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美国图书馆的法律, 政策和战略计划 Laws, Policies, and Strategic Plans of U. S. Libraries July-August 2010年 7月-8月 美国图书馆的法律, 政策和战略计划 Laws, Policies, and Strategic Plans of U. S. Libraries July-August 2010年 7月-8月 1

居黎雅 图书馆管理助理教授 多丽都大学 Julia A. Martin Assistant Professor of Library Administration The University of 居黎雅 图书馆管理助理教授 多丽都大学 Julia A. Martin Assistant Professor of Library Administration The University of Toledo Julia. Martin@utoledo. edu 419 -530 -2492 2

演讲要点 Presentation Outline • 美国公共图书馆的诞生 Origins of US Public Libraries • 有关图书馆的州法 State Laws 演讲要点 Presentation Outline • 美国公共图书馆的诞生 Origins of US Public Libraries • 有关图书馆的州法 State Laws Supporting Libraries • 有关图书馆的联邦法 Federal Laws Supporting Libraries • 法律问题 Legal Issues • 行业自律政策 Self-Regulating Policies 3

美国公共图书馆的诞生 ORIGINS OF US PUBLIC LIBRARIES 4 美国公共图书馆的诞生 ORIGINS OF US PUBLIC LIBRARIES 4

公共图书馆的基础 Public Library Foundations • promoted by the people (not big government) – 由人民群众 公共图书馆的基础 Public Library Foundations • promoted by the people (not big government) – 由人民群众 促成(而非政府) • served needs of expanding country -服务国家扩张的需求 • promoted ideals of democracy – access for all - 促进民主理 想——全民共享 • promoted ideals of education – self development - 促进教育 理想——自我发展 • surplus money available from taxes -税收盈余 • shift from oral to literate society - 从文盲社会转换到文化社 会 • state laws govern public libraries – 由州法治理公共图书馆 5

公共图书馆现代化目标 Modern Objectives of Public Libraries • local, national and world affairs – 放眼本地、 公共图书馆现代化目标 Modern Objectives of Public Libraries • local, national and world affairs – 放眼本地、 国家和国际事务 • business and nonprofit support - 商业和非营 利组织的支持 • cultural awareness - 文化意识 • public internet access – 全民上网 • early literacy - 早期扫盲 • genealogy and local history – 家谱和地方史 6

公共图书馆现代化目标 Modern Objectives of Public Libraries • create and share content - 创造和分享内容 • 公共图书馆现代化目标 Modern Objectives of Public Libraries • create and share content - 创造和分享内容 • ready reference – 即时咨询 • community resources and services - 社区资源 和服务 • adult, teen and family literacy - 成人, 青少年 和家庭的文化素质教育 • job and career development – 求职和进修 • health, wealth, and other life choices - 健康、 财富和其他生活选择的帮助 7

公共图书馆现代化目标 Modern Objectives of Public Libraries • lifelong learning - 终生学习 • reading, viewing, 公共图书馆现代化目标 Modern Objectives of Public Libraries • lifelong learning - 终生学习 • reading, viewing, and listening for pleasure – 休闲阅读和视听 • homework help - 作业帮助 • information fluency - 信息畅流 • physical and virtual spaces – 现实和虚拟空间 • services for new immigrants - 新移民服务 8

帮助本地经济发展 Linking Public Libraries to Local Economic Development • early literacy services - 早期的扫盲服务 帮助本地经济发展 Linking Public Libraries to Local Economic Development • early literacy services - 早期的扫盲服务 • employment and career resources – 帮助就业 及职业生涯的资源 • small business resources and programs – 帮助 小企业、小商业的资源和项目 • public library buildings - 公共图书馆的建筑 9

问题? Question? Which library objectives are important to you and your library? 哪些图书馆目标 对你以及你的图 问题? Question? Which library objectives are important to you and your library? 哪些图书馆目标 对你以及你的图 书馆很重要? 10

有关图书馆的州法 STATE LAWS SUPPORTING LIBRARIES 11 有关图书馆的州法 STATE LAWS SUPPORTING LIBRARIES 11

俄亥俄州法 Ohio Revised Code • libraries formed by state governments - 州政府组建图书馆 • State 俄亥俄州法 Ohio Revised Code • libraries formed by state governments - 州政府组建图书馆 • State Library Board – 州 图书馆董事会 • Ohio Public Information Network (OPLIN) - 俄亥俄州公共信息网 12

董事会的任命 Board of Trustees Appointment • county free public libraries - 郡公共图书馆 – county 董事会的任命 Board of Trustees Appointment • county free public libraries - 郡公共图书馆 – county court of common pleas – 郡普通法院 • township free public libraries - 乡镇公共图书馆 – board of township trustees - 乡镇董事会 • municipal free public libraries - 市公共图书馆 – mayor - 市长 • school district free public libraries - 校区公共图书馆 – school district’s board of education - 校区教育董事会 13

图书馆董事会的权利和责任 Powers and Duties of Boards of Library Trustees • hold title and custody 图书馆董事会的权利和责任 Powers and Duties of Boards of Library Trustees • hold title and custody of property – 法人代表 和托管财产 • expend moneys – 主理经费 • purchase, lease, construct, and remodel buildings - 采购、租赁、建设和改造建筑物 • establish and maintain main libraries, branches, library stations, and traveling library services - 建立和维护主馆、分馆、图书馆 站点、流动图书馆 14

图书馆董事会的权利和责任 Powers and Duties of Boards of Library Trustees • fix compensation of library 图书馆董事会的权利和责任 Powers and Duties of Boards of Library Trustees • fix compensation of library employees – 决定 图书馆员 的薪酬 • make rules for the operation and management of the library – 制定图书馆运作的规章制度 • assess service fees - 评估服务费用 • establish and maintain museums - 建立和维 护博物馆 15

图书馆董事会的权利和责任 Powers and Duties of Boards of Library Trustees • accept bequests, gifts, and 图书馆董事会的权利和责任 Powers and Duties of Boards of Library Trustees • accept bequests, gifts, and endowments - 接 受遗赠和捐赠 • procure and pay life, medical, and disability insurance – 选购和支付生命、医疗、伤残保 险 • pay association dues and expenses - 支付会费 和日常开支 16

有关图书馆的联邦法 FEDERAL LAWS SUPPORTING LIBRARIES 17 有关图书馆的联邦法 FEDERAL LAWS SUPPORTING LIBRARIES 17

图书馆服务法始于1956年 Library Services Act of 1956 • first federal legislation to support libraries - 图书馆服务法始于1956年 Library Services Act of 1956 • first federal legislation to support libraries - 有关图书馆的首个联邦立法 • educational benefits emphasis - 强调教育效 益 • rural area focus – 关注农村地区 18

图书馆服务和建造法(LSCA 1964年) Library Services and Construction Act of 1964 (LSCA) • Department of Education 图书馆服务和建造法(LSCA 1964年) Library Services and Construction Act of 1964 (LSCA) • Department of Education responsible – 由教 育部负责 • primarily for public libraries - 主要针对公共 图书馆 • underserved/disadvantaged community focus – 关注弱势群体 • construction of buildings emphasis - 强调建造 19

图书馆服务和技术法(LSTA)1996年 Library Services and Technology Act of 1996 (LSTA) • replaced LSCA - 取代LSCA 图书馆服务和技术法(LSTA)1996年 Library Services and Technology Act of 1996 (LSTA) • replaced LSCA - 取代LSCA • Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) responsible – 由博物馆及图书馆服务 局(IMLS)负责 • all libraries – 涵盖所有类型的图书馆 • emphasizes technology grants – 重在技术资 助金 20

博物馆及图书馆服务局(IMLS) Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) • provide leadership and funding - 博物馆及图书馆服务局(IMLS) Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) • provide leadership and funding - 提供领导和资金 • sustain heritage, culture, and knowledge - 维护和发 展遗产、文化、知识 • enhance learning and innovation - 提高学习和创新 能力 • support professional development - 支持专业发展 • 2010 budget: $282, 000 - 2010年的预算: 2亿 8 千2百万美元 21

法律问题 LEGAL ISSUES 22 法律问题 LEGAL ISSUES 22

议案如何变成法律 How a Bill Becomes a Law • Schoolhouse Rock – How a Bill 议案如何变成法律 How a Bill Becomes a Law • Schoolhouse Rock – How a Bill Becomes a Law - 议案如何变 成法律 • http: //www. youtub e. com/watch? v=m. E JL 2 Uuv-o. Q 23

议案如何变成法律 How a Bill Becomes a Law • • Bill goes to House - 议案如何变成法律 How a Bill Becomes a Law • • Bill goes to House - 议案送到白宫 Bill becomes an Act -议案变成法案 Bill goes to Senate -议案送到参议院 House and Senate confer – 众议院和参议院商议 Bill goes to President -议案送交总统 Bill becomes Public Law -议案成为公共法 Bill becomes a Statute at Large - 建议变成普通法 US Code Updated - 美国法律的更新 24

释法 Interpreting Laws • all laws open to interpretation - 所有法 律都有待解释 • courts 释法 Interpreting Laws • all laws open to interpretation - 所有法 律都有待解释 • courts interpret laws - 法院解释法律 • libraries should have clear policies supporting laws - 图书馆应该有明 确的符合法律的政策 25

问题 ? Question? Which legal issues are important to you and your library? 哪些法律问题对 问题 ? Question? Which legal issues are important to you and your library? 哪些法律问题对 你以及你的图 书馆很重要? 26

版权 Copyright • framed in the US Constitution 以美国宪法为框架 • “To promote the Progress 版权 Copyright • framed in the US Constitution 以美国宪法为框架 • “To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts” 推动科技和有用艺术的进步 27

1976年的版权法案 Copyright Act of 1976 • must be original - 必须是原创 • must be 1976年的版权法案 Copyright Act of 1976 • must be original - 必须是原创 • must be in a tangible and fixed medium - 必须附著于实际的和固定的媒介 • copyright granted automatically upon creation – 一经创造,自动拥有 • option to register with copyright office - 注册与否,悉听尊便 28

受保护的作品 Protected Works • • literary works - 文学作品 musical works - 音乐作品 dramatic 受保护的作品 Protected Works • • literary works - 文学作品 musical works - 音乐作品 dramatic works - 戏剧作品 pantomimes and choreographic works - 哑剧和舞蹈作品 pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works - 画册、图形、雕塑作品 motion pictures and other audiovisual works - 电影和其他视听作品 sound recordings - 录音 architectural works - 建筑 29

作者的独有权益 Exclusive Rights of the Owner • to reproduce in copies or phonorecords - 作者的独有权益 Exclusive Rights of the Owner • to reproduce in copies or phonorecords - 复制 • to prepare derivative works – 改编 • to distribute copies by sale, rental, lease, or loan - 销售、出租 • to perform the work publicly - 公开表演 • to display the work publicly - 公开展示 • to perform the work by means of digital audio transmission - 数字化 30

国际保护 International Protection • Berne Convention (1886) - 伯尔尼公约(1886年) – US, China, 161 countries 国际保护 International Protection • Berne Convention (1886) - 伯尔尼公约(1886年) – US, China, 161 countries - 美国、中国、161个国家 • Universal Copyright Convention (1952) - 国际版权公约 – US, China, 100 countries - 美国、中国、100个国家 • Nationals of member countries have the same level of copyright protection wherever they publish - 无论在哪里出版,各成员国之人民享有同等的版权 保护 31

世界知识产权组织 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) • UN agency - 联合国机构 • 182 countries 世界知识产权组织 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) • UN agency - 联合国机构 • 182 countries - 182个国家 • promotes the protection of intellectual property - 促进对 知识产权的保护 32

合理使用 Fair Use • provision for making limited copies - 有限复 制 • copies 合理使用 Fair Use • provision for making limited copies - 有限复 制 • copies allowed for criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, research – 以 批评、评论、新闻报道、教学、学术、研 究为目的 • libraries and educational institutions use to defend copying - 图书馆和教育机构复制以 保护正本 33

认定合理使用的因素 Factors Determining Fair Use • purpose and character of the use (commercial vs 认定合理使用的因素 Factors Determining Fair Use • purpose and character of the use (commercial vs nonprofit) - 使用的目的和性质 (营利还是非营利) • nature of the copyrighted work (fictional/literary vs nonfictional/factual) - 作品的性质(虚构还是写实) • amount and substantiality of the portion used – 使用的 数量和程度 • effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work – 后果 34

图书馆、档案馆的特权 Exceptions for Libraries and Archives • library employees may reproduce one copy - 图书馆、档案馆的特权 Exceptions for Libraries and Archives • library employees may reproduce one copy - 图书馆员 可以复制一份 • no commercial advantage for the patron 读者不会因此获得商业利益 • collection open to the public or researchers in the field - 收藏对公众和研究人员开放 • copy includes copyright notice - 复制品包含 版权声明 35

图书馆、档案馆的特权 Exceptions for Libraries and Archives • up to 3 copies of an unpublished 图书馆、档案馆的特权 Exceptions for Libraries and Archives • up to 3 copies of an unpublished work for preservation or deposit in another library - 未发 表的作品最多可以复制 3份用于保存或存入另 一个图书馆 • up to 3 copies of a published work for preservation or replacement - 已发表作品最多 可以复制 3份用于保存或替换 • must first make a reasonable effort to find a replacement at a fair price – 必须首先做出合理的努力寻找价格合理的替 代品 36

图书馆、档案馆的特权 Exceptions for Libraries and Archives • One copy allowed for interlibrary loan 复制一份用于馆际互借 图书馆、档案馆的特权 Exceptions for Libraries and Archives • One copy allowed for interlibrary loan 复制一份用于馆际互借 • copy becomes the property of the patron 复制品为读者所有 • library has no reason to believe the purpose is not private study or research - 图书馆认定其 只用于个人的学习或研究 • warning of copyright is on form – 有版权状态 的告示 37

版权的期限 Duration of Copyright Basics Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 and The Copyright 版权的期限 Duration of Copyright Basics Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 and The Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 数字千年版权法及著作权保护期延长法案 • works created before 1978 – 95 years – 1978 - 95年之前的作品 • works created after 1978 – life of author + 70 years - 1978 - 年以后的作品,作者去世后70 年 • works for hire – 95 years – 代 作品-95年 38

隐私权 Privacy 39 隐私权 Privacy 39

隐私的类别 Categories of Privacy • business (circulation) records - 商业 (流 通)记录 • internet 隐私的类别 Categories of Privacy • business (circulation) records - 商业 (流 通)记录 • internet activity - 互联 网活动 • behavior – 习性 40

第四修正案 Fourth Amendment • police must obtain search warrant to conduct searches or investigate 第四修正案 Fourth Amendment • police must obtain search warrant to conduct searches or investigate private records - 警察必 须取得搜查令 才能搜索或调查个人档案 • must have probable cause - 必须有适 当的理由 • must describe place to be searched - 必须 注明 搜索的地方 • must describe person(s) and thing(s) to be seized 必须 注明将要扣押的人与物 41

图书馆的保护隐私政策 Library Policies to Protect Privacy • automatic deletion of circulation records when book 图书馆的保护隐私政策 Library Policies to Protect Privacy • automatic deletion of circulation records when book is returned - 书籍 一经归还,流 通记录自动消除 • shredding computer login sheets – 销毁计算 机登录表 42

州隐私法 State privacy laws • no direct federal privacy laws for libraries - 没有直接针对图书馆的联邦隐私法 州隐私法 State privacy laws • no direct federal privacy laws for libraries - 没有直接针对图书馆的联邦隐私法 • exceptions for the parents of minors - 未成年 人父母的特权 • penalties for disclosing protected information - 披露受保护信息的处罚 43

美国爱国者法案(2001) USA PATRIOT ACT (2001) Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required 美国爱国者法案(2001) USA PATRIOT ACT (2001) Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act 提供适当的手段来截取信 息并阻止恐怖活动,以此 来团结和壮大美国 44

美国爱国者法案(2001) USA PATRIOT ACT (2001) • circulation records considered to be business records - 美国爱国者法案(2001) USA PATRIOT ACT (2001) • circulation records considered to be business records - 流通记录被认定是业务记录 • reduces standards for search warrants and wiretaps - 降低获取搜查令和窃听的条件 • allows a wiretap of content information on any computer - 允许监听任何计算机的内容信息 • applies to any computer a suspect uses – 适用于 任何可疑的计算机使用 • allowed broader use of national security letters - 允许更广泛地使用国家安全传询令 45

信息获取法规 Regulation of Access to Information 46 信息获取法规 Regulation of Access to Information 46

儿童互联网保护法 Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) • must use filtering software on public internet 儿童互联网保护法 Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) • must use filtering software on public internet computers – 公共联网计算机 必须使用过滤软件 • adult users must be able to receive unfiltered access to internet - 成年用户 可以自由访问网络 47

反歧视 NON-Discrimination • • • race or color - 种族或者肤色 gender or sex - 反歧视 NON-Discrimination • • • race or color - 种族或者肤色 gender or sex - 性别 marital or parental status - 婚姻或父母的状况 pregnancy – 怀孕 religion - 宗教 national origin - 国籍 age - 年龄 membership in political organizations - 政治身份 disability - 残疾 48

反性骚扰 Sexual Harassment • libraries responsible for patrons’ acts - 图书馆 要为顾客的行为负责 • ex. 反性骚扰 Sexual Harassment • libraries responsible for patrons’ acts - 图书馆 要为顾客的行为负责 • ex. pornographic images on computer screens - 例如,在电脑屏幕上浏览色情图片 49

美国残疾人法案, 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) • • • (both employees 美国残疾人法案, 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) • • • (both employees and patrons) – (涵盖员 和读者) handicapped accessible – 方便残疾人 fair treatment - 公平对待 reasonable accommodations – 适当照顾 ex. accessible website, work schedule modification, unpaid leave, reassignment, readers and interpreters - 例如,访问网站、 作时间调整、无薪休假、调 动、朗读员和翻译 50

便利 Accessibility • equal opportunity to participate - 机会均 等的参与 • facilities accessibility - 便利 Accessibility • equal opportunity to participate - 机会均 等的参与 • facilities accessibility - 设施便利 • program accessibility – 活动 便利 51

应对法律的措施 Methods of Compliance • redesign of equipment - 重新设计设备 • direct personal assistance 应对法律的措施 Methods of Compliance • redesign of equipment - 重新设计设备 • direct personal assistance - 直接的人际帮助 • move services to alternate accessible sites – 改变服 务地点 • alteration of existing facilities - 改装现存设施 • construction of new facilities -建设新设施 • website designed for screen readers - 为屏幕阅读者 特别设计网页 52

自律政策 SELF-REGULATING POLICIES 53 自律政策 SELF-REGULATING POLICIES 53

图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights The American Library Association affirms that all libraries are 图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights The American Library Association affirms that all libraries are forums for information and ideas, and that the following basic policies should guide their services. 美国图书馆协会坚信一切图书馆都是信息 和观点的论坛,其服务应当遵循下列基本 政策。 54

图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights I. Books and other library resources should be provided 图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights I. Books and other library resources should be provided for the interest, information, and enlightenment of all people of the community the library serves. Materials should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation. 图书及其他馆藏资源应用于满足社区人民 的兴趣、信息和求知之需要。图书馆不应 以作者的种族、背景和观点为依据而加以 排斥。 55

图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights II. Libraries should provide materials and information presenting all 图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights II. Libraries should provide materials and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues. Materials should not be proscribed or removed because of partisan or doctrinal disapproval. 对于现实或历史问题,图书馆提供的资料 和信息应当反映不同的观点。不能因为政 治派系或思想信念而拒绝收藏或抽毁某些 资料。 56

图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights III. Libraries should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of 图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights III. Libraries should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to provide information and enlightenment. 为了完成提供信息和启蒙民智的使命,图 书馆应当与审查制度斗争。 IV. Libraries should cooperate with all persons and groups concerned with resisting abridgment of free expression and free access to ideas. 图书馆应当与民众与社团一起抵制任何对自由表 达和自由阅读的限制。 57

图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights V. A person’s right to use a library should 图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights V. A person’s right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, age, background, or views. 读者使用图书馆的权利不能因其种族,年 龄,背景及观点而被剥夺或受限制。 58

图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights VI. Libraries which make exhibit spaces and meeting rooms 图书馆权利法案 Library Bill of Rights VI. Libraries which make exhibit spaces and meeting rooms available to the public they serve should make such facilities available on an equitable basis, regardless of the beliefs or affiliations of individuals or groups requesting their use. 图书馆为社区的民众提供展览空间,会议 场所时,应对申请使用者一视同仁,不得 以个人的信仰或团体的归属为拒绝的依据。 59

道德规范 Code of Ethics I. We provide the highest level of service to all 道德规范 Code of Ethics I. We provide the highest level of service to all library users through appropriate and usefully organized resources; equitable service policies; equitable access; and accurate, unbiased, and courteous responses to all requests. 以适当和有效地组织过的资源,公平的服 务政策,公平的存取途径,为所有读者提 供最高标准的服务;准确、公正而有礼貌 地回应所有的要求。 60

道德规范 Code of Ethics II. We uphold the principles of intellectual freedom and resist 道德规范 Code of Ethics II. We uphold the principles of intellectual freedom and resist all efforts to censor library resources. 坚持知识自由的原则,反对任何试图对图 书馆信息资源的审查。 61

道德规范 Code of Ethics III. We protect each library user's right to privacy and 道德规范 Code of Ethics III. We protect each library user's right to privacy and confidentiality with respect to information sought or received and resources consulted, borrowed, acquired or transmitted. 保护每一个图书馆用户的隐私,为他们查 询或接收过的信息,以及咨询、外借、获 取或传播过的资料保密。 62

道德规范 Code of Ethics IV. We respect intellectual property rights and advocate balance between 道德规范 Code of Ethics IV. We respect intellectual property rights and advocate balance between the interests of information users and rights holders. 尊重知识产权,倡导信息使用者和利持有 人权益的平衡。 63

道德规范 Code of Ethics V. We treat co-workers and other colleagues with respect, fairness, 道德规范 Code of Ethics V. We treat co-workers and other colleagues with respect, fairness, and good faith, and advocate conditions of employment that safeguard the rights and welfare of all employees of our institutions. 尊重、公平、公正并且诚实地对待同事, 致力创造一个维护所有员 之权益的 作 环境。 64

道德规范 Code of Ethics VI. We do not advance private interests at the expense 道德规范 Code of Ethics VI. We do not advance private interests at the expense of library users, colleagues, or our employing institutions. 不把个人私利置于图书馆用户,同事,及 服务单位的利益之上。 65

道德规范 Code of Ethics VII. We distinguish between our personal convictions and professional duties 道德规范 Code of Ethics VII. We distinguish between our personal convictions and professional duties and do not allow our personal beliefs to interfere with fair representation of the aims of our institutions or the provision of access to their information resources. 区别对待个人信念和专业责任,不允许个 人信念影响我们公正地反映行业的宗旨, 或者公平地介绍馆藏的信息资源。 66

道德规范 Code of Ethics VIII. We strive for excellence in the profession by maintaining 道德规范 Code of Ethics VIII. We strive for excellence in the profession by maintaining and enhancing our own knowledge and skills, by encouraging the professional development of co-workers, and by fostering the aspirations of potential members of the profession. 不断保持和扩展自己个人的知识和技能, 鼓励同事提升专业水平,培育和引导潜在 的成员,追求本行业的完美 67

讨论 Discussion 68 讨论 Discussion 68

参考文献 References • American Library Association. (2008). Code of ethics of the American Library 参考文献 References • American Library Association. (2008). Code of ethics of the American Library Association. Chicago, IL: ALA. Retrieved from: http: //staging. ala. org/ala/aboutala/offices/oif/statementspol s/codeofethics/codeethics. cfm • American Library Association. (2004). Freedom to read statement. Chicago, IL: ALA. Retrieved from: http: //www. ala. org/ala/aboutala/offices/oif/statementspols/ ftrstatement/freedomreadstatement. cfm • American Library Association. (1996). Library bill of rights. Chicago, IL: ALA. Retrieved from: http: //staging. ala. org/ala/aboutala/offices/oif/statementspol s/statementsif/librarybillrights. cfm 69

参考文献 References • Carson, B. M. (2007). The law of libraries and archives. Lanham, 参考文献 References • Carson, B. M. (2007). The law of libraries and archives. Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press. • Henderson, E. , Miller, K. , Craig, T. , Dorinski, S. , Freeman, M. , Isaac, N. , Keng, J. , Mc. Kenzie, L. , O’Shea, P. , Ramsey, C. , & Sheckells, C. (2009). Public libraries survey: Fiscal year 2007 (IMLS-2009–PLS-02). Washington, DC: Institute of Museum and Library Services. • Manjarrez C. A. , Cigna J. , & Bajaj, B. (2007). Making cities stronger: Public library contributions to local economic development. Urban Institute. Retrieved from: http: //www. urban. org/publications/1001075. html 70

参考文献 References • Martin, L. A. (1998). Enrichment: A history of the public library 参考文献 References • Martin, L. A. (1998). Enrichment: A history of the public library in the United States in the twentieth century. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press. • Nelson, S. (2008). Strategic planning for results. Chicago, IL: American Library Association. • Ohio Revised Code. Chapter 3375: Libraries. • Torrans, L. A. (2004). Law and libraries: The public library. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. 71

谢谢! Thank you! 72 谢谢! Thank you! 72