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日本人の心と文化 The Heart of Contemporary Japan -Consistency and ChangesKoji Nakamura  Professor of Koanan University, Kobe Japan 中村耕二 1 日本人の心と文化 The Heart of Contemporary Japan -Consistency and ChangesKoji Nakamura  Professor of Koanan University, Kobe Japan 中村耕二 1

      春夏秋冬      Four Seasons       2       春夏秋冬      Four Seasons       2

Orientation Lecture for KPP Students Koji Nakamura It is said that North America (USA/Canada) Orientation Lecture for KPP Students Koji Nakamura It is said that North America (USA/Canada) is a Salad Bowl Society? Why? Can you explain that UK today is multicultural society? Why? It is said that Japan is a Rice Bowl Society. Why? What are Traditional American values? What are Traditional Canadian values? What are traditional British values? What are traditional Japanese values? 3

Key Words: * Family-oriented Group Harmony *Competitive Group Consciousness *和(Wa) 魂(Kon) 洋(Yo) 才(Sai) (Japanese Spirit Key Words: * Family-oriented Group Harmony *Competitive Group Consciousness *和(Wa) 魂(Kon) 洋(Yo) 才(Sai) (Japanese Spirit Combined by Western wisdom) * Education has a magic power. *Education in Japan is a mirror to reflect your country. 4

 Japanese Group Harmony vs. American Individualism 5 Japanese Group Harmony vs. American Individualism 5

Fundamental Questions to be answered What is American/European Individualism? What is the heart of Fundamental Questions to be answered What is American/European Individualism? What is the heart of Japanese culture? What are consistency and changes of Japanese society?   What are causes and effects of Japan’s modernization and economic miracle? What are Japanese national identities? What are American national identities ? What are European Identities? 6

American Individualism and Commitment American Habits of the Hearts   Utilitarian Individualsim (功利的個人主義) Ex. American Dream. Taking American Individualism and Commitment American Habits of the Hearts   Utilitarian Individualsim (功利的個人主義) Ex. American Dream. Taking a chance for Success The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Weber)   Protestantism contributed to the rise of capitalism in modern western societies. Possibility, Mobility, Diversity Expressive Individualism (表現的個人主義) Ex. Freedom of Speech (Communicative Competence) Logical Debate with valid evidence in a heterogeneous and pluralistic society Republican(Communitarian Individualism) (共和的個人主義) Success is accepted and admired within the framework of contribution to people, community and society. Ex. Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller, Johan Harvard, Leland Stanford, Elihu Yale (Philanthropy, Public Generosity) See The Habits of Hearts by Robert Bellah (1984) 7

 Western Habits of the Hearts Western Individualism and Commitment ① Utiritarian Individualsim      (功利的個人主義) Ex. American Dream.  Taking  Western Habits of the Hearts Western Individualism and Commitment ① Utiritarian Individualsim      (功利的個人主義) Ex. American Dream.  Taking a chance for Success The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of      Capitalism (Weber) Protestantism contributed to the rise of capitalism in modern western societies.    Possibility, Mobility, Diversirty     See The Habits of Hearts by Robert Bellah (1984) 8

Western Habits of the Hearts Western Individualism and Commitment ②Expressive Individualism    (表現的個人主義) Ex. Freedom of Speech Western Habits of the Hearts Western Individualism and Commitment ②Expressive Individualism    (表現的個人主義) Ex. Freedom of Speech (Communicative Competence) Logical Debate with valid evidence in a heterogeneous and pluralistic society 9

Western Habits of the Hearts Western Individualism and Commitment ③RepublicanIndividualism =Communitarian Individualism (共和的個人主義) Success is Western Habits of the Hearts Western Individualism and Commitment ③RepublicanIndividualism =Communitarian Individualism (共和的個人主義) Success is accepted and admired within the framework of contribution to people, community and society. Ex. Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller, Johan Harvard, Leland Stanford, Elihu Yale (Philanthropy, Public Generosity) See The Habits of Hearts by Robert Bellah (1984) 10

Group Harmony and Strength Japanese habits of the hearts  1 集団の和と家族主義の労働倫理  (Consistency) Group Harmony Group Harmony and Strength Japanese habits of the hearts  1 集団の和と家族主義の労働倫理  (Consistency) Group Harmony and Family-oriented Work Ethic 2 和魂洋才Wa Kon You Sai   (Consistency) 3 本音と建前 Formality (Word) and Actual Intension 4 もののあわれ・無常観  (Consistency) View of life as something transient and empty 5 仏教と神道の共存 (Consistency)   The coexistence of Buddhism and Shintoism 6 武士道  Japanese Chivalry (Bushido) (Consistency) 7 平和主義Japanese Pacifism (Changes) 8 男女関係 Male and Female relationships (Changes) 9 教授法 Teaching Methodology (Changes) 11

武士道Japanese Chivalry (Bushido) The seven Moral Code 武士道の淵源は仏教(禅)の心と神道(忠君、祖先崇拝、親孝行)の 調和で, 惻隠の情(Consideration for enemies and the 武士道Japanese Chivalry (Bushido) The seven Moral Code 武士道の淵源は仏教(禅)の心と神道(忠君、祖先崇拝、親孝行)の 調和で, 惻隠の情(Consideration for enemies and the weak) を重視する。 Rectitude 義   Respect 尊敬   Courage  勇   Benevolence 仁 Honor   名誉  Honesty  誠 Loyalty   忠 These traditional moral codes are still highly estimated in Japanese society and business world as a universal values. (Professional Pride)   12

武士道の淵源は仏教(禅)の心と神道(忠君、祖先崇拝、親孝行)の調和 The Sources of Bushidou influenced by Zen and Shintoism. Bushido furnished a sense 武士道の淵源は仏教(禅)の心と神道(忠君、祖先崇拝、親孝行)の調和 The Sources of Bushidou influenced by Zen and Shintoism. Bushido furnished a sense of calm trust in Fate, a quiet submission to the inevitable that stoic composure in sight of danger or calamity, that disdain of life and friendliness with death. Zen represents human effort to reach through meditation zones of thought beyond the range of verbal expressions… To be convinced of a principle that underlies all phenomena, and if it can, of the Absolute itself, and thus to put oneself in harmony with 13

The three important factors of national Identities  British Students of Leeds University, Yorkshire, UK The three important factors of national Identities  British Students of Leeds University, Yorkshire, UK (46) 英国の大学生 1. English language (52. 2%) (n=24)        英語 (52. 2%) (n=24)       2. Cultural heritage (39. 1%) (n=18)       文化遺産 3. History (37. 0%) (n=17) 歴史 4. Liberal democracy (32. 6%) (n=15)       自由な民主主義 Liberal democracy (32. 6%) (n=15)     自由な民主主義 5. Ethnic diversity (28. 3%) (n=13)     多文化主義  German Students of Bochum University, Germany (46) ドイツの大学生 1. History (61. 2%) (n=30)        歴史 (61. 2%) (n=30)        2. Liberal democracy (51. 0%) (n=25)    自由な民主主義 Liberal democracy (51. 0%) (n=25)    自由な民主主義 3. Human rights (44. 9%) (n=22)        人権 (44. 9%) (n=22)       4. German language (40. 8%) (n=20) ドイツ語 5. Cultural heritage (30. 6%) (n=15)  American Students of University of Hawaii (30)  アメリカの大学生   1 American English (80. 0%)(n=16)     英語    2 Cultural Heritage (55. 0%)(n=11)     文化遺産   3 History (30. 0%)(n=6)       歴史   4 Citizenship (30. 0%)(n=6)        市民権 Japanese Students of Konan University in Kobe, Japan (216)日本の大学生 1. Japanese Language (66. 2%)(n=143  日本語 2. Human Rights (43. 5%)(n=94)     人権 3. National Pride      (31%)(n=31) 国民的誇り 3. National Pride       (31%)(n=31) 国民的誇り 4. Cultural Heritage   (37. 0%)(n=80)        文化遺産 (37. 0%)(n=80)      5. History (27%)(n=27)         歴史 (27%)(n=27)         Thai graduate students of Srinakharinwirot Univ. in Bangkok, Thailand (40) タイの大学院生 1. Thai Language (70%)(n=27)     タイ語 2. Cultural Heritage (70%)(n=27)    文化遺産 3. King (62. 5%)(n=25)        王様  4. History (22. 5%)(n=9)    歴史 14

Factors of national pride among students in five nations British students of University of Factors of national pride among students in five nations British students of University of Leeds, UK       multiculturalism     (76. 09%) (n=35)  多文化主義       liberal democracy     (47. 83%) (n=22)  自由な民主主義       English pound      (32. 61%) (n=15)  英国通貨ポンド       Social Welfare      (23. 9%) (n=11)  社会保障 German students of Bochum University, Germany       Social Welfare     (67. 47%) (n=33)  社会福祉       Liberal Democracy    (61. 22%) (n=30)  自由な民主主義       Multiculturalism     (55. 1%) (n=27)  多文化主義 American Students of University of Hawaii, USA       Multiculturalism (65. 0%)(n=13) 多文化主義       Political Influence (55. 0%)(n=11) 国際政治の影響       Liberal Democracy (40. 0%)(n= 8)    自由な民主主義 Japanese Students of Konan University, Kobe Japan       Science and technology (62. 0%)(n=134)  科学技術          Business Companies  (50. 9%)(n=110)   日本企業       Economic performance  (42. 6%) (n=92)   経済力        Liberal Democracy     (37. 3%)(n=80)    自由な民主主義 Thai graduate students of Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok Thailand       King and Royal Family (87. 5%)(n=35)     王様と皇室      Religion (Buddhism) (52. 5%)(n=21)    宗教(仏教) Multiculturalism (38%)(n=17)     多文化主義   Love for others (38%)(n=17)     他人への愛 15

Graph 1: What makes 216 Japanese Students of Konan University proud of Japan? 16 Graph 1: What makes 216 Japanese Students of Konan University proud of Japan? 16

Survey on Japanese patriotism ? ① Are you pleased that you were born in Japan? Survey on Japanese patriotism ? ① Are you pleased that you were born in Japan?         Yes=94%     NO= 3% ② Do you have a sense of patriotism? Very much 20%+ Yes 58%=(78%)、 No=20%  ③ What do you think of Japan’s colonization in      Asia during the Asia Pacific War? We should reflect ourselves very much. 32% We should reflect ourselves. 53% (32+53=85%) We do not have to reflect ourselves. 11% What impressed us most is that among those who have a strong patriotism, 39% of them feel they should reflect themselves seriously regarding Japanese invasion and colonialism during the War.   (Asahi Newspaper issued January 25, 2007) 17

Discussion through VTRS 1. Japan, a country of craftsman 2. The wonder of digital Discussion through VTRS 1. Japan, a country of craftsman 2. The wonder of digital cameras 3. SONY: Global Strategy 18

Group Harmony and Group Consciousness Japanese Habits of the Hearts 1 The chairperson, or director Group Harmony and Group Consciousness Japanese Habits of the Hearts 1 The chairperson, or director try to listen to both sides and do not give a clear-cut decision to save both sides in the meeting. Japan 日本(中空調和型) USA (中核指導型) 2 Their should not be neither winner nor loser in the meeting for the purpose of group harmony and group competitive and productive power in the long run. 3 Japanese people try to keep face on all sides and make neutral adjustment that suits everyone. 4 The Power of Reconciliation 19 Integrating opposing ideas from cultural strength

 もののあはれ Human sensitivity to the nature and people According to Motoori Norinaga, the もののあはれ Human sensitivity to the nature and people According to Motoori Norinaga, the word “Aware” is a combination of two interjections, “a” and “hare”, each of which was uttered spontaneously when one’s heart was profoundly moved and touched by the changes or transition of natural beauty. A purified and exalted feeling, close to the innermost heart of man and nature 20

 もののあはれ “Mono no Aware” A purified and exalted feeling, close to the innermost もののあはれ “Mono no Aware” A purified and exalted feeling, close to the innermost heart of man and nature 人生の機微やはかなさなどに触れたときに感 じるしみじみとした情趣 無常観 (Mujoukan )と もののあはれ A view of life as something transient and empty. The idea that everything is uncertain, transient and mortal makes us more sensitive to the wonder of life and beauty of nature in each moment. 21

もののあはれ  Are we to look at cherry blossoms only in full bloom, the moon もののあはれ  Are we to look at cherry blossoms only in full bloom, the moon only when it is cloudless? To long for the moon while looking on the rain, to lower the blinds and be unaware of the passing of the spring - these are even more deeply moving. 花は盛りに、 月は隈なきをのみ見る ものかは。雨に向ひて 月を恋ひ、たれこめて春 のゆくへ知らぬも、なほ あはれに情けふかし。 22

もののあはれと無常観 Pathos and Mortality 花の色は移りにけりな いたずらに わが身世にふる ながめせしまに        小野小町 23 もののあはれと無常観 Pathos and Mortality 花の色は移りにけりな いたずらに わが身世にふる ながめせしまに        小野小町 23

24 24

無常観(Mujo): Buddhist view of life: impermanence, transience, mutability This profound view of all living 無常観(Mujo): Buddhist view of life: impermanence, transience, mutability This profound view of all living things originally comes from the heart of this Buddhist term expressing the doctrine that everything that is born must die and that nothing remains unchanged and universal. The phrases shogyou mujo (all the various realms of being are transient) comes from the Law of Buddhism. Mujo and Mono no Ahare have been a major theme in Japanese literature. 25

仏教(禅)における悟り Buddhism Purification and Enlightenment Worldly Passion and desires lead human beings into delusion, 仏教(禅)における悟り Buddhism Purification and Enlightenment Worldly Passion and desires lead human beings into delusion, suffering and anger. The five ways to emancipate ourselves from the bond of worldly passion and desires. 1. We can feel peace of mind only if our mind can get rid of limitless worldly passion and desires. The causes of delusion and suffering are rooted in the mind’s desires for what we do not have and attachments to possessiveness and materialism. 26

 Donald Keene’s Observations of the Japanese View of Life While European artists built Donald Keene’s Observations of the Japanese View of Life While European artists built palaces and statues made of marble for the purpose of eternity and immortality, Japanese people gave up everlasting or universal beauty and looked for beauty in mortality, transience and mutability. 「西洋の芸術家が不滅性を狙って大理石で宮殿や立像を 建てたが、日本人は不滅の美を断念し、消えゆくものの美 を求めた。」( Keene: 1987) 「われわれは永遠を信じて建築物を造るが、日本人は最 初から永続しないものとして造る」(Lafcadio Hearn)  27

一座建立 Ichiza Konryu In order that a gathering be pleasant and comfortable in feeling 一座建立 Ichiza Konryu In order that a gathering be pleasant and comfortable in feeling to its conclusion, one should behave toward the others with wholehearted sincerity, as though that gathering were to be the only encounter with them in one’s entire lifetime- even with close acquaintances one meets daily. (Murai 1992) Sincere attitude towards customers and clients in Japanese business. 28

一期一会 Ichigo Ichie The most important element in Tea ceremony is the aesthetic of 一期一会 Ichigo Ichie The most important element in Tea ceremony is the aesthetic of wabi born out of the special relationship between the practitioner and the utensils in chanoyu, and the concept of “one meeting in a lifetime” which was conceived as the ideal relationship between the participants in the tea gathering. In short, the gist of chanoyu exists in both the form and the spirit. 29

What are the secrets of Japan’s Modernization and economic miracle? 30 What are the secrets of Japan’s Modernization and economic miracle? 30

Most large cities in Japan were devastated by the carpet bombing in 1945. 31 Most large cities in Japan were devastated by the carpet bombing in 1945. 31

Hiroshima: August 6, 1945, am. 7: 31 32 Hiroshima: August 6, 1945, am. 7: 31 32

Nagasaki: August 9, 1945, 11: 02 a. m. 33 Nagasaki: August 9, 1945, 11: 02 a. m. 33

Hiroshima right after the Atomic Bombing   34 Hiroshima right after the Atomic Bombing   34

Classroom under the sky in Hiroshima in 1945 35 Classroom under the sky in Hiroshima in 1945 35

School Feeding Programs and Music Festival at School after the war 36 School Feeding Programs and Music Festival at School after the war 36

37 37

 和(wa)魂(kon)洋(yo)才(sai) This tradition has been influenced by the idea of 和(wa)魂(kon)洋(yo)才(sai) This tradition has been influenced by the idea of "和魂洋才" "Wakon Yousai" advocated by Shozan Sakuma (18111864) since the Meiji Restoration. The idea "Wakon Yosai" means : Japanese spirit combined with Western learning. The idea of learning Western knowledge, technology, institution and systems without losing Japanese cultural identity. 38

The index of Human Development U 5 MR (Under 5 Mortality Rate)  Japan: 3. The index of Human Development U 5 MR (Under 5 Mortality Rate)  Japan: 3. 3/1000  Sierra Leone: 146. 9/1000 Angola: 193. 8/1000 (The US Department of Commerce 2003)    HDI(Human Development Index: Span of life, Income, Education     Span of life: Japan: 81.9  Sierra Leone 34   HDI : Canada(0.96)、French (0.946)、Norway(0.943)、 Japan (0.94) GDI (Gender Development Index)      Canada, Norway and Sweden are high. GDM (How much can women participate in the process of decision-making in politics and economy? )          UNICEF Report 1999 39

U 5 MR Under 5 mortality Rate/1000 Medical Standard and peaceful Life 1 Mozambique U 5 MR Under 5 mortality Rate/1000 Medical Standard and peaceful Life 1 Mozambique  N=199. 0/1000 N=number of death 2 Angola      193. 8 3 Sierra Leone 146. 9 4 Afghanistan 142. 5 5 Liberia 132. 2 6 Niger 123. 6 7 Somalia 120. 3 8 Mali 119. 2 186 Norway 3. 9 187 Finland 3. 7 190 Sweden 3. 4 191 Japan 3. 3/1000 (40/1000 in 1960)         The US Department of Commerce in 2003 40

Table 1: International Ranking of PISA Scores in 2003 OECD PISA (2003) Knowledge and Table 1: International Ranking of PISA Scores in 2003 OECD PISA (2003) Knowledge and Skills for Life 2 International Ranking of PISA Scores     Reading Mathematical Scientific Problem Solving Ranking Literacy Skills 1 Finland Hong Kong* Finland South Korea 2 South Korea Finland Japan Hong Kong* 3 Canada South Korea Hong Kong* Finland 4 Australia The Netherlands South Korea Japan 5 Lichtenstein* New Zealand 6 New Zealand Japan Australia Macau* :     Japan       14 41

The Average Span of Life (Healthy Food and Peaceful Life)  The US Department of The Average Span of Life (Healthy Food and Peaceful Life)  The US Department of Commerce in 2003 1 Andorra        83. 5 2 San Marino      81. 4 3 Japan       80. 9 4 Singapore          80. 4 184 Rwanda      39. 3 185 Zimbabwe    39. 0 186 Malawi      38. 0 187 Angola 37. 0 189 Zambia 35. 3 191 Mozambique 31. 3 (C) 1993 -2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 42

What is the Secret of Japan’s Modernization? 1. The power of Education (High literacy What is the Secret of Japan’s Modernization? 1. The power of Education (High literacy rate in 1868 and 1945) Advancement to higher education in Japan has been proportional to the growth of GDP. 2. Harmony rather than Confrontation 和 ex. Meiji restoration in 1868 Coexistence of Buddhism and Shinto (ism) Group Harmony and group competition for effective productivity in most Japanese companies, schools and organizations 43

What is the Secret of Japan’s Modernization? 3. 和 wa 魂 kon 洋yo 才sai What is the Secret of Japan’s Modernization? 3. 和 wa 魂 kon 洋yo 才sai (Innovating Cultural Hybridity) Japanese spirit combined with Western knowledge, expertise and wisdom without losing Japanese cultural identities 4. Learning Society with Confucius Work Ethic 5. The Unification of Japan in 1603 with high literacy rate 6. Being on the periphery (Off center concept) Awareness of Japan as a small island nation without natural resources 7. Pacifism except (1905 -1945 Japan 8 s dark age) 44

The comparison of national pride among British, German and Japanese university students In comparison, The comparison of national pride among British, German and Japanese university students In comparison, Japanese students are proud of science and technology (62. 0%)(n=134), Japanese Enterprises (50. 9%)(n=110), economic performance (42. 6%)(n=92), liberal democracy (37. 0%)(n=80) and security and crime rate (36. 6%)(n=79). This shows that British and German students are proud of their post-industrial and multicultural society blessed with social welfare, while Japanese students seem to be proud of the components of an economic giant with high technology. It takes years for economic giant in a homogeneous island to realize the postindustrial values and the power of diversity. 45

1. The Power of Education Rohlen (1995) defines Japan's success as a high level 1. The Power of Education Rohlen (1995) defines Japan's success as a high level of average achievement with a low degree of variation over the entire population of students accomplished at relatively low cost. Historically the dramatic spread of secondary education, especially the rate of advancement to high school (ages 16 -18) and university (ages 1822) after the World War II has been a dominating force in Japan's transformation into an advanced industrial state. Indicating this is: the increasing rate of both high school attendance and the Japan's GNP. 46

Classroom under the sky in Hiroshima in 1945 after the war. Most schools started Classroom under the sky in Hiroshima in 1945 after the war. Most schools started education. 47

Classroom before the War Group Harmony and Respect for Teachers Excellent Discipline by Family Classroom before the War Group Harmony and Respect for Teachers Excellent Discipline by Family and School education 48

Teacher’s Room (Open Concept) for Group Harmony and Solidarity 49 Teacher’s Room (Open Concept) for Group Harmony and Solidarity 49

 2. Harmony: 和をもって尊し聖徳太子 神道は人と自然と宇宙との融和を目指し、この和の精 Harmony is the first priority in Japan. 神が日本最初の憲法である「17条の憲法」の核であ る。 50  2. Harmony: 和をもって尊し聖徳太子 神道は人と自然と宇宙との融和を目指し、この和の精 Harmony is the first priority in Japan. 神が日本最初の憲法である「17条の憲法」の核であ る。 50

和と協力を尊重する稲作民族  Rice-growing Culture for Harmony  51 和と協力を尊重する稲作民族  Rice-growing Culture for Harmony  51

Rice Growing Culture and Homogeneous Society The rice–planting culture required group cooperation and group Rice Growing Culture and Homogeneous Society The rice–planting culture required group cooperation and group harmony among families, relatives, villages and communities. This created a national culture based on wetpaddy cultivation as a homogeneous orientation. The Japanese people lived in a passive homogeneous and high context culture, which developed extremely high level of receptivity from other cultures. 52

Family- oriented group harmony& competition As Nakane (1984) states that an organizational structure based Family- oriented group harmony& competition As Nakane (1984) states that an organizational structure based on the vertical principle appears more pronouncedly in well-established, large institutions with a higher degree of prestige, this vertical integration supported by group harmony and solidarity is the source of the stability of the organization, which seems the strength of the Japanese. 53

和と調和を優先する家族主義 Family-oriented Dynamism for Strength and Group Harmony & Group Competition 1 Rice-growing culture 和と調和を優先する家族主義 Family-oriented Dynamism for Strength and Group Harmony & Group Competition 1 Rice-growing culture in the East Asia Family members, relatives, neighbors work together and they form a community 2 School education based on Family-oriented Dynamism for strength and harmony 3 Business companies and any organization in Japan based on family-oriented dynamism for strength and harmony 4 Group consciousness and competitive group consciousness for an effective production process 54

 Merits and Demerits Competitive Groupism. (競争的集団主義)Inter and intragroup competition and consciousness. * Conformism, Merits and Demerits Competitive Groupism. (競争的集団主義)Inter and intragroup competition and consciousness. * Conformism, harmony and obligation with peer pressure.   集団の調和、同質社会のための義務と規制 • Totalitarian agreement ignoring individual and minority opinions • * Vertical society 集団内部のたて・上下関係 Ex. school life, social life and company life…   Extreme Formality to adjust and control group harmony 集団内部の調整装置としての象徴の体系の極端な形式主義 High Suicide rate (32143), Classroom chaos (one-fourth),  Bullying (22840), School Refusal (112, 193), High School dropouts (150000) Socially withdrawn young people (1 million),   55 (Japanese Police Agency in 2003, Ministry of Education in    

3. 和魂洋才 3. 和魂洋才" "Wakon Yousai" advocated by Shozan Sakuma (1811 -1864) The idea "Wakon Yosai" means : An idea of learning Western knowledge, technology, institution and system without losing Japanese cultural identity. As White (1987) points out that in Japan to be modern is not, in pervasive sense, to be Western. 56

Japan’s great changes can be seen as a process of modernization rather than westernization. Japan’s great changes can be seen as a process of modernization rather than westernization. The Japanese are now completely at home with the styles and fads of international culture, mixing them at will with their own traditional traits and proving themselves a prolific source of cultural influences on other countries both West and East. They wisely examine what others are doing in facing the problems of modern times (the countries of the West could learn a lot from them on this score), but they are not blindly imitative and usually come up with a result superior to what can be found abroad. (Reischauer: 1977) 57

Japanizing Chinese and Western cultures with an extremely high level of receptivity Japan has Japanizing Chinese and Western cultures with an extremely high level of receptivity Japan has a unique history of always Japanizing Chinese and Western culture. In this context, it appears as though the strength of Japan’s cultural base is quite formidable. (Chie Nakane: 1997) Ex. Confucian ideas have been modified in Japan from their source in China. 58

Modern Japanese houses The combination of Japanese rooms and Western living rooms 59 Modern Japanese houses The combination of Japanese rooms and Western living rooms 59

Speed, Punctuality, Precision and Accuracy, Elaboration and Delicacy are considered important in Japanese society. Speed, Punctuality, Precision and Accuracy, Elaboration and Delicacy are considered important in Japanese society. Ex. The time table for national railways and all kinds of private lines, the program schedules for NHK and commercial TV and radio. The elaboration of Japanese bullet trains and cars as well the delicacy of Japanese cuisine 60

Modern Japanese Electric Toilet with warm seat and warm water& drier 61 Modern Japanese Electric Toilet with warm seat and warm water& drier 61

A Lerner-centered Communicative Classroom on global Human issues (Debate class in English) 62 A Lerner-centered Communicative Classroom on global Human issues (Debate class in English) 62

 Student’s demonstration class in a multi-media classroom. 63 Student’s demonstration class in a multi-media classroom. 63

4. Family-oriented Group Harmony and Group Competition The heart for horizontal group harmony, has 4. Family-oriented Group Harmony and Group Competition The heart for horizontal group harmony, has established the social accountability of the Gakunen Family (the family-based Grade Group) and the Tannin Seido (a Homeroom System) in all Japanese school organizations from a kindergarten level to a university level. This might be a key to explain success and failure of Japan's educational challenge. The basic virtue of Confucianism is harmony, diligence and faithfulness in any organization. Confucius (551 -479 B. C. ) taught us more than 2500 years ago that a family should be harmonious, a state should be well ordered and the world should be at peace 64

Family- oriented group harmony and group competition 65 Family- oriented group harmony and group competition 65

Family- oriented group harmony and group competition (children, teachers and even parents) 66 Family- oriented group harmony and group competition (children, teachers and even parents) 66

Athletic Meet in Japanese junior high schools Uniformity, Harmony, Cooperation 67 Athletic Meet in Japanese junior high schools Uniformity, Harmony, Cooperation 67

Athletic Meet in Japanese junior high schools The Slogan is Self-independence, Creativity and Strong Will 68 Athletic Meet in Japanese junior high schools The Slogan is Self-independence, Creativity and Strong Will 68

5. Learning Society: In Japan learning is historically the key to becoming a good 5. Learning Society: In Japan learning is historically the key to becoming a good person. Learning is a key to success in life. Learning and the moral advantage it symbolizes have been widely valued as a Confucian-based virtue. Even today, academic achievement at school is seen to confirm a high level of virtue in the students and his supporting family. This is one of the products of Confucian work ethic in Japanese school culture. 69

6. Japan’s modest and intellectual attitude of being on the periphery Then, what has 6. Japan’s modest and intellectual attitude of being on the periphery Then, what has been the secret of Japan's modernization after a long period of national isolation? Japan’s modest and intellectual attitude of being on the periphery and Japan’s willingness to learn and borrow from others, respecting group harmony and balance (equilibrium), have often had an energizing effect on Japan’s modernization as well as on her economic and technological progress. This must be a kernel of Japan's cultural strength and the heart of the Japanese system. 70

Are you proud of your country? 2000 Country Very Yes Little   No 1. Are you proud of your country? 2000 Country Very Yes Little   No 1. Egypt 81. 6 % 17. 4 % (99. 1%)   0. 6% 0. 1% 15 USA 71. 4 22. 9 (94. 3%)  3. 9   0. 4 47 France 37. 5 46. 9 (84. 3%)  6. 4   3. 2 50 UK 45. 1 37. 6 (82. 7%) 7. 8   1. 9 55 Korea 17. 4 60. 8 (78. 3%) 18. 7   2. 9 56 China 24. 7 53. 3 (78. 0%) 13. 2   4. 0 71 Japan 21. 1 33. 1 (54. 2%) 34. 7   3. 5 The Survey of Value System in the World 2000 (The questionnaire was conducted for 1000       adults in each country) 71

The possibility of becoming a Permanent member of the Security Council of the United The possibility of becoming a Permanent member of the Security Council of the United Nations Response from 216 Konan University Students 2005 -2006 72

 7.  Japan’s Fastest Modernization and Pacifism 日本近代化と平和主義 Japan’s long periods of peace: Heian Period 7.  Japan’s Fastest Modernization and Pacifism 日本近代化と平和主義 Japan’s long periods of peace: Heian Period (794 -1156) 362 years (Peace) Edo Period (1603 -1867) 264 years (Peace) Meiji to Showa (1904 -1945) 41 years (Militarism) After World War II (1945 --) 58 years (Peace) The ruling party is to change the Article 9. ? ? ? Japan’s domestic unification (1603)and innovative modernization in order to internationalize Japan in the late 19 th century (1868) and the beginning of the 20 th century (1945), catching up with Western Civilization. 73

Japan’s Pacifism and Article 9 of The Japanese Constitution 日本の平和主義 Article 9 of The Japan’s Pacifism and Article 9 of The Japanese Constitution 日本の平和主義 Article 9 of The Japanese Constitution “No-War”Clause “ Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes…. . In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized. ” According to a survey by NHK (2003), 70% of the people feel that Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution is useful in maintaining safety and peace in Japan. 30% of people feel there is a need for revision. 52% say there is no need for revision. 74

8. Problems Japanese Higher Education Faces Today The educational foundation of Japanese society has 8. Problems Japanese Higher Education Faces Today The educational foundation of Japanese society has been eroded by a rising tide of individual and group competition, affluence (affluenza), ignorance, indifference and intolerance, resulting in the loss of a shared vision for Japan. Private Interests VS. Public Values Competitive Power VS. Human Solidarity 75

Classroom Chaos influenced by the lack of family/community education 76 Classroom Chaos influenced by the lack of family/community education 76

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School Refusal Socially Withdrawn Young People 78 School Refusal Socially Withdrawn Young People 78

Cellular (Portable) Phone Culture A new way of communication style 79 Cellular (Portable) Phone Culture A new way of communication style 79

Juvenile Delinquency Police Agency 2003 80 Juvenile Delinquency Police Agency 2003 80

The Victims of TV games. Children and young people are paying the price of The Victims of TV games. Children and young people are paying the price of economic and technological development as victims of Japanese products. 81