- Количество слайдов: 14
被动语态（The Passive Voice) • 一、运用被动语态的情景(Situations) • 二、被动语态的结构与时态 (Structure and Tense) • 三、被动语态举例(Examples) • 四、主动变被动的方法(Method) （单宾、双宾） • 五、没有被动语态的动词和词组 (Verbs and Phrases) • 六、Exercises
一、运用被动语态的情景 • 1. 讲话者不知道动作的执行者或不必说出动作的 执行者 (这时可省 by 短语)。 • My bike was stolen last night. • 2. 借助被动的动作突出动作的承受者。 • I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should accept the job. • 3. 为了更好地安排句子。 • The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people. （一个主语就够了）
二、被动语态的结构与时态 时态 助动词be 过去分词 1、一般现在时 am/is/are played 2、一般过去时 was/were played 3、现在进行时 am/is/are being played 4、过去进行时 was/were being played 5、现在完成时 have/has been played 6、过去完成时 had /been played 7、一般将来时 will/shall be am/is/are going to be played 8、过去将来时 would/should be was/were going to be played 9、情态动词+be played
三、被动语态举例 ① The Great Wall was built more than 2000 years old. ② A new bridge is being built across the Changjiang River. ③ The project will (is going to) be finished next month. ④ Many trees have been planted around the lake. ⑤ Old people should be taken care of/looked after. ⑥ Books can’t be taken out of the library
四、主动变被动的方法 • 宾变主，谓变被，by短语动后随 • 主动语态的宾语分： 1、单宾 2、双宾
• 注意： 1、by短语可以省略。2、如果是人称代词要相应的 变为主格或宾格。如图： • 主动句： 主语+谓语+宾语 • ③ ② ① • • 被动句：主语 be+过去分词 +by+宾语 • 例如：Luxun wrote the book. • The book was written by Luxun. •
• • • 2）被动语态的否定式: 在第一个助动词后加not构成 例如：The letter was not written last night. 3、主、被动语态的相互转换： 主、被动句的转换可分为三个步骤： 第一步：将主动句的宾语变为被动句的主语。 第二步：将主动句的动词变为被动语态的形式即“be+动词 的过去分词”。 • 第三步：将主动句的主语变为被动句的宾语，前面要加by。
1、单宾： ① She does her homework at school. ﹋﹋﹋﹋﹋ Her homework is done (by her) at ﹋﹋﹋﹋﹋ school. ( by短语常省略) ② Where do people grow cotton in China? ﹋﹋﹋ Where is cotton grown in China? ﹋﹋﹋﹋
2、双宾 • 带有双宾语的主动句，变被动句时，一般把“人”提前。 • 若将“物”提前则要在“人”的前面加to或for. 注：（“make, draw, sing, choose, buy, keep”用for, 其他 动词用to）.
2、双宾（举例） --- A book was given to him (by me) yesterday. ○ ﹋﹋﹋ ﹋﹋ ① I gave him a book yesterday. ﹋ ﹋﹋﹋ --- He was given a book (by me) yesterday. ﹋﹋﹋ ﹋﹋ • ② Mr Cheng teaches us math this term. ﹋ ﹋﹋﹋ are taught • We math this term. • ③My sister bought me a jacket last week. ﹋ ﹋﹋﹋ was bought for • A jacket me last week ▲
五、没有被动语态的动词和词组(1) • 1、有些“静态”动词不能用于被动语态。 • （have, cost, last, own, suit, hold, fit, belong to, agree with等） • ① The travel lasted 3 weeks. 这次旅行持续 了三个星期。 • ② The MP 3 costs 500 yuan. • ③ This dictionary belongs to Mike.
五、没有被动语态的动词和词组(2) • 2、有些不及物动词的主动形式可以用来表示被动意义。 （cut, wash, write, sell, wear等） • ① This kind of shoes sells well. 这种鞋子很畅销。 • ② This kind of clothes washes easily. 这种衣服很容易洗。 • ③ The pen writes smoothly. 这支笔写得流利。
五、没有被动语态的动词和词组(3) • 3、有些词组的主动形式表被动含义：be worth doing, need doing • ①The book is worth reading. 这本书值得读。 • ②The bike needs repairing. 这辆自行车需要修理。 • =The bike needs to be repaired. 这辆自行车需要修理。
六、Exercises 1、Jay sings many famous songs. (被动语态） are sung by Many famous songs Jay. 2、Her mother gave her a new pen. (同义句） was given to A new pen her by her mother. ▲ were given would finish 3、If he (give) one more minute, he (finish) the exam yesterday. to stand 4、The student is made (stand) there for half an ▲ hour. is finished 5、He won’t go to bed until his homework (finish). were invented 6、The heated ice cream scoops (invent) by a man (call) Lanmon. called 7、Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. (被动） was seen to A stranger walk into the building. ▲