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香港浸會大學圖書館 館員培訓課程- 圖書館發展與管理趨勢 數碼參考諮詢服務 主講: 陳麗霞女士 香港科技大學圖書館 參考諮詢部主任 二零零一年 三月九日 香港浸會大學圖書館 館員培訓課程- 圖書館發展與管理趨勢 數碼參考諮詢服務 主講: 陳麗霞女士 香港科技大學圖書館 參考諮詢部主任 二零零一年 三月九日

Outline 1. 大綱 Trends in Reference and Library Service 參考諮詢服務的趨 勢 2. 3. 4. Outline 1. 大綱 Trends in Reference and Library Service 參考諮詢服務的趨 勢 2. 3. 4. 5. Impact of Internet What is Digital Reference Service (DRS) Quality of DRS Developments of DRS A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. 6. Email Web Form Video Conferencing Ask-a-Service Real Time Collaborative Digital Reference Service HKUST’s Experiences in CDRS Commercial Services Now, What About Us? 互聯網的影響 數碼參考服務 DRS的特質 DRS 的發展 電子郵件 網上表格 視象會議 網上實時諮詢 合作的數碼參考服務 科大圖書館的經驗 商業服務

1. Trends in Reference and Library Service 參考諮詢服務的趨勢 ARL: Reference queries handled per librarian, 1. Trends in Reference and Library Service 參考諮詢服務的趨勢 ARL: Reference queries handled per librarian, 6%-15% dropped in 1998/99 u National Center for Education Statistics: u Reference statistics for all academic libraries 10% decreased from 1994 -1996 u Anne Lipow- “ Early signposts” 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 路標 Decreased circulation statistics 借書次數 Fewer walk-in users 讀者人數 Staff can’t keep up 職員追不上資訊發展 Reference desk eliminated 取消諮詢台 Outsourcing on the rise 外判 Reduced Reference service hours 諮詢時間 Search engines: automated reference librarian 搜索引擎代 替 Need for large building and staff decreased 對圖書館的建 築 和職員 的需求

2. Impact of Internet 互聯網的影響 u Strategies Group Survey: 100 million or one half 2. Impact of Internet 互聯網的影響 u Strategies Group Survey: 100 million or one half of all adults in U. S. use the Internet in 1999, 54 % from 1998 u M 2 Press wire, November 21, 2000: 380 million Internet users worldwide. China is adding 2 million new subscribers a month. By July 2001, 800 million u Carol Temopir and Lisa Ennis (1998) “In the digital age, the biggest change is increased user expectations. Increasingly, users expect to be able to find everything online, full-text. Technology lets us do much more, but it also increases expectations about what we can do” 在數碼時代, 讀者期望所有全文資料都可在線上找到 u A survey was conducted on 150 academic library web sites in 1999, 45% (67) survey libraries offered digital reference service

3. What is Digital (Electronic, Virtual) Reference Service? 數碼參考服務 u Answering the questions of 3. What is Digital (Electronic, Virtual) Reference Service? 數碼參考服務 u Answering the questions of users via the Internet OR u Internet-based Reference Service OR u “Ask-AN-Expert” (“Ask. A” services) are Internet-based Q&A services that connect users with individuals who possess specialized subject or skill expertise. Current DRS offer 2 main types of expertise-subject matter (providing mostly factual information) and process (providing mostly resource referral and instruction). –Virtual Reference Desk 網上問答服務, 連接讀者與專家. 兩種服務: 主題答案和 指示過程

4. Quality of DRS according to VRF DRS的特質 u Accessible- email or web-based query 4. Quality of DRS according to VRF DRS的特質 u Accessible- email or web-based query forms u u u u u 易於接近的 Fast turnaround – e. g. 100% within 1 -2 working days 快速 Clear response policy 回覆措施要清楚 Interactive – e. g. real-time reference interviews 交互式 Instructive 指導性 Authoritative 權威性 Training – to prepare experts 訓練安排 Private 保密 Reviewed 經評論的 Publicize 推廣的

5. Developments of DRS 的發展 A) Email 電子郵件 u 1994 ALA Guidelines for Electronic 5. Developments of DRS 的發展 A) Email 電子郵件 u 1994 ALA Guidelines for Electronic Mail Reference Service -Describe the services offered 服務說明 -Types of questions handles, not handled 答與不答問答種類 -Frequency the mailbox is checked 檢查郵箱次數 -Response time 回覆時間 -Confidentiality 機密 -Priorities 優先順序 -Others: how statistics are kept how service is evaluated 其他 如數據的處理與服務評估

5. Developments of DRS u Email 電子郵件 u Pros: convenience and privacy Cons: delay 5. Developments of DRS u Email 電子郵件 u Pros: convenience and privacy Cons: delay and no reference interview u Email Reference Sites by Bernie Sloan

5. Developments of DRS B) Web Forms 網上表格 u Internet Public Library (IPL) u 5. Developments of DRS B) Web Forms 網上表格 u Internet Public Library (IPL) u Opened in 1995 u Hosted by University of Michigan School of Information, Dr. u u u Joe James Over 10, 000 patrons each day, receive 25 -35 questions a day Over 35, 000 Internet resources, pathfinders, FARQ Patrons submit questions via web form or email, software system QRC, Quirk Staff and volunteers pick questions to answer, sent answers back via email, a few days > 3 days Questions sent to archive, message tracking history 檔案, 信息 跟

5. Developments of DRS C) Video Conferencing – UC Irvine 視象會議 u Apple Video. 5. Developments of DRS C) Video Conferencing – UC Irvine 視象會議 u Apple Video. Phone Kit - software - camera - microphone - color conferencing capability - fast connection to the Internet - Timbuktn program (a document sharing capability allowing the librarian to log into the same Medline session as the remote user) u Audio, video, chat window, whiteboard u Students’ comments : excited about this high-tech, demand document delivery of full-text articles

Developments of DRS D) Ask a Service u Virtual Reference Desk VRD - sponsored Developments of DRS D) Ask a Service u Virtual Reference Desk VRD - sponsored by ERIC, US Dept of Education, supported from White House Office of Science & Technology Policy - General information and K-12 - Ask A consortium - Ask A + Locator - VRD Learning Center

Developments of DRS E) Real-time Reference Service 網上實時諮詢 u About 30 academic & research Developments of DRS E) Real-time Reference Service 網上實時諮詢 u About 30 academic & research libraries, government, public libraries u They use 20 different real-time digital chatting software u E. g. NOLA Regional Library System in Ohio, uses e share software on its Ask. Usquestions. com - 14 libraries participate - 25 -30 Qs a week - an operator can handle up to 6 patrons at a time - staff can push pre-composed presentations u Demo on Live Person u Slide Show on Santa Monica Public Library- Ask Me !

Developments of DRS F) Collaborative Digital Reference Service 合作的數碼參考 服務 u Initiated by Library Developments of DRS F) Collaborative Digital Reference Service 合作的數碼參考 服務 u Initiated by Library of Congress u Provides professional reference service to users anywhere, anytime, through an international digital network of libraries u Include libraries, consortia, museums, “Ask-a” and Expert Services e. g. Cornell University, National Library of Canada, National Library of Australia, Harvard, Yale u Three Pilot Phases starting Feb. 2000 u Resource Databases : Member profiles (e. g. hours, collections, patron groups, staff strength) Knowledge Base of Q & As. u Conceptual Flow of Q & A

Developments of DRS G) HKUST’s Experience in CDRS 科大圖書館的經驗 Reference Department - 6 Librarians Developments of DRS G) HKUST’s Experience in CDRS 科大圖書館的經驗 Reference Department - 6 Librarians and 3 support staff u Our Reference Services u -Reference Collection 13, 000 volumes -Reference Counter open 76 hours/week -Answer by in person visit, by phone, by email, by web form -13 Librarians and 10 support staff -Reference Enquiry Statistics

HKUST’s Experiences in CDRS u Our Bibliographic Instruction - Provided 251 Classes to 6, HKUST’s Experiences in CDRS u Our Bibliographic Instruction - Provided 251 Classes to 6, 818 Attendees in 1999/2000 - Developed Information Literacy Tutorial -16 Pathfinders, 50 Library Instruction Notes, 32 Database Search Guides - Class Evaluation: In a sample of 31 classes in 1997 -98, 95% participants “recommended” the classes to others u Other services: Electronic Information Service, Liaison with Schools, Collection Development, Library Committee

HKUST’s Experiences in CDRS u Participation in CDRS ? - Vague questions - Wrongly HKUST’s Experiences in CDRS u Participation in CDRS ? - Vague questions - Wrongly matched questions - Time spent - No reference interviews - Collection profile - Legal issues - Fun and challenging - Access to Q & A database - Direct difficult questions to CDRS - Exposure to a wider variety of questions - Status

Developments of DRS G) Commercial Services 商業服務 u Ask Jeeves -7 million Qs with Developments of DRS G) Commercial Services 商業服務 u Ask Jeeves -7 million Qs with answers & web resources -receives 2 million Qs a day u Allexperts. com u Information Please u Know. Post u Experts Exchange u Infostry u Webhelp. com -2. 1 million visitors, a staff of 900 “web wizards” -subscription of US$9. 99 a month

6. Now What About Us ? We need to u u u Be Service-oriented 6. Now What About Us ? We need to u u u Be Service-oriented Be Creative Advertise our strength – free evaluated services Advertise our service Participate in DRS initiatives Form reference networks with other libraries or services

References & List of Websites References & List of Websites