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货币银行学课件_第一章_货币和货币制度.ppt

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  娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄 19 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄  1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 19 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

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  娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 19 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 Hilferding 娄娄娄娄娄娄 1910 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 19 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 Hilferding 娄娄娄娄娄娄 1910 娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 “娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄 3 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄 20 娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 3 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄 20 娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄

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  娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄 5 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 20 娄 30 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 5 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 20 娄 30 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄

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  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄娄娄娄娄 20 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄 20 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄 6 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄 20 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄”娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 6 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄 20 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄”娄 娄娄 Money and Banking 娄娄娄 The Economics of Money and Banking , 娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 2003 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

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  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄“娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄“娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄    娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄“娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄“娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄  The Financial Economics 娄  娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 The Financial Economics 娄 娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄 The Monetary Economics The Financial Economics 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 Sciences of Monetary and Financial Economics 娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄

  1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 1999 娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 2009 娄 3. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 1999 娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 2009 娄 3. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 The Economics of Money, Banking, and Financial markets 娄. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 2005. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 P 3 娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 P 3 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 19 娄娄 40 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄——娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄“娄娄娄娄”娄 1. 娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 19 娄娄 40 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄——娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄“娄娄娄娄”娄 1. 娄娄娄娄

  2. 娄娄娄娄 导导导导导导导导导导导导 导导导导导导导导 导导导导 导导 导导导导导导导导导导导 导 导导导导导 2. 娄娄娄娄 导导导导导导导导导导导导 导导导导导导导导 导导导导 导导 导导导导导导导导导导导 导 导导导导导

   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄 3. 娄娄 娄娄娄 P 2 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄 3. 娄娄 娄娄娄 P 2 娄娄

  1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄 1 娄娄娄 =2 娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 1 娄娄娄 =2 娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄   =2 娄娄娄   =1 娄娄娄  . . 娄娄娄娄娄娄 =2 娄娄娄 =1 娄娄娄 . . . . =5 娄娄娄 =3 娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄 P 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄 2 娄娄娄 = 1 娄娄娄 = . . . . 娄娄娄娄娄娄 2 娄娄娄 = 1 娄娄娄 = . . . . 1 娄娄娄 5 娄娄娄 = 3 娄娄娄 =娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 P 2 娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄

 娄娄娄娄娄娄  2 娄娄娄 =  1 娄娄娄 =  . . . 娄娄娄娄娄娄 2 娄娄娄 = 1 娄娄娄 = . . . . 3 娄娄娄 5 娄娄娄 = 3 娄娄娄 =娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 P 2 娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄

   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 P 3 娄娄 娄娄娄娄 P 3 娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 P 3 娄娄 娄娄娄娄 P 3 娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 导导导导导导导

  娄娄娄娄娄  1. 娄娄娄娄  2. 娄娄娄娄  3. 娄娄娄娄  4. 娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄娄 3. 娄娄娄娄 4. 娄娄娄娄 5. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导

  导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄   2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 ( 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 )

  导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄   “ 娄娄娄娄娄” 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 “ 娄娄娄娄娄” 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

   娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄    娄娄娄 娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 P 6 -7 娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  导导 导导导导导导导 导导导导导导导导导导导 V PQ M导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导 导导导导导导导 导导导导导导导导导导导 V PQ M导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄     娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄   2. 导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 P 7 娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 P 7 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导导  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  = 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 - 娄娄娄娄 + 娄娄娄娄娄娄 - 娄娄娄娄娄 / 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 = 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 — 娄娄娄娄 + 娄娄娄娄娄娄 — 娄娄娄娄娄 / 娄娄娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导导  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 9 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 9 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄    娄娄娄 P 9 -10 娄娄导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 P 9 -10 娄娄导导导导导

  货 货 货 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  A. 娄娄娄 10 娄娄娄娄娄 5 娄娄娄娄 货 货 货 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 A. 娄娄娄 10 娄娄娄娄娄 5 娄娄娄娄 B. 娄娄娄娄 5 娄娄娄娄娄 10 娄娄 C. 娄娄娄 10 娄娄娄娄娄 5 娄娄娄娄 D. 娄娄娄娄娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄 5 娄娄娄

  2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  A. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 30 娄娄娄  B. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 10 娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 A. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 30 娄娄娄 B. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 10 娄娄娄 C. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 9000 娄娄 D. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 5 娄娄娄 E. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 200 娄娄

  3. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 A. 娄娄娄娄   B. 娄娄娄娄   C. 娄娄娄娄 3. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 A. 娄娄娄娄 B. 娄娄娄娄 C. 娄娄娄娄 D. 娄娄娄娄 4. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 A. 娄娄娄娄 B. 娄娄娄娄 C. 娄娄娄娄 D. 娄娄娄娄

  5. 娄娄娄娄 (  ) 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄   A. 娄娄  5. 娄娄娄娄 ( ) 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 A. 娄娄 B. 娄娄 C. 娄娄 D. 娄娄 E. 娄娄

  导导导导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄娄“娄娄”娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄“娄娄”娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

   1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 P 10 娄  2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 P 10 娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  2005 娄娄娄娄 100 娄娄娄 2005 娄娄娄娄 100 娄娄娄

  2005 娄娄娄娄 100 娄娄娄 2005 娄娄娄娄 100 娄娄娄

  1999 娄娄娄娄 100 娄娄娄 1999 娄娄娄娄 100 娄娄娄

  1999 娄娄娄娄 100 娄娄娄 1999 娄娄娄娄 100 娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄 2005 娄娄娄 1999 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 100 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄 2005 娄娄娄 1999 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 100 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄“ YUAN” 娄娄娄娄娄“ 2005 娄”娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄“ YUAN” 娄娄娄娄娄“ 2005 娄”娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄  1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 11 娄娄 娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 3 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 11 娄娄 娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 3 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 11 娄娄

   娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄  娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄

  娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 , 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 , 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄

   娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 P 12 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1929 娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 P 12 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1929 -1933 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 3. 娄娄娄娄娄娄

   娄 2 娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄 娄  娄 2 娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄 娄

  1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 P 12 娄娄 3. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 , 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 , 娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 P 12 娄娄 3. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 , 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 , 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 , 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 ,  娄娄娄娄娄 , 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 , 娄娄娄娄娄 , 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄 2011. 6 娄娄娄娄娄 3389 娄娄娄娄娄 31974. 91 导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 2011. 6 娄娄娄娄娄 3389 娄娄娄娄娄 31974. 91 导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄

   1. 导导导导 娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 4 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 13 娄娄娄娄娄 1. 导导导导 娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 4 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 13 娄娄娄娄娄

  娄 1 娄娄娄 娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 3 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄2. 导导导导导导 娄 1 娄娄娄 娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 3 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄2. 导导导导导导

   娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄娄娄娄娄” 娄娄娄  “ 娄娄娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 “娄娄娄娄娄” 娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 “娄娄娄娄娄娄” 娄娄娄 “ 娄娄娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 “娄娄娄娄娄” 娄

   娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 4 娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 4 娄娄娄娄

  娄 1 娄娄娄 娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  a. 娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 P 14 娄 1 娄娄娄 娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 a. 娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 P 14 娄 b. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 c. 娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 P 15 娄2. 导导导导

  娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄  a. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  b. 娄娄 : 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 P 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 a. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 b. 娄娄 : 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 P 15 娄

  娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  a. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  b. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄 3 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 a. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 b. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 3 娄娄娄娄娄 P 15 -16 娄

   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄 娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄 娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 3 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 4 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 5 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  3. 娄娄娄娄  娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 P 3. 娄娄娄娄 娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 P 16 娄

  导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄  2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

 娄娄娄 1948 娄 12 娄 1 娄娄娄娄 1950 娄娄  1955 娄 3 娄娄娄 1948 娄 12 娄 1 娄娄娄娄 1950 娄娄 1955 娄 3 娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄 导 导 导娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

   娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄”娄娄 娄娄“娄” 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄“娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄”娄娄 娄娄“娄” 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄“娄”娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导导导 1999 娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄 11 娄娄娄娄娄——娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄 导导导导导导导 1999 娄 1 娄娄娄娄娄 11 娄娄娄娄娄——娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄

  导导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄娄 导导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄

  导导导导导导导  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄” 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄“娄娄娄” 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 16 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 货 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 16 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 货 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 P 17 娄  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 P 17 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄   娄娄娄娄 P 17 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄 P 17 娄娄

  娄娄娄 M 1 娄娄娄娄  M 2 娄 M 3 娄 M 娄娄娄 M 1 娄娄娄娄 M 2 娄 M 3 娄 M 4 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄导导导导导导导导M 1 M 2 导导导导导导导M 2 M 3 导导导导M 3 M

   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1994 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1994 娄 10 娄 27 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1994 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 1994 娄 10 娄 27 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 19 娄娄导导导导导 0 M 导导导导 01 MM 导导导导导导 12 MM 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 19 娄娄导导导导导 0 M 导导导导 01 MM 导导导导导导 12 MM 娄娄娄 M 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄 M 2 娄娄娄娄娄娄 M 2 -M 1 娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄 P 333 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

    娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 6 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 M 2 娄娄 娄 78. 1 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 6 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 M 2 娄娄 娄 78. 1 娄娄娄娄 15. 9% 娄 娄 娄 娄 M 1 娄 娄 娄 27. 5 娄 娄 娄 娄 13. 1% 娄 娄 娄 M 0 娄 娄 娄 4. 4 娄 娄 娄 娄 14. 5% 娄 娄 娄 5 娄 娄 娄 M 2 娄 娄 娄 M 1 娄 娄 娄 娄 娄 4. 6 娄娄 8. 5 娄娄娄娄娄娄 6 娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 M 2 娄娄娄 M 1 娄娄娄娄娄 0. 8 娄娄 0. 4 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 11 娄娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 )

  导导导导导导导  娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 19 娄娄娄  1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄 导导导导导导导 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 19 娄娄娄 1. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄

 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄  3. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 2. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 3. 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄

   娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 · · · 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 11 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 · · · 娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄 11 娄 2 娄娄娄娄娄 娄娄娄 )

  娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 20 娄娄 4 娄 7 娄 娄娄娄娄娄娄 P 20 娄娄 4 娄 7 娄