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品質經營 你的顧客感到很快樂、 你不用到處救火、 你不是被動地被迫做事 。 Jack Welch, comments on 6 -sigma 品質經營 你的顧客感到很快樂、 你不用到處救火、 你不是被動地被迫做事 。 Jack Welch, comments on 6 -sigma

Total Quality Management • Hot Topic in business and academic – None of them Total Quality Management • Hot Topic in business and academic – None of them completely agree on • What it is – The definition of TQM • How to do it – How to put the concept into practice – Why • TQM is an evolving concept • Different organizations are in different stages of transforming to TQM • Different organizations may require different forms of TQM

Total Quality Management • A people-focused management system – Continual increase in customer satisfaction Total Quality Management • A people-focused management system – Continual increase in customer satisfaction – Lower real cost • Works horizontally across functions and departments – Involve all employees, top to bottom • Extend backward and forwards – Includes the supply chain and the customer chain Total Quality Forum, 1992

 • TQM – Underlying principals – Tools and techniques • Mistaken tools and • TQM – Underlying principals – Tools and techniques • Mistaken tools and techniques for principals will lead to management failures – A way of life • Not a separate area or program

 • TQM – Pervasive change and paradigm shifts • Growing intensity of global • TQM – Pervasive change and paradigm shifts • Growing intensity of global competition – Automobile industry • U. S. Big 3 v. s. Japanese Toyota, … • Relentless advances in technology – Open and close market • 網路拍賣、影印手抄筆記 – Products rapidly move through ever-shorter life cycle • Phonographic record, CD, music download

 • Stages of the managerial paradigm shift – Normalcy (常態) • Expectations are • Stages of the managerial paradigm shift – Normalcy (常態) • Expectations are clear • Rules are known • Results are predictable – 利率下降、資金充裕、經濟成長 • Taylor’s Scientific Management • Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy

– Anomalies (異常現象) • Unexpected event challenge management’s assumptions about business – Lower price – Anomalies (異常現象) • Unexpected event challenge management’s assumptions about business – Lower price does not mean increase of market share • Global economy – Resources: money, people, machinery, … – Managerial capabilities • The survival of the fittest in an unforgiving process of industrial Darwinism raise the level of competition

– Replacement: New Paradigm • Does NOT mean all elements in the past paradigm – Replacement: New Paradigm • Does NOT mean all elements in the past paradigm are invalid • BUT they are at least reconfigured – Difference between new and old paradigm • Customer Value Strategy • Cross-functional systems • Continuous improvement

Customer value strategy Old paradigm New Paradigm Quality Meeting Specification, Inspected into product, Make Customer value strategy Old paradigm New Paradigm Quality Meeting Specification, Inspected into product, Make tradeoffs among quality, cost, schedule One component of customer value, Managed into process, Seek synergies among quality, cost, schedule Measurement Internal measures of efficiency, productivity, costs, and profitability, not necessarily linked to customers All measures linked to customer value Positioning Competition (五力分析) Customer segments (藍海) Product design Internal, Sell what we can build, We know what is best for customers External, Build what customers need

Cross-functional systems Old paradigm New Paradigm Cross-functional approach Negotiation across functional interface to obtain Cross-functional systems Old paradigm New Paradigm Cross-functional approach Negotiation across functional interface to obtain cooperation Cross-functional systems defined, owned, and optimized Technology To deal with complexity Prefer to eliminate complexity rather than computerized Human resources management Administration of personnel hiring, firing, and handling complaints Career development Culture Command control Employee involvement Structure Specialized, tall hierarchy with functional emphasis Integration, flat hierarchy with team emphasis

Continuous improvement Old paradigm New Paradigm Occasion Reactive to problems Proactive to opportunities Approach Continuous improvement Old paradigm New Paradigm Occasion Reactive to problems Proactive to opportunities Approach Trial and Error Scientific method Response to error Employee is responsible Management is responsible Decision perspective Short term Long term Managerial roles Maintain status quo, control others Challenge status quo, prompt strategic improvement Authority Top-driven via rules and policies Customer-driven through vision and empowerment Means delegation leadership

美國國家品質獎 • Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award • 為改進品質與生產力的 具 – 藉由得獎的榮譽感,刺激企業提升品質及生 產力 – 美國國家品質獎 • Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award • 為改進品質與生產力的 具 – 藉由得獎的榮譽感,刺激企業提升品質及生 產力 – 建立品質改善的指導綱要及標準 – 表揚品質改善成效優異的企業 – 得獎企業提供詳細資料,成為其他企業的參 考

國家品質獎 架構圖 Customer- & Market-focused Strategy and Action Plan 2 1 Leadership Strategic Planning 國家品質獎 架構圖 Customer- & Market-focused Strategy and Action Plan 2 1 Leadership Strategic Planning 3 Customer & Market Focus 5 Human Resource Focus 6 Process Management 4 Information & Analysis 7 Business Results

國家品質獎適用範圍 • 製造業 • 服務業 • 中小企業 國家品質獎適用範圍 • 製造業 • 服務業 • 中小企業

標竿管理與國家品質獎 • Benchmarking: 在重要的衡量指標上,持 續地與目標企業做比較 • 國品獎評審標準:成為企業自我衡量的 標竿 標竿管理與國家品質獎 • Benchmarking: 在重要的衡量指標上,持 續地與目標企業做比較 • 國品獎評審標準:成為企業自我衡量的 標竿

國品獎與品管大師 *** 國品獎與品管大師 ***

6/2 1115 電聯 1400 送中山大學郵局 6/2 0806 電聯不在 6/1 2002 電聯不在 6/2 1115 電聯 1400 送中山大學郵局 6/2 0806 電聯不在 6/1 2002 電聯不在

 • 6/1 20: 02 電聯不在 – 快遞人員聯絡收件人 • 6/2 08: 06 電聯不在 – • 6/1 20: 02 電聯不在 – 快遞人員聯絡收件人 • 6/2 08: 06 電聯不在 – 快遞人員聯絡收件人 • 6/2 09: 00 – 收件人以 caller ID 回電 – 收件人及該公司接電話的人,首度接觸,雞同鴨講 • 收件人不知道,對方是誰,只聽到『快捷』

 • 6/2 11: 15 – 收件人再度聯繫該『快捷』公司 – 雙方經過一陣溝通,達成協議 • 物品於 2 – 3 • 6/2 11: 15 – 收件人再度聯繫該『快捷』公司 – 雙方經過一陣溝通,達成協議 • 物品於 2 – 3 pm 送至中山大學郵局 • 由郵局人員代收 • 6/2 11: 30 – 收件人將貨款,交給郵局熟識人員

 • 6/2 14: 30 – 收件人至郵局,被告知:包裹還沒到 • 14: 35 – 收件人聯繫郵局快捷股 – 快捷股人員問收件人,有沒有『包裹號碼』 • 6/2 14: 30 – 收件人至郵局,被告知:包裹還沒到 • 14: 35 – 收件人聯繫郵局快捷股 – 快捷股人員問收件人,有沒有『包裹號碼』 – 收件人問,司機有沒有大哥大 – 結論:東西在路上

 • 14: 40 – 中山大學郵局通知,包裹已到 • Why so complicate? – Information disconnection • • 14: 40 – 中山大學郵局通知,包裹已到 • Why so complicate? – Information disconnection • Did the Post Office’s employee do his/her job correctly? • Is the service Good?

品質成本 • 企業在生產過程中, – 評估成本 • 檢查測試 因無法達到 100% 合格,所發生的所 – 預防成本 • 人員訓練、重新設計 品質成本 • 企業在生產過程中, – 評估成本 • 檢查測試 因無法達到 100% 合格,所發生的所 – 預防成本 • 人員訓練、重新設計 有成本 – 內部失敗成本 • 廢棄、重做、修理 – 外部失敗成本 • 退貨、客源流失

持續改善 • Continuous Improvement, CI • 管理哲學 – 豐田汽車總裁、張富士夫、2002年 – 我們最重視的是確實執行與採取行動 • 我們所不了解的事情很多 • 持續改善 • Continuous Improvement, CI • 管理哲學 – 豐田汽車總裁、張富士夫、2002年 – 我們最重視的是確實執行與採取行動 • 我們所不了解的事情很多 • 因此,我們要求員 : – 何不採取行動,嘗試不同的方法

– 當你誠實面對自己失敗時,才會了解 • 自己所知甚少 • 你可以矯正哪些失敗 • 再做一次 – 在第二次嘗試中,你了解了 • 另一個錯誤 • 或你不滿意的事 – 當你誠實面對自己失敗時,才會了解 • 自己所知甚少 • 你可以矯正哪些失敗 • 再做一次 – 在第二次嘗試中,你了解了 • 另一個錯誤 • 或你不滿意的事 • 然後,你可以再嘗試 – 於是,藉由不斷改善‧‧‧

 • 藉由永無止境的小改善,達成對產品及 流程的改善 – 現場改善、小集團自主活動 – QCC、TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) • 日本式生產管理的標記 • 藉由永無止境的小改善,達成對產品及 流程的改善 – 現場改善、小集團自主活動 – QCC、TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) • 日本式生產管理的標記

持續改善的 具 • SPC • PDCA • 品質改善故事 持續改善的 具 • SPC • PDCA • 品質改善故事

SPC 常 用 的 具 SPC 常 用 的 具

PDCA PDCA

Generate New Ideas (5 W 2 H) 主題 目的 What? Why? 已完成的作業有 哪些? 這些作業可以刪 Generate New Ideas (5 W 2 H) 主題 目的 What? Why? 已完成的作業有 哪些? 這些作業可以刪 除嗎? 消除不必 這個作業是必要 要的作業 的嗎? 明確地確認目標

5 W 2 H 地點 次序 人 在哪裡做? Where? 一定要在這個地點 完成嗎? 最佳的完成時間為 何? When? 5 W 2 H 地點 次序 人 在哪裡做? Where? 一定要在這個地點 完成嗎? 最佳的完成時間為 何? When? 一定要在此時點完 成嗎? 誰做? 別人可以做 Who? 嗎? 我為什麼要做 ? 改變作業 順序、 合併作業

 • Postponement – Delay differentiation • Start by making generic or family products • Postponement – Delay differentiation • Start by making generic or family products • later differentiated into a specific end-product – Benetton • their knitted sweaters that are initially all white • then dyed into different colors – Paint – Laser printer

5 W 2 H 方法 現在如何做?現在的 How? 方法是最好的嗎?有 其他的方法嗎? 簡化 作 成本 現在的成本為何? How 5 W 2 H 方法 現在如何做?現在的 How? 方法是最好的嗎?有 其他的方法嗎? 簡化 作 成本 現在的成本為何? How 改善以後最佳成本為 much? 何? 選擇改善 方案

QC Story QC Story

選定改善的 1. 主題 選擇 詳細說明選 主題 題的原因 規劃 Plan 『下製程即顧客』 標準化 教育訓練 立即改善 vs 選定改善的 1. 主題 選擇 詳細說明選 主題 題的原因 規劃 Plan 『下製程即顧客』 標準化 教育訓練 立即改善 vs 防止再發生 收集資料 查檢表 找出主題的 直方圖 2. 主要特性 柏拉圖 了解 目前 縮小問題的 範圍 狀況 建立優先次 序

3. 分析 規劃 Plan 4. 建立 對策 列出重大問題的原因 尋找問題與原因之間 的關係 建立假設 蒐集資料 魚骨圖 查檢表 3. 分析 規劃 Plan 4. 建立 對策 列出重大問題的原因 尋找問題與原因之間 的關係 建立假設 蒐集資料 魚骨圖 查檢表 散佈圖 層別 建立對策來消除異常 的原因 現有的科技 (available Technology) 經驗

執行對策 執行 Do 檢驗 Check 5. 檢定 對策 的 效果 蒐集對策產生之 SPC 效果的資料 對策前與對策後 執行對策 執行 Do 檢驗 Check 5. 檢定 對策 的 效果 蒐集對策產生之 SPC 效果的資料 對策前與對策後 的比較

6. 標準化 修正 Act 7. 確認剩餘 的問題與 評估整個 流程 將有效對策 知識 的成果標準 的移轉 化 6. 標準化 修正 Act 7. 確認剩餘 的問題與 評估整個 流程 將有效對策 知識 的成果標準 的移轉 化

持續改善的標竿管理 • Building blocks of learning – Systematic problem solving – Experimentation with new 持續改善的標竿管理 • Building blocks of learning – Systematic problem solving – Experimentation with new approach – Learning from their own experience and past history – Learning from the experiences and best practices of others – Transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization

– Systematic problem solving • Rely on scientific method, rather than guess work – – Systematic problem solving • Rely on scientific method, rather than guess work – Deming Circle • Insist on data, rather than assumptions – Fact-based management • Use simple statistical tool to organize data and draw inference – Histogram, Pareto charts

 • Xerox “leadership through quality” program – – – Identify and select problem • Xerox “leadership through quality” program – – – Identify and select problem Analyze problem Generate potential solutions Select and plan the solution Implement the solution Evaluate the solution

– Experimentation with new approach • Systematic searching for and testing of new knowledge – Experimentation with new approach • Systematic searching for and testing of new knowledge – Ongoing programs • Continuing series of small experiments • Incremental gains in knowledge – Demonstration project • Involve holistic, system-wide changes • Introduce at a single site • Developing new organization capability • Successful programs require an incentive system that favor risk taking

– Learning from past experience • “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned – Learning from past experience • “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it” • “The knowledge gained from failures [is] often instrumental in achieving subsequent successes” – IBM 360 • One of most popular and profitable computer system • Based on the failed Stretch computer

 • Learning occurred by chance rather than by careful planning – Establish processes • Learning occurred by chance rather than by careful planning – Establish processes to periodically review past and learn from their mistakes • Productive failure v. s. unproductive success – Case study, post-project review

– Learn from others • Sometimes the most powerful insights come from looking outside – Learn from others • Sometimes the most powerful insights come from looking outside – Benchmark • Industrial tourism • Discipline process: identify best practice requires search – Customers • Up-to-date product information • Competitive comparisons • Insights into changing preference • Immediate feedback

– Sometime customers can not articulate their needs • Team members follow the product – Sometime customers can not articulate their needs • Team members follow the product through the customer’s production process • Managers – Can not be defensive – Open to criticism and bad news

– Transfer knowledge • Reports – Oral, written, visual • • Site visit and – Transfer knowledge • Reports – Oral, written, visual • • Site visit and tours Personnel rotation program Education and training program Standardization programs

SHINGO 系統 新鄉重夫 • SQC 不能預防不良品 • 只有在流程中做好控制,才能防止不良 品 • 最受矚目的手法 – 縮短設備整備時間 Setup SHINGO 系統 新鄉重夫 • SQC 不能預防不良品 • 只有在流程中做好控制,才能防止不良 品 • 最受矚目的手法 – 縮短設備整備時間 Setup • 豐田 十分鐘換模法 – 源頭檢查及防呆系統

 • 檢查 – 自我檢查:員 個人來做 – 持續的檢查:由流程的下一站做 • 專職的評估者 – 來源的檢查: (source inspection) • 檢查 – 自我檢查:員 個人來做 – 持續的檢查:由流程的下一站做 • 專職的評估者 – 來源的檢查: (source inspection) • 不是檢查不良品 • 是將造成不合格品的原因找出來 – 防止再發生錯誤

 • 防呆 – 防止 作者在流程未開始前,即犯錯誤而導 致不合格品 – 快速回應流程中的異常,以利 作者有即時 修正的機會 – 應用範圍廣泛 • • 防呆 – 防止 作者在流程未開始前,即犯錯誤而導 致不合格品 – 快速回應流程中的異常,以利 作者有即時 修正的機會 – 應用範圍廣泛 • 零件盒:確保零件裝配的數目 • 電子訊號裝置

ISO 9000: 2000 • Quality management principals – – – – Principle 1 Customer ISO 9000: 2000 • Quality management principals – – – – Principle 1 Customer focus Principle 2 Leadership Principle 3 Involvement of people Principle 4 Process approach Principle 5 System approach to management Principle 6 Continual improvement Principle 7 Factual approach to decision making Principle 8 Mutually beneficial supplier relationships

– Customer focus • understand current and future customer needs • should meet customer – Customer focus • understand current and future customer needs • should meet customer requirements • strive to exceed customer expectations

– Leadership • Leaders establish unity of purpose and direction of the organization. – – Leadership • Leaders establish unity of purpose and direction of the organization. – create and maintain the internal environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organization's objectives

– Involvement of people • People at all levels – are the essence of – Involvement of people • People at all levels – are the essence of an organization • their full involvement – enables their abilities to be used for the organization's benefit.

– Process approach • A desired result is achieved more efficiently – when activities – Process approach • A desired result is achieved more efficiently – when activities and related resources are managed as a process.

– System approach to management • Identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a – System approach to management • Identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a system – contributes to the organization's effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives.

– Continual improvement • Continual improvement of the organization's overall performance should be a – Continual improvement • Continual improvement of the organization's overall performance should be a permanent objective of the organization

– Factual approach to decision making • Effective decisions are based on the analysis – Factual approach to decision making • Effective decisions are based on the analysis of data and information

– Mutually beneficial supplier relationships • An organization and its suppliers are interdependent and – Mutually beneficial supplier relationships • An organization and its suppliers are interdependent and a mutually beneficial relationship • enhances the ability of both to create value

Implementation example – A metal parts fabricating company • used ISO 9000: 2000 to Implementation example – A metal parts fabricating company • used ISO 9000: 2000 to develop a plan to implement their quality management system. • Certified requirements by ISO 9001: 2000 – a quality manual – quality system procedures • excluding the requirements covering product design and development • because products are made to designs prepared by customers.

 • Critique of ISO 9000 – Relative neglect of • Market-based performance • • Critique of ISO 9000 – Relative neglect of • Market-based performance • Pursuit of performance excellence

ISO 9000 認證 • 自身認證:企業自行進行稽核 • 第二者認證:顧客對供應商進行稽核 • 第三者認證:利用合格的國際標準,或 認證代理公司進行稽核 ISO 9000 認證 • 自身認證:企業自行進行稽核 • 第二者認證:顧客對供應商進行稽核 • 第三者認證:利用合格的國際標準,或 認證代理公司進行稽核

ISO 與 Baldrige • 先推行ISO • ISO 重視公司內部流程、Baldrige 重視顧 客滿意及業務成果 • Baldrige 並不要求企業通過 ISO ISO 與 Baldrige • 先推行ISO • ISO 重視公司內部流程、Baldrige 重視顧 客滿意及業務成果 • Baldrige 並不要求企業通過 ISO