی ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ Mail Server Pop Mail ü ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ web Client ü پﺮﻭﺗکﻞ POP 3 , SMTP 3 Post Office Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ü ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ client ﻧگﻬﺪﺍﺭی ﻣی ﺷﻮﺩ ü ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺍیﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺮﺍی ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺩﺭیﺎﻓﺖ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺿﺮﻭﺭی ﺍﺳﺖ ü ﻓﻘﻂ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻣیﺸﻮﺩ Web Mail ü ü ü ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ گﺮ ﻭﺏ پﺮﻭﺗکﻞ ) HTTP(s ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳﺮﻭﺭ ﻧگﻬﺪﺍﺭی ﻣی ﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺍیﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺿﺮﻭﺭی ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ، ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﺎ، کﻠیﻪ ﻋکﺲ ﻫﺎ، کﻠیﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺳﺮﻭﺭ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﺎﺩﻩ ﻣیﺸﻮﺩ
Mail Server چﻨﺪ ﻭیژگی ü Auto Reply or vacation response ü Auto Forward ü Receive Reply or Delivery report ü Read Reply ü Block Sender ü Read other POP accounts ü Signature ü Set Importance (Low , Normal , High ) ü Set Sensitivity (Normal, Personal, Private, Confidential) ü Rule or Filters
Some trick to open email Hello! Unfortunately we were not able to deliver postal package sent on the 4 th of June in time because the recipient’s address is incorrect. Please print out the invoice copy attached and collect the package at our office. Your United Parcel Service of America.
Subject: DHL Tracking Number H 2 Z 6 J 26 H Hello! We were not able to deliver postal package sent on the 9 th of July in time because the addressee's address is inexact. Please print out the invoice copy attached and collect the package at our office. Your DHL Delivery Services.
Subjects: Delivery Status Notification (Failure)
Shipping confirmation for order ╧ 41936. Hello! Thank you for shopping at our internet store! We have successfully received your payment. Your order has been shipped to your billing address. You have ordered Ben. Q Joybook S 32. You can find your tracking number in attached to the e-mail document. Please print the label to get your package. We hope you enjoy your order! Shophive. com
چﻨﺪ ﻋکﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺎﺭیﺨچﻪ کﺎﻣپیﻮﺗﺮ
Display (center right: Prof. Jay Forrester, inventor of the Core Memory)
Whirlwind Core Memory - first use of a Core Memory [CMHC] page on Core memory. For a brief description of the technology look at our
Whirlwind Display Panel [CMHC], with Prof. Jay Forrester.
Whirlwind Logic Backplane for redundancy check [CMHC] Most of the tubes -- some missing -- are at the other side. Whirlwind Tube Aging Panel [CMHC]
Why cite sources? Whenever you quote or base your ideas on another person's work, you must document the source you used. Even when you do not quote directly from another work, if reading that source contributed to the ideas presented in your paper, you must give the authors proper credit
1. Citations allow readers ª ª ª to locate and further explore the sources you consulted show the depth and scope of your research give credit to authors for their ideas 2. Citations ª ª provide evidence for your arguments add credibility to your work by demonstrating that Ø you have sought out Ø considered a variety of resources 3. In written academic work, citing sources is standard practice and shows that ª ª ª you are responding to this person agreeing with that person adding something of your own
What are Podcasts? ü Podcasts are like having a magazine subscription. You subscribe to a magazine you want to read and whenever a new issue is printed it is delivered to your doorstep. Podcasts are the same because you can subscribe to a podcast and whenever a new episode is available it is automatically delivered to you. Podcasts can be audio or video. Many podcasts are available in different formats. ü What is Podcast Ready? ü Podcast Ready makes finding, managing and delivering podcasts easier. You can listen to podcasts on the website or download them to your computer or MP 3 player directly using our my. Podder(TM) "podcatching" software. Unlike other podcast applications, my. Podder allows you to run it directly from yor MP 3 player without being tied to a single computer. You plug your player into any computer, launch my. Podder and click the "download podcasts" button. Once the downloads are complete just unplug your player and take it with you.