- Количество слайдов: 20
周佩虹 仲恺农业 程学院外国语学院 Improving Class Interactiona sample lesson
Content 1. Factors affecting class interaction. 2. Context-based teaching for improving class interaction: a sample lesson 3. Suggestions for improving class interaction.
• Factors affecting class interaction
Factors affecting class interaction Class size Teacher ‘s characteristics/ behavior Gender Class interaction Student’s characteristics Peer relation
Class size 1. 2. 3. The larger the number of students in a class, the greater the amount of time devoted to classroom management rather than instruction. Smaller classes allow for potential disciplinary problems to be identified and resolved more quickly. The larger the class size, the less likely teachers are to develop lessons encouraging higher-level thinking. • No more than 25 students should be permitted for a language class. • No more than 20 students should be permitted in any writing class.
Gender 1. 2. 3. Female teachers were more interactive with their students either in single-gender or mixed-gender classes. In mixed gender classes, male teachers were more interactive with boys than girls. Female teachers were more supportive and patient. They gave more compliments to their students and used less directive forms. Thorne (1979), Canada and Pringle (1995), Francis (2004), Hopf and Hatzichristoo (1999), Kelly (1988) and Shomoosi et. al (2008).
Student’s characteristics and needs • Age • Personality • Attitude • Aptitude • Motivation • Learning styles and strategies • Multiple intelligences
Teacher characteristics/behavior • Way of questioning: • Referential questions favor more class interaction than do display questions. (O. F. David, 2007) • Teacher’s expectation of the class: • More praise statements lead to a more supportive environment for class interaction. (Simon, 1966) • Language: • Rephrase or clarify queries in order to facilitate student comprehension.
• Context-based teaching for improving class interaction: a sample lesson “The most important single factor influencing learning is the active engagement of the learner with the material. “
How people learn Social & Language of Instructional Language Mathematics Language Arts Preperceptions Facts Context Language of Science use and use / application Language of Social Studies Metacognition
Teaching adverbial clause of reason in context: a sample of lesson plan Analyzing the learners Assess needs to identify goals Learning context Analyzing teaching material Conduct summative evaluation Develop instructional strategy Identify possible problems Develop performance objectives Select instructional material
Warm-up: A one-minute talk Level of interaction: LOW (They might be more interested in the amulets than in the topic. ) Activity: Causes for various Superstitious practice. Level of interaction: MEDIUM Passage for reading: Chinese superstition on New Year’s Day Level of interaction: MEDIUM Writing task: Make interesting guesses on why people in western countries do that. (A familiar context helps to arouse interest in a given topic. ) (A reinforced context helps to decrease anxiety and boost confidence in interaction with teacher. ) Level of interaction: HIGH (Assessing the students’ work in class and giving timely feedback matter a lot!)
LOW Level of interaction Warm-up: A one-minute talk Activity: Causes for various Superstitious practice. Passage for reading: Chinese superstition on New Year’s Day Writing task: Make interesting guesses on why people in western countries do that. Context awareness Context of of situation culture HIGH
• Suggestions for improving class interaction
1. Improve approachability. • Get to know the students and have the students get to know you. • Play some sort of name game or ice-breaker on the first day. • Start the class with a one-minute talk.
2. Build a safe and supportive class environment. • Explicitly tell the students that they are safe voicing their opinions. • Show your own vulnerability. • Design learning experiences that are relevant to students' lives.
3. Give effective feedback. • Give students timely feedback at various levels apart from their language proficiency, including comprehension, values, analytical skill, etc. • Make the feedback clear, specific, formative, supportive and deliver it in an appropriate environment.
REFERENCES 1. Boyle, James T. , and David J. Nicol. "Using classroom communication systems to support interaction and discussion in large class settings. "Research in Learning Technology 11. 3 (2003). • • Catherine A. Hansman, Context-based adult learning, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2011, No. 89: 43 -51. Chris Trevitt, Melissa Highton, “Learning environment” – the context in which learning takes place, Oxford Learning Institute , University of Oxford Chen Bao et al. , A course of English grammar in authentic context, Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2010. Cowie, Bronwen, et al. "Enhancing classrooms interactions to improve learning: examples from New Zealand research. “ Cooper, Bridget, and Paul Brna. "Supporting high quality interaction and motivation in the classroom using ICT: the social and emotional learning and engagement in the NIMIS project. " Education, Communication & Information 2. 23 (2002): 113 -138. David Nunan, Teaching grammar in context, ELT Journal, 1998 Vol. 52/2: 101 -109. Joellen Killion, Create a supportive environment for all, Teachers Teaching Teachers, 2010. Hadley, Alice Omaggio, and Elizabeth Reiken. Teaching Language in Context, and Teaching Language in Context--Workbook. Heinle & Heinle Publishers, International Thomson Publishing Book Distribution Center, 7625 Empire Drive, Florence, KY 41042, 1993.
REFERENCES 8. Jack C. Richards, David Bohlke, Creating effective language lessons, Cambridge University Press, 2011. 9. Krashen, Stephen. Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Pergamon: Oxford, 1982. 10. Meng, Xuemei, and Xuesong Wang. "Action Study of Teacher’s Language on EFL Classroom Interaction. " Theory and Practice in Language Studies 1. 1 (2011): 98 -104. 11. Nasser Rashidi*, Sahar Naderi, The effect of gender on the patterns of classroom interaction, Education, 2012, 2(3): 30 -36. 12. NCTE Position on Class Size and Teacher Workload, Kindergarten to College, 1999. 13. Parchmann, Ilka, and Markus Luecken. "Context-based Learning for Students and Teachers: Professional development by participating in school innovation projects. " 14. Shomoossi, Nematullah. "The effect of teachers’ questioning behavior on EFL classroom interaction: A classroom research study. " The Reading Matrix 4. 2 (2004). 15. Smith, Daryl G. "College classroom interactions and critical thinking. "Journal of Educational Psychology 69. 2 (1977): 180. 16. Wang, Qiaoying, and Carolyn D. Castro. "Classroom interaction and language output. " English Language Teaching 3. 2 (2010): P 175.
Thank You. Mandy