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第 7章 Input 本章要点 l l l l l What is Input? Words and Expressions How To Do：Printer How To Work：Telephone Wiring System Grammar Focus：定语从句 Text in Chinese：输入 Reading Selection: Making Connections 科技英语的写作特点（Ⅱ） Practical Writing：简历
What is Input? Computers can understand only the binary machine language of 0 s and 1 s. Input and output devices are virtually translators between the languages of people and the machine. Input refers to data or instructions that are used by a computer. The users provide input whenever they use system or application programs. Input devices are hardware used to provide input to the computer. The most commonly used input devices include keyboards, mice (mouse, pl. ), scanners, digital cameras, digitizing tablets and voice recognition devices. Input devices translate numbers, letters, and actions that people understand into symbols that computers can process. * Keyboards convert numbers, letters and special characters that people understand into electrical signals that are sent to and processed by the system unit of the computer (See Figure 7 -1 -1). There a wide variety of keyboard designs. They range from the traditional keyboards to the ergonomic keyboards to the space saving folding keyboards (See Figure 7 -1 -2). Pointing input devices provide a comfortable interface between the users and the computer system unit. There are kinds of pointing devices including the mouse, the joystick (See Figure 7 -2), the touch screen (See Figure 7 -3), and the light pen.
What is Input? * A mouse can have two or more buttons used to select command options and to control information presented on the monitor. There are three basic designs of mouse types: mechanical mouse, optical mouse, and wireless mouse. The mechanical mouse is the traditional type and the most widely used (See Figure 7 -4 -1). The mechanical mouse is attached with a cord to the system unit and as you move the mouse across a smooth surface, the roller on the bottom controls the pointer on the screen, and you use the left button and the right button to select items. Some even have a wheel button to scroll through information presented on the screen. The optical mouse has no roller and it emits and senses light to detect the mouse movement (See Figure 7 -4 -2). It can be used on any surface. The wireless mouse is a battery-powered device that uses radio waves or infrared light waves to communicate with the system unit(See Figure 7 -4 -3).
What is Input? Scanners read documents and graphic images and photographs and then convert them into a form that the system unit can process. There are three types of scanning devices: optical scanners, bar code readers and character and mark recognition devices. Optical scanners copy texts and images together with their colors (See Figure 7 -5 -1). * Bar code readers are mostly used in supermarkets to read product representing bar codes on product containers and input the information to the computer, which has stored the latest prices for the products, to tell the electronic cash register the price of every product (See Figure 7 -5 -2). Character and mark recognition devices are able to recognize special characters and marks. They are specialty devices for certain applications, for instance, in banks to read characters made of ink containing magnetic particles.
What is Input? Image capturing devices create or capture original images. These devices include digital cameras and digital video cameras. * Digital cameras are different from traditional cameras in that images are recorded digitally on a disk or in the camera′s memory rather than on film (See Figure 7 -6 -1). You can take a picture, view it immediately and even place it on your own Web page. Digital video cameras record motion digitally on a disk or in the camera′s memory(See Figure 7 -6 -2). Webcams are specialized digital video cameras that capture images and send them to a computer through the Internet and they are used to broadcast weather and traffics (See Figure 7 -7). Figure 7 -5 -1 Figure 7 -5 -2 Figure 7 -6 -1 Figure 7 -6 -2 Figure 7 -8 Figure 7 -7 Audio-input devices convert sounds into a form that can be processed by a computer. The most widely used audio-input device is the microphone(See Figure 7 -8)．A microphone, a sound card and special software make up a voice recognition system. The voice recognition system allows users to operate the computer and to create documents by using voice commands.
What is Input? Notes: 1．“Keyboards convert numbers, letters and special characters that people understand into electrical signals that are sent to and processed by the system unit. ” 本句中，“convert… into…”意为：将……转化为……；两个“that”引导定语 从句分别修饰“special characters”和“electrical signals”。 本句意为：键盘将人能够理解的数字、字母和特殊符号转化为计算机系统能 够发送和处理的信号。 2．“A mouse can have two or more buttons used to select command options and to control information presented on the monitor. ” 本句中，“used to…on the monitor”为过去分词短语作后置定语修饰buttons， 其中“to select command options”和“to control information”两个动词不定式 短语分别连接“used”。 本句意为：鼠标有两个或几个按键，用于选择指令和控制监视器上显示的信 息。
What is Input? 3．“Bar code readers are mostly used in supermarkets to read product representing bar codes on product containers and input the information to the computer which has stored the latest prices for the products to tell the electronic cash register the price of every product. ” 本句中，“product representing”意为：代表商品的；“to read product”和 “input the information”为并列关系。“Which”引导定语从句修饰“the computer”；“tell the electronic cash register the price of every product”意为 告诉电子收款机每种商品的价格。 本句意为：条形码读卡机多用在超市读取商品包装上代表商品的条形码，将 商品信息输入已经存储了各种商品最新价格的计算机，由计算机告诉电子收 款机每种商品的价格。 4．“Digital cameras are different from traditional cameras in that images are recorded digitally on a disk or in the camera′s memory rather than on film. ” 本句中，“in that”意为：在于……，“rather than”意为：“而不是……” 本句意为：数码相机与传统相机不同之处在于数码相机照出的图像以数码形 式记录在磁盘上或相机的存储器中而不是在胶片上。
What is Input? Grammar Focus：定语从句：定语从句分为限制性和非限制性两种。在句中做定语，修饰一个 名词或代词，被修饰的名词词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行 词之后，由关系词（关系代词或关系副词）引出。限制性定语从句是先行词 不可缺少的部分，去掉它主句意思往往不明确；非限制性定语从句是先行词 的附加说明，去掉了也不会影响主句的意思，它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。
What is Input? Ⅶ．Point out the restrictive attributive Clauses or non-restrictive attributive clauses in the following statements. 1．He returned the copies to Gradman, who took them without looking up. 2．That is all I can tell you. 3．They went side by side, hand in hand silently towards the hedge, where the may-flower, both pink and white, was in full bloom. 4．You′ve got to look after the things that you care for, yourself. 5．The Browns, who lived in the adjoining house, had been dining with the Joneses. 6．The money he lost was yours. 7．It was not the sort of house he was accustomed to. 8．All things shone softly in the sun, which was wonderfully warm and enlivening. 9．The wind pierced the woolen jumper she wore. 10．The woman rose: she opened a door, through which I saw a passage dimly.
What is Input? Text in Chinese：输入 计算机只理解二进位的机器语言0和1。输入输出设备充当人机之间的翻译 具。 输入指计算机可以使用的数据或指令。用户使用系统程序或应用程序 作时 就是在进行输入。输入设备是指为计算机提供输入的硬件。最常用的输入设 备包括键盘、鼠标、扫描仪、数码相机、数码写字板和声音识别设备。输入 设备把人理解的数字、字母、行为等翻译为计算机能够处理的符号。 键盘把数字、字母和特殊的字符转换为电信号由计算机系统装置来处理。键 盘设计从传统的键盘到人机 程学键盘到节省空间的折叠式键盘多种多样。 定点输入设备提供舒适的人机界面。定点输入设备多种多样，包括鼠标、操 纵杆、触摸屏和光笔。 鼠标有两个或多个按钮用来选择命令和控制监视器上显示的信息。鼠标一般 有三种设计：机械鼠标、光电鼠标和无线鼠标。机械鼠标是传统和最广泛使 用的类型。这种鼠标有导线连接到计算机系统，在光滑表面移动鼠标，底部 的滚轮控制屏幕上的指示器，左右按钮选择项目。光电鼠标没有滚轮而是通 过放射和感知光来探测鼠标的活动，可以用于任何表面。无线鼠标以电池为 动力用电波或红外线波与计算机系统通信。
What is Input? 扫描仪读取文档和图形、图像，然后把读入信息转换为计算机系统能够处理 的形式。扫描设备一般分为三种：光电扫描仪、条形码读卡机、 字符和标 志识别装置。光电扫描仪复制彩色文本和图像。条形码读卡机多用在超市读 取商品包装上代表商品的条形码，将商品信息输入已经储存了各种商品最新 价格的计算机，由计算机告诉电子收款机每种商品的价格。字符和标志识别 装置能够识别特殊的字符和标志，属于专业设备。例如，用在银行中读出含 磁性物质墨水写出的字符。 图像抓取设备用于创建或抓取原始影像。这些设备包括数码相机和数码摄像 机等。数码相机与传统照相机的区别在于图像以数字化形式复制在磁盘上或 相机内存中而不是胶片上。使用数码相机可以在照相后立即在相机里看到还 可以把照片发送到网页上。数码摄像机将动画以数字的形式存在磁盘上或摄 像机内存中。网页镜头是专业的数码摄像机，它能够抓取图像，然后将图像 通过因特网发送到计算机里, 用于天气预报和交通状况通报。 声频输入设备将声音转换为计算机能够处理的形式。最广泛使用的声频输入 设备是麦克风。麦克风、声卡和特殊的软件组成声音识别系统，让用户能够 运行计算机并用声音指令创建文档。此系统能够连续几小时录音口授内容， 再连接计算机系统进行编辑、储存和打印。两种著名的声音识别系统是 Dragon System的Naturally Speaking 和IBM公司的Via Voice.
What is Input? Reading Selection: Making Connections To connect online, your computer must be equipped with a modem, a device that translates the digital signals from your computer into analog signals that can travel over a standard phone line. Those are the scratchy sounds you hear from a modem's speaker. Believe it or not, there is actually meaning in all that noise. A modem on the other end of the line can understand it and converts the sounds back into digital information. Modems come in different speeds and are measured in bps or bits per second. A 28. 8 kbit/s modem sends data at 28, 800 bits per second. A 56 kbit/s modem is twice as fast, sending and receiving data at a rate of 56, 000 bits per second. Most modems today are 56 kbit/s. Why does speed matter? On the Internet, you are constantly exchanging data with other computers. Some of these digital files can be quite large. As you will soon learn, you want this exchange to happen as quickly as possible. If you are purchasing a modem, get the fastest one available.
What is Input? Modems come in different speeds and can be installed inside your computer (internal), or connected to your computer's serial port (external). These days, almost all computers come equipped with an internal modem. But if you need to buy a modem for an older computer, consider purchasing an external one for two reasons. Firstly, they are much easier to install. Secondly, occasionally your modem will freeze and need to be reset. If your modem is external, you can simply turn it off and on again. If it's internal, the only way to reset it is to turn off your computer and reboot, which can take several minutes every time you need to reset your modem. To connect an external modem to your computer, you'll need a serial modem cable. The cables are usually not included when you buy a modem because there are several different sizes available. These can be purchased at any computer store where modems are sold. Most likely, your computer will have a connector on the back labeled serial, or with the IOIOIO icon. This connector comes in a variety of formats: 9, 15, or 25 pins. If you only have one of these ports, it will probably be COM 1. If you have two, one will be COM 1, and the other will be COM 2. After you plug in your modem, you can sign up for Internet Service.
What is Input? Usually your setup program will try and find your modem and its COM port. If it can't, it will ask you which COM port your modem is attached to. If you don't know, the easiest thing to do is trying them all. Even if you only have two serial ports, you may be able to select one of four COM ports. Also, there are some other devices that use the COM ports. In some computers, the mouse is plugged into a serial port. This is known as a serial mouse. If you've got a serial mouse plugged into COM 1, then just plug the modem into COM 2. If you don't have a second COM port, you can purchase a card that goes inside your computer that will give you a second COM port. If this is necessary, you should check with the manufacturer of your computer. Your modem will likely have a connector on the back with space for 25 pins. You need to make sure that the serial modem cable you purchase has the right number of pins on either side, and is the correct “gender”. The best thing to do is to look at the back of your computer and list the various connectors, the number of pins, and the gender. Then, when you go to purchase your modem, find the cable that matches the connector. Lastly, you'll need a standard phone cable to connect the modem to your phone line. The standard connector on a telephone cable is called an RJ-11. On the back of your modem, you'll probably have two RJ-11 jacks. One is for connecting the modem to a wall jack, and the other is for connecting the modem to a phone. And remember, if you have call waiting, you will want to disable it before connecting online. If you′re online and a call comes in,
What is Input? 科技英语的写作特点（Ⅱ） 以专业词汇来完成的文体特点 科技英语传播科技信息的功能在很大程度上是由专业词汇来完成的。无论何 种语言（1 anguage）均是由语音（pronunciation）、词汇（vocabulary）和 语法（grammar）三大部分构成的。词汇是基础，句法是遣词造句的规则， 而语音则是语言的外壳。计算机英语的词汇有以下特点： 1．普通词汇的专业化 普通词汇获得了固定的专业意义。 例如： 词汇 普通词汇含义 计算机词汇含义 body 身体，躯体，肉体 机壳，机身 program 节目， 规划程序，编程 bus 公共汽车 总线 clock 时钟 时钟脉冲；时标 processor 加 者，处理者 处理机，处理程序 memory 记忆，记忆力 （内）存储器
What is Input? 2．大量借用相邻学科中的词汇 计算机专业词汇借用了大量的相邻学科中的词汇，如通信技术、自动化学科、 无线电技术等，其含义无任何变化。 例如： out-gate 输出门[电路] autocontrol 自动控制 truck 信息通道 part 元件，配体 process 过程，处理 input 输入 coder 编码器 conveyer 传送机，传送带 3．计算机的新词语 例如： microprocessor (micro + processor ) 微处理器 courseware ( course + ware ) 课件 B-box (=B-line = B-store = index register ) 变址，寄存器 pixel ( =picture element ) 像素
What is Input? 4．计算机专业词汇中多用复合词 例如： build-in 内部的 autoindex 自动变址，乍动编索（引） centerline 中心线 dash-out 删去，涂掉 end-of-life 寿命终止 execution-interruption 执行中断 high-speed 高速，快速 hyperdisk 管理磁盘 5．计算机中有大量的专业词组： 例如： end of text 正文结束，文本结束 end of text character 文本结束符 acceptance test 验收测试 access cycle 存取周期 accumulative carry 累加进位 device control character 外围设备控制符 device type 设备类型 diagnostic error processing 诊断错误处理 format effector 格式控制符 graph table 装入图形表命令 graphic data processing 图形数据处理
What is Input? Practical Writing：简历 简历一般包括 4个基本项目： 1）姓名、地址、电话； 2）经历（Experience）； 3）学历（Education）； 4）个人简况（Personal Data）。 其他的如求职目标（Job Objective），概要（Summary），著作（ Publication），外语技能（Foreign Languages Skills），业余爱好（ Hobbies），证明材料（References）等，可以根据自己的经历、职业及招 聘条件而有所取舍。 下面我们介绍一下简历的4个基本部分： 1．姓名、地址、电话 这一部分要写在简历前面。
What is Input? 样张 RRSUMEZhang Diqing. Foreign Languages Department. Renmin University of China. Beijing, 100055 The People′s Republic of China. Telephone: 86754320 2．经历 经历应该说是简历中的重要内容，通常包括 作时间、单位、职务、所取得 的成就、自己的 作能力、经验等等。 按习惯，经历的时间顺序一般为由近及远。 样张 1999—present Beijing Review, Beijing, China. Originally worked as assistant editor, promoted to the position of editor in 1997. Responsibilities including reading of author′s manuscripts, mark-up of copy, and proofreading. 1991— 1995 Renmin University of China, Beijing, China. Taught Linguistics, English literature to graduate classes. Taught comprehension and study skills to remedial reading classes. 1987— 1991 Nankai university, Tianjin, China. Taught intensive reading to English majors.
What is Input? 3．学历 学历主要指高中或高中以上的学历。这一项主要包括学校名称、学习时间、 专业、所获学位等。学历的排列顺序由高至低。 样张 Education 1993— 1996 M. A. Applied Linguistics. Remmin University of China, Beijing, China 1989— 1993 B. A. Foreign Languages and Literature Department. Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China
What is Input? 4．个人简况一般可以包括出生时间、地点、国籍、婚姻状况、健康状况等。此 外，还可包括性别、身高、体重、个人爱好等。个人简况可单独置于简历尾 部，或与姓名、地址、电话号码并列，写在第一页的右上边。 样张（单独为一个部分） Personal Data. Date of Birth: July 28, 1970 Place of Birth: Beijing, China. Marital status: Single. Health: Excellent. Hobbies: Fishing and Swimming
What is Input? 样张（与姓名、地址、电话号码并列） Mary Lee 20 Jiefang Road Date of Birth: Jan 3, 1962 Shijiazhuang, Hebei Place of Birth: Hebei, China. Province Sex: Female. P. R. China Nationality: Chinese. Telephone: 87695641 E-mail: Hellem@sohu. com
What is Input? 简历可根据自己所求的方向进行设计和选择（下面是为特殊需求而设计的两 个样张）。 样张 （Resume for Typist Work） MARIA LESSINGAddress Telephone 223 Maple Road Day phone: 908 -8769 Los Angeles, CA 90012 Night phone: 9085647 Objective. A legal secretary of a large law firmwith opportunity for advancement. Experience. Legal Secretary. David Jr. Beta, Attorney-at- Law, Los Angeles, California, July 2002, to present. Use a computer and word processing software to format and edit legal documents, file documents with the courts, post to clients accounts make bank deposits, answer telephone, greet clients, set up appointments, transcribe from machine dictation, distribute incoming mail, and file correspondence. Salesperson. Parson′s Department Store, Los Angeles, March 1999 to June 2002. Operated computer terminal, handled transactions with customers, set up displays, stocked department. Education. Daron Commercial College, Daron,
What is Input? California A．S．degree in Office Administration, will graduate with honors, in July 2004, 3. 5 GPA. Worked full time while attending college. Received Rolly scholarship. Took optional college courses including business law, business computer software( IBM PC ), business management, and business communication. Honors and Activities. Sigma Chi Business Organization, president, 2000— 2002 Gold Cup winner in Information Management Contest, 2001 References. Mr. Ernest Diman. Vice president of Daron Commercial College, Daron, CA 56298 Ms. Diana Lee. Executive secretary of parson′s Department Store, Los Angles, CA 87691 Mr. David Beta. Attorney-at-law, 443 Male Road, Los Angeles, GA 80097
What is Input? 样张 （Resumes for Admission to College Abroad） Hellen Chen 221 Jianshan Street Shanghai, LN 123425 (021) 88876571 Personal Data. Sex: Female Birthday: May 13, 1984 Nationality: Chinese Health: Excellent. Education 2000— 2004 B. S. in Economics, July, 2004 Shanghai International Business College. Major Courses & scores out of 100: International Banking (90)International Trade (89)International Banking Market (88)Service Marketing ( 90)Securities Business (86)Social Activities. The English Club ( secretary, 2000— 2004)The Student Union (Vice President 2001— 2003)Special skills. College English Testband Six. Solid experience in computer. Interests. Violin, Chess and Skating. References. Professor Li Ming Dean of the Department of Banking. Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. Shanghai, P. R. China. Post Code: 115989 Telephone: (021) 87690542
What is Input?