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专业英语 Specialized English Jan. 2012 1 专业英语 Specialized English Jan. 2012 1

第一节 英语写作一般知识简介 n 使用转折语可以把全段的意思连贯起来 1. 表示举例 For example, for instance, as an illustration, to 第一节 英语写作一般知识简介 n 使用转折语可以把全段的意思连贯起来 1. 表示举例 For example, for instance, as an illustration, to illustrate, namely, that is, for one thing, a case in point n 2. 表示增补意义 In addition, furthermore, moreover, and, also, or, too, besides, again, what’s more, likewise n 3. 表示强调 In fact, as a matter of fact, in other words, of course, certainly, above all, indeed, clearly, surely, in particular, obviously, naturally, anyway, in this case n 4. 表示对照 While, whereas, in contrast, on the other hand, instead, on the contrary, in spite of, despite , but, however, although, still, yet, nevertheless, conversely, otherwise n 2

第一节 英语写作一般知识简介 n 使用转折语可以把全段的意思连贯起来 5. 表示比较 Similarly, in the same way, even though, at 第一节 英语写作一般知识简介 n 使用转折语可以把全段的意思连贯起来 5. 表示比较 Similarly, in the same way, even though, at the same time, not only…but also, likewise, meanwhile n 6. 表示让步 Although, after all, it is true (that) n 7. 表示原因 For this reason, because of this, because, since, as , for, due to, owing to, thanks to n 8. 表示结果 Thus, hence, therefore, accordingly, consequently, so, in this way, as a result n 3

第一节 英语写作一般知识简介 n 使用转折语可以把全段的意思连贯起来 9. 表示次序 First, second, first of all, to begin with, 第一节 英语写作一般知识简介 n 使用转折语可以把全段的意思连贯起来 9. 表示次序 First, second, first of all, to begin with, at first, finally, eventually, in the end, immediately, soon, in front of, next to, opposite to, in the middle of, on the left, afterward, then, next n 10. 表示结论 In conclusion, to sum up, to summarize, in summary, in all, in a word, in short, in brief, as has been noted n 4

第一节 英语写作一般知识简介 n n n n Expressions for Concession ______the Internet greatly facilitates our 第一节 英语写作一般知识简介 n n n n Expressions for Concession ______the Internet greatly facilitates our access to information. However, … Admittedly, (Undeniably, It cannot be denied that) ______the Internet enables us to get an easy access to information. But… It is true that ______the Internet presents us with a fascinating world we haven’t ever experienced, we should keep calm when sorting out its messy messages. Though/ While/ Although 5

Abstract n n Abstract:是论文内容的概括性说明,数十或数百字不等 主要内容: n n 研究的目的与意义 研究的方法与途径 研究的成果与结论 写作要点 n n n Abstract n n Abstract:是论文内容的概括性说明,数十或数百字不等 主要内容: n n 研究的目的与意义 研究的方法与途径 研究的成果与结论 写作要点 n n n n 有相对独立的结构,保证摘要的完整性和独立可读性 时态常用一般现在时,并注意时态的一致性 开门见山,烦言休叙 避免在摘要中重复标题文字 摘要中也不用图表、方程、结构式等非文字性内容 避免使用第一人称,尽量使用第三人称。不过也有使用第一人称 给出适当的关键词 6

Abstract n n n 能用名词做定语不要用动名词做定语,能用形容词做定语就不要用名词做定 语。 例如:用measurement accuracy 不用 measuring accuracy  用 experimental results Abstract n n n 能用名词做定语不要用动名词做定语,能用形容词做定语就不要用名词做定 语。 例如:用measurement accuracy 不用 measuring accuracy  用 experimental results 不用 experiment results ; 可直接用名词或名词短语作 定语的情况下,要少用of 句型。 例如用measurement accuracy 不用 accuracy of measurement; 用camera curtain shutter ,不用curtain shutter of camera ;用equipment structure ,不用 structure of equipment 。 可用动词的情况尽量避免用动词的名词形式; 例如: 用 Thickness of plastic sheets was measured. 不用 Measurement of thickness of plastic sheet was made. 删繁从简; 如用 increased 代替 has been found to increase 用 the results show 代替 from the experimental results, it can be concluded that 文摘中不能出现“图××”、“方程××”和“参考文献××”等句子。 文摘词语拼写,用英美拼法都可以,但在每篇文章中须保持一致。 文词要纯朴无华, 不多姿多态的文学性描述手法 7

Typical Sentences n n n This paper focuses on … This paper discusses … Typical Sentences n n n This paper focuses on … This paper discusses … In this paper, … is presented/studied/investigated. This paper is concerned with … The purpose/objective of this paper is to … It is the aim of this paper to discuss/present/describe … In this paper, we introduce/present/consider … The approach is based on … Conditions are considered for … The result of this study can be generalized for … The result for … are found to be close to the experimental data. 8

An Example of Abstract n Abstract: In this paper, we first adopt the concept An Example of Abstract n Abstract: In this paper, we first adopt the concept of selfcertified public keys to propose a new signature scheme with message recovery. The proposed scheme has two properties that the signer’s public key can simultaneously be authenticated in verifying the signature, and the receiver also obtains the message. As compared with the certificate-based signature scheme with message recovery, the public space and the communication cost are reduced. Moreover, we also present two variants based on the proposed scheme. One is an authenticated encryption scheme that only allows a specified receiver to verify and recover the message. The other scheme is the authenticated encryption scheme with message linkages, which is used to transmit large message. 9

An Example of Abstract n Abstract: Virtual reality (VR) is well-known and is currently An Example of Abstract n Abstract: Virtual reality (VR) is well-known and is currently being investigated for practical use in various industrial fields. Using threedimensional computer graphics, interactive devices, and a high-resolution display, a virtual world can be realized in which imaginary objects can be picked up as if they were in the physical world. Using VR technology, Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. has been developing application systems for industrial use since 1990. This paper details four VR application systems: a relax/refresh system employing VR, a horseback riding therapy simulator with VR technology, a VR -supported kitchen layout design system, as well 10 as an urban planning VR system.

并行数据库的改进Hash 划分方法 及并行Join 算法 n n 摘 要 文中提出了Hash 划分的改进方法—— IH 划分为结点扩充时数据的重新划分 提供了方便. 在论述IH 划分的基础上, 给出了 并行数据库的改进Hash 划分方法 及并行Join 算法 n n 摘 要 文中提出了Hash 划分的改进方法—— IH 划分为结点扩充时数据的重新划分 提供了方便. 在论述IH 划分的基础上, 给出了 基于该数据划分方法的并行Jo in 算法. 利用已 有的数据分布, 文中提出的并行Jo in 算法提高 了算法的效率. 最后, 从理论上对以上并行算 法的计算复杂性进行了分析. 关键词 数据库, 并行数据库, 数据划分 11

IM PROVED HASH PARTITION FOR PARALLEL DBM S AND PARALLEL JO IN ALGORITHM S IM PROVED HASH PARTITION FOR PARALLEL DBM S AND PARALLEL JO IN ALGORITHM S n n Abstract IH partition, an improvement of Hash part it ion, is presented in this paper. IH partition has m any advantages in dealing with data re-partition among processing nodes. Parallel join algorithms based on IH partition are discussed. The performance of these algorithm s is improved by utilizing existing data partition. Finally, theoretical analysis of the computing complexity of these algorithms is presented. Keywords database, parallel database, data partition 12

大流量网络平台下并行数据库的设计 与实现 n n 摘要: 随着计算机网络的迅猛发展,网络 速度已经从10 Mb/s、100 Mb/s 达到了 1 Gb/s,因此,一般 作在网络平台下的 数据库随着数据量的增加,往往难以满 大流量网络平台下并行数据库的设计 与实现 n n 摘要: 随着计算机网络的迅猛发展,网络 速度已经从10 Mb/s、100 Mb/s 达到了 1 Gb/s,因此,一般 作在网络平台下的 数据库随着数据量的增加,往往难以满 足用户的需求。因此,该文将并行处理 与数据库技术相结合,设计并实现了应 用于大流量网络平台的并行数据库。 关键词: 数据库; 并行处理; 大流量 13

Design and Implementation of Parallel Database on the Massive Data Flow Network Platform n Design and Implementation of Parallel Database on the Massive Data Flow Network Platform n n Abstract: As the increasing of the computer network, the speed of network is improved from 10 Mb/s、100 Mb/s to 1 Gb/s. With the increasing of data, the database on the platform of network cannot cater to the user’s application, So, this paper combines the parallel technology with the database technology, and designs a parallel database used on the network platform with massive data flow. Keywords: database, parallel process, massive data flow 14

Introduction n Introduction:引言实际上是摘要的进一步展开,主要包括论文的主旨目 的,本课题的发展情况回顾和展望,他人研究成果的分析评价,本文作者的 主要观点、成果的介绍等。 n Classification n 对他人研究成果的评述 n n Much work has Introduction n Introduction:引言实际上是摘要的进一步展开,主要包括论文的主旨目 的,本课题的发展情况回顾和展望,他人研究成果的分析评价,本文作者的 主要观点、成果的介绍等。 n Classification n 对他人研究成果的评述 n n Much work has been done on … Sb. obtained very accurate results in … By the late 1990’s, researchers had started scientific work on … 进展情况分析 n n This experiment has a significant impact on … The method worked well at … In recent years, more attention has been focused on … The concept of … has been proposed and used by many authors during the last few years. 15

1. Introduction Digital signature is very important in the modern electronic data processing systems. 1. Introduction Digital signature is very important in the modern electronic data processing systems. The signer uses his secret key to generate a signature for the given message, and the verifier uses the signers public key to verify the signature. Most previously proposed signature schemes were based on well-known public key systems such as RSA system [13] and El. Gamal system [2]. In [9– 11] Nyberg and Rueppel, presented the signature scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem that gives message recovery. Later, Horster et al. [3] proposed an authenticated encryption scheme modified from Nyberg–Rueppels scheme. In the authenticated encryption scheme, the signer may generate the signature for a message and then send it to a specified receiver, and only the specified receiver can recover and verify the message. Therefore, the authenticated encryption scheme can be regarded as the combination of data encryption scheme and digital signature scheme. 16

It can be seen that as compared to the straightforward approach employing the encryption It can be seen that as compared to the straightforward approach employing the encryption and the signature schemes for a message, respectively, the authenticated encryption scheme requires smaller bandwidth of data communications for achieving privacy, integrity and authentication of information. In order to recover the message from the signature, the message cannot be hashed to reduce the size of the message. However, if the message is large, the message must be divided into a sequence of message blocks, and each message block is encrypted and signed as a signature block individually. Unfortunately, this approach has a disadvantage: An intruder can reorder or partially delete some signature blocks so that the recipient cannot know whether the message blocks have been rearranged or deleted partially. This drawback can be remedied by employing a redundancy mechanism to construct the linkages among message blocks, but this approach will increase communication costs. To reduce communication costs for employing the redundancy mechanism, several schemes [4, 5, 16] have been proposed to improve the performance. 17

All schemes described above are based on the certificate-based public key systems. That is, All schemes described above are based on the certificate-based public key systems. That is, the public key of each user contains no identity information. Each user needs to select a secret key and compute a corresponding public key. The public key must be accompanied with a certificate generated by a system authority [7]. However, this approach has the following potential problems. It needs large storage to store each users public key and the corresponding certificate. The signers public key must have been authenticated before a signature is verified. In 1984, Shamir [14] first introduced the idea of a cryptographic system based on identification information. The ID-based public key system has the following advantage. The identity of the user is used as his public key. The public key of each entity is nothing but an identity, which can be defined as part of the identification information. It is explicitly verified if that users identity is publicly known, so that a large public-key file is not required and the certification for participants public keys is not necessary. 18

On the other hand, the secret key of each user is not selected by On the other hand, the secret key of each user is not selected by the user, but computed by system authority. The notion of self-certified public keys was first introduced by Girault [6]. Each users public key is derived from the signature of the users secret key with his identity, signed by the system authority using the systems secret key. Thepublic key of each user need not be accompanied with a separate certificate to be authenticated by verifiers. The authentication of the public key can implicitly be accomplished with the signature verification. Therefore, self-certified public keys contribute to reducing the amount of storage and computations in public key schemes. In addition, not the same as an ID-based system, it hasanother advantage in that the secret key of each user is chosen by the user himself and remains unknown to the system authority. 19

In this paper, extended from the self-certified public key system proposed by Girault, we In this paper, extended from the self-certified public key system proposed by Girault, we first propose a new digital signature scheme with message recovery. Subsequently, two variants based on the proposed digital signature scheme with message recovery are presented, which provides different kinds of applications. These proposed schemes have the same property that the signers public key can simultaneously be authenticated in verifying the signature. As compared with the previously proposed certificate-based schemes, the public keys and certificate directory maintained by the system authority are not required. Different from the ID-based schemes, the secret key of each user is chosen by the user himself. This paper is organized into six sections. In the next section, a signature scheme with message recovery using self-certified public keys is presented. In Section 3, we will propose two variants extended from the proposed signature scheme. The security analysis is described in Section 4. Section 5 gives the performance evaluation for the proposed schemes. Finally, a summary is given in Section 6. 20

2. INTRODUCTION Virtual Reality is well-known and is currently being investigated for practical use 2. INTRODUCTION Virtual Reality is well-known and is currently being investigated for practical use in the various industrial fields such as computer graphics, CAD, CAM, CIM, robotics, medical/health care, multimedia, games and so on. Many companies have released commercial products which can be used for developing VR application systems. Since 1990, Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. Has developed several VR application systems for industrial use. In this paper, four VR systems are introduced. First, a relax/refresh system employing virtual reality suitable for the health care field. This system employs a physiological feedback mechanism which controls stimulation by detecting the sequential data of the user's heart rate. Second, a VR-based system that reproduces the effect of horseback riding therapy. This system may be enjoyed by healthy senior citizens, and has been specifically designed to rejuvenate both the mind and the body. 21

Third, a VR-supported kitchen layout design system. With this VR system, customers can have Third, a VR-supported kitchen layout design system. With this VR system, customers can have a pseudo-experience of their "virtual kitchen" and modify its design. This system helps our customers to make decisions when designing the layout of their new kitchen. The VR system has been in practical use in Matsushita's showrooms since 1994. Finally, a distributed VR system for use in urban planning. The core of this VR system is a domed VR facility where virtual reality can be experienced. This VR system presents a virtual city, so that various specialists can cooperate with each other in city planning and plan evaluation, with citizens also enabled to experience and evaluate the planned city. 22

Conclusion n n Conclusion:论文的结论是论文的高度概括和理论总结,结论应该与论文的 摘要、引言和论文的主体相呼应。结论要简明扼要,重点说明通过研究得到 了什么结果,解决了什么问题,有待改进之处等 写作 n It is clear from the forgoing Conclusion n n Conclusion:论文的结论是论文的高度概括和理论总结,结论应该与论文的 摘要、引言和论文的主体相呼应。结论要简明扼要,重点说明通过研究得到 了什么结果,解决了什么问题,有待改进之处等 写作 n It is clear from the forgoing discussion that … n This demonstration/illustration/comparison shows … n The above results/data lead us to a conclusion that … n From the results we have obtained it can be concluded that … n On the basis of these results we conclude that … n All these data confirm the previous assumption that … n It has been proved that the separation ratio of this system is superior to that of the conventional system. n Studies and trials have led to the conclusion that digital voice transmission has substantial advantages over analog transmission and should thus be provided for future development. 23

An Example of Conclusion n In this paper, four VR application systems for industrial An Example of Conclusion n In this paper, four VR application systems for industrial use which have been developed in Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. are described. As stated in section 1, VR technology has recently been investigated for industrial use, since the basic components for developing the VR application system are decreasing in cost. In addition, the research and development into highperformance VR systems which handle large 3 -D models and provide extremely high-resolution 3 -D graphics images is to be continued. Thus, the development of VR application systems can be divided into two: a lowcost VR system and a high-performance VR system. From this point of view, all four application systems are categorized into the low-cost VR systems. Accordingly, we intend to produce low-cost VR systems for practical use, while developing high-performance VR systems for research. 24

一些注意事项 n 科技写作中易忽视的字母该大写的场合 n 图表、定理、章节、参考文献等有表示顺序的号码时, 如: Fig. 1 -5(Figure 1 -5), Table 23, Theorem 一些注意事项 n 科技写作中易忽视的字母该大写的场合 n 图表、定理、章节、参考文献等有表示顺序的号码时, 如: Fig. 1 -5(Figure 1 -5), Table 23, Theorem 4, Eq. (3. 36), Problem 2, Reference[6], Chapter 7, Section 1 -8 n 文章中提到带有学位、学衔的人时,其称呼的首字母 要大写 The authors would like to acknowledge the excellent review of the entire manuscript by Dr. Edward Nelson. I am indebted to Professors Glen Goff, W. W. Peterson, M. A. Miller, Robert Carroll, Irving Reed, and Irwin Lebow for their suggestions. 25

一些注意事项 n 英汉表达不一致的地方 主语不一致 这台计算机有毛病 Something is wrong with this computer. n 主从句中代词使用位置不同 金属受热就会膨胀 一些注意事项 n 英汉表达不一致的地方 主语不一致 这台计算机有毛病 Something is wrong with this computer. n 主从句中代词使用位置不同 金属受热就会膨胀 Metals expand when heated. n 26

一些注意事项 n 英汉表达不一致的地方 比较对象表达上的不一致 铜的导电率比铝高 The conductivity of copper is higher than that of 一些注意事项 n 英汉表达不一致的地方 比较对象表达上的不一致 铜的导电率比铝高 The conductivity of copper is higher than that of aluminum. n n 有些短语动词具有被动的含义,所以不能再把 他们表示成被动形式或用起过去分词作后置定 语 consist of, arise from, serve as, abide by, find use in 27

第三节 科技论文及其摘要的写作注意事项 l Main Characteristics – 句子语法正确,地道、准确 – 广泛使用被动语态 – – – 科技论文及文摘中使用的时态 词汇问题 第三节 科技论文及其摘要的写作注意事项 l Main Characteristics – 句子语法正确,地道、准确 – 广泛使用被动语态 – – – 科技论文及文摘中使用的时态 词汇问题 动名词、分词和不定式的运用 专业术语多 字的合成 – 词汇缩略 技术术语的翻译 – 句子特征 – 28

一、句子语法正确,地道、准确 n 熟悉常用的固定句型,在阅读本专业的英语书 刊要经常留意并摘记下来,而不能根据脑子里 的汉语的概念堆上一些英语单词 The solution checks. 这个验证无误。 This completes the proof. 证毕。 一、句子语法正确,地道、准确 n 熟悉常用的固定句型,在阅读本专业的英语书 刊要经常留意并摘记下来,而不能根据脑子里 的汉语的概念堆上一些英语单词 The solution checks. 这个验证无误。 This completes the proof. 证毕。 This amounts to saying…这等于是说… The results obtained are in good agreement with the calculated values所得的结果与计算值相吻合。 This point deserves some further consideration. 这一点需要进一步 考虑。 29

二、广泛使用被动语态 n 常用被动语态,占 1/3至 1/2 n n Computers have been widely used in our 二、广泛使用被动语态 n 常用被动语态,占 1/3至 1/2 n n Computers have been widely used in our national defense. 计算机已广泛地用于我们的国防。 Finally, the application of this method is illustrated with an example. 最后举例说明了这种方法的应用。 It is well known that molecules consist of atoms. 众所周知,分子是由原子组成的。 A new computer-aided design method is presented in the paper. 本文提出了一种新的计算机辅助设计方法。 30

三、科技论文及文摘中使用的时态 n 科技写作中时态运用很有限 n n 最大量使用一般现在时 其次是一般将来时和现在完成时 再次是一般过去时和现在进行时 为了表示虚拟语气,还要用到过去完成时、 过去将来时和过去将来完成时等形式 31 三、科技论文及文摘中使用的时态 n 科技写作中时态运用很有限 n n 最大量使用一般现在时 其次是一般将来时和现在完成时 再次是一般过去时和现在进行时 为了表示虚拟语气,还要用到过去完成时、 过去将来时和过去将来完成时等形式 31

三、科技论文及文摘中使用的时态 n n n The fundamental principles of modern communication are discussed. 本文讨论了现代通讯的基本原理。 An 三、科技论文及文摘中使用的时态 n n n The fundamental principles of modern communication are discussed. 本文讨论了现代通讯的基本原理。 An empirical formula is also given. 同时给出了经验公式。 Several simple dielectric test objects have been utilized. 我们使用了几种简单的介质实验目标。 This scheme avoids the complexities of matrix inversion. 本方法避免了矩阵求逆的复杂运算。 The results obtained demonstrate that the above equation holds for all cases. 所得结果表明,上述公式适用于各种情况。 This point remains to be proved. 这一点有待于证明。 32

四、词汇问题 除使用专用术语外,还使用一些书面词汇(big words) A thorough exposition is accorded phase and frequency modulation in the 四、词汇问题 除使用专用术语外,还使用一些书面词汇(big words) A thorough exposition is accorded phase and frequency modulation in the book. A complete explanation is given phase and frequency modulation in the book. 这本书给出了定相和调频的完全的说明。 n 33

普通英语词 n n n n About Ask Begin Buy Carry Change Cheap End Finish 普通英语词 n n n n About Ask Begin Buy Carry Change Cheap End Finish Get Give Have Method Obtainable Avoid Quick 科技英语中的非技术词 n n n n Approximately Inquire Commence Purchase Bear Transform Inexpensive Conclude Complete Obtain Accord Posses Technique Available Circumvent rapid 34

四、词汇问题 n Formal vs. Informal n 1. Avoid colloquial expressions You get it. / 四、词汇问题 n Formal vs. Informal n 1. Avoid colloquial expressions You get it. / Guess what? / gonna take the exam… n 2. More attention should be paid to practical writings n (1) let sb. know------inform sb. end up------finish by ask questions------make inquiries get-----acquire; obtain; comprehend; derive put in a word for------recommend 35

四、词汇问题 n (2) I told him I was interested. n I informed him of 四、词汇问题 n (2) I told him I was interested. n I informed him of my interest. (3) He gave me the name of the man I needed to send my application to. He gave me the name of the man to whom I needed to send my application. (4) I know I’d really enjoy working here. n The position interested me greatly. (5) Thanks for putting in a word for me. n I very much appreciate your recommendation. Your recommendation was greatly appreciated. 36

四、词汇问题 利用 Make use of / take advantage of / harness… n 尖子生 A 四、词汇问题 利用 Make use of / take advantage of / harness… n 尖子生 A top student / a straight A student / a student with brilliant academic records… n 能力 Ability / capacity / competence / facility / (interpersonal) skill… n 因素 Factor / element / component / ingredient / composition… n 37

四、词汇问题 一些短语动词往往由正式动词替代 n n n n Turn on Take in Push down Put up 四、词汇问题 一些短语动词往往由正式动词替代 n n n n Turn on Take in Push down Put up Put together Put out Put in Wear away Take away Send for Use up Carry out Come across Make up n n n n Complete Absorb Insert Depress Erect Aggregate Extinguish Add Erode Remove Summon Consume Perform Encounter invent 38

四、词汇问题 在科技文章中不使用生活用语或新闻报道中使用的缩略词语 n n Lab Auto Mike ad n n Laboratory Automobile Microphone Advertisement 四、词汇问题 在科技文章中不使用生活用语或新闻报道中使用的缩略词语 n n Lab Auto Mike ad n n Laboratory Automobile Microphone Advertisement 39

四、词汇问题 趋于用名词来表示动作 n n n Radio waves are compared with water waves. A comparison 四、词汇问题 趋于用名词来表示动作 n n n Radio waves are compared with water waves. A comparison of radio waves with water waves is made. The performance of this device is analyzed in the paper. An analysis of the performance of this device is made in the paper. Fundamentals of a digital computer are briefly introduced in this book. An brief introduction is given to the fundamentals of a digital computer in this book. Figure 2 -6 provides an illustration of (=illustrates) a simple transmission process. Noise provides a limit to (=limits) the channel capacity. 40

四、词汇问题 在某些情况下,英汉的词序是不同的 n n n n The circuits for each receiver section are presented 四、词汇问题 在某些情况下,英汉的词序是不同的 n n n n The circuits for each receiver section are presented in detail in separate chapters. In this case, it is necessary to apply four additional clock pulses. What is called a robot is no more than a special kind of electronic device. The main theoretical developments in this decade are as follows. This is the principal remaining limitation. In this case, the electron moves towards the positive battery terminal. These products have reached the advanced world levels. This book introduces a new set of techniques for circuit design. 41

四、词汇问题 在某些情况下,英汉的词序是不同的 n n n n 钢铁 iron and steel 动植物 plants and animals 四、词汇问题 在某些情况下,英汉的词序是不同的 n n n n 钢铁 iron and steel 动植物 plants and animals 来回 back and forth 左右 right and left 东南 southeast 西北 northwest 存储器层次结构 hierarchical memory 42

五、动名词、分词和不定式的运用 n 为了达到精炼的目的,尽可能少的词来清晰表达 n 动名词的运用 n n n 分词的运用 n n n Before it 五、动名词、分词和不定式的运用 n 为了达到精炼的目的,尽可能少的词来清晰表达 n 动名词的运用 n n n 分词的运用 n n n Before it is amplified, the signal should be detected. Before being amplified, the signal should be detected. In Britain electrical energy which is generated in power station is fed to the national Grid. In Britain electrical energy generated in power station is fed to the national Grid. 不定式的运用 n n We keep micrometers in boxes. Our object in doing that is to protect them from rust and dust. We keep micrometers in boxes to protect them from rust 43 and dust.

五、动名词、分词和不定式的运用 n 为了达到精炼的目的,尽可能少的词来清晰表达 专业英语的准确性主要表现在用词上,然而在语法 结构上也有其特点。例如,为了准确精细地描述事物过 程,所用的句子都较长,有些甚至一段就是一个句子。 长句反映了客观事物中复杂的关系,它与前述精炼的要 求并不矛盾。句子长结构仍然是精炼的。只是包含的信 息量大,准确性较高。 例:A method is given for 五、动名词、分词和不定式的运用 n 为了达到精炼的目的,尽可能少的词来清晰表达 专业英语的准确性主要表现在用词上,然而在语法 结构上也有其特点。例如,为了准确精细地描述事物过 程,所用的句子都较长,有些甚至一段就是一个句子。 长句反映了客观事物中复杂的关系,它与前述精炼的要 求并不矛盾。句子长结构仍然是精炼的。只是包含的信 息量大,准确性较高。 例:A method is given for obtaining by inspection the Hamiltonian and canonical variables for nonlinear lossless circuits composed of charge controlled capacitors, flux controlled inductors and independent voltage and current sources. (本摘要总共只有一个句子) 44

五、动名词、分词和不定式的运用 n n A central problem in elliptic filter design is the inversion of 五、动名词、分词和不定式的运用 n n A central problem in elliptic filter design is the inversion of the socalled degree equation which relates the degree , discrimination, and selectivity factors of the filter. A novel closedform solution for this problem is presented. (本摘要总共有两个句 子) A spectral transformation technique is proposed for the design of three-dimensional(3 -D)recursive digital filters having planar and beam frequency responses. Circuit theoretic concepts are used to generate stable 3 -D continuous domain networks from a corresponding one-dimensional(1 -D)prototype network. Implementation schemes are developed in the discrete domain that convert the 3 -D analog network into a 3 -D wave digital filter(WDF). The proposed 3 -D discrete beam and planar filters offer significant advantages over direct-form realizations including the low-sensitivity properties of the WDF and simplicity of the structure. (本摘要含四个大句子,其中有三个是被动句) 45

六、专业术语多 Technical Words(技术词汇):意义狭窄,一般只用于专业 bandwidth, flip-flop, superconductivity, amplifier, hexadecimal n Sub-technical Words(次技术词汇):在不同的专业中有不同的意义 work, load, plant, 六、专业术语多 Technical Words(技术词汇):意义狭窄,一般只用于专业 bandwidth, flip-flop, superconductivity, amplifier, hexadecimal n Sub-technical Words(次技术词汇):在不同的专业中有不同的意义 work, load, plant, field, reaction, energy, power, force, conductor, solution n Big Words(特用词):为了准确、正式和严谨,常用一些较长的特用词 The light is turned on. (日常英语) The circuit is completed. (专业英语) 类似的词还有: go down----depress; keep----maintain; take away----remove; push in----insert; used up----consume; turn up side down----invert; enough----sufficient; at once----immediately; a lot of----appreciable; find out----determine; send----transmit; change----convert n 46

七、字的合成 Composition(合成) n 合成的方法: 名词+名词;形容词+名词;动词+副词;名词+动词;介词+名词;形容词+ 动词 例: work+shop workshop; feed+back feedback; in+put input; Conversion(转换): 七、字的合成 Composition(合成) n 合成的方法: 名词+名词;形容词+名词;动词+副词;名词+动词;介词+名词;形容词+ 动词 例: work+shop workshop; feed+back feedback; in+put input; Conversion(转换): n 转换时词形一般不变,只是词类转用 例:use to use; increase to increase; extent to extend n Derivation(派生):通过对词根加上各种前后缀来构成新词 例(名词词缀): inter- (between, among) ---- intersection, interface counter- (against) ---- counterpart, countershaft sub- (beneath, less than) ---- subway, submarine tele- (far away) ---- telescope, telephone 47

七、字的合成 ir- (not) ---- irrational, irresponsible un- (not) ---- unchanged, unstable super- (above, more 七、字的合成 ir- (not) ---- irrational, irresponsible un- (not) ---- unchanged, unstable super- (above, more than) ---- superficial, supersonic -able, -ible ---- noticeable, negligible -ent ---- convergent, sufficient (动词词缀) re- (again) ---- reuse, recharge over- (to much) – overwork, overload dis- (the opposite) ---- disconnect de- (cause not to be) – demagnetize, defreeze -en (get, make, become) ---- weaken, harden, shorten -fy (make) ---- electrify, purify 48

八、词汇缩略 n Clipped Words(节略词):用词的前几个字母来表示该词,称为节略词 maths----mathematics; ad----advertisement; lab----laboratory; uni----uniform, university; metro----metrology; dir----directory; n kilo----kilogram del----delete 八、词汇缩略 n Clipped Words(节略词):用词的前几个字母来表示该词,称为节略词 maths----mathematics; ad----advertisement; lab----laboratory; uni----uniform, university; metro----metrology; dir----directory; n kilo----kilogram del----delete Acronyms (缩略词):由某些词组的首字母组成的新词 radar----radio detecting and ranging; ROM----Read Only Memory; laser----light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; UNESCO----United Nations Educations, Scientific and Culture Organization n Iinitials(首字词):与缩略词基本相同,但首字词必须逐字母念出 CAD----Computer Aided Design; CPU----Central Process Unit; ADC----Anolog to Digital Convertsion; bps----bit per second; n Abbreviation(缩写词): et al. ----and other; vs. ----versus; Appx. ----Appendix; Fig. ----Figure; O. P. ----operational amplifier; sq. ----square; e. g. ----for example; Ltd. ----limited; Amp. ----Amplifier; etc. ----and so on 49

九、技术术语的翻译 n Translating by Means(意译):一般尽可能意译,使读者便于理解 n n Translating by Pronunciation(音译):不便意译时,可以采用音译 n n n Ohm 九、技术术语的翻译 n Translating by Means(意译):一般尽可能意译,使读者便于理解 n n Translating by Pronunciation(音译):不便意译时,可以采用音译 n n n Ohm 欧姆; hertz 赫芝; bit 比特; baud 波特; zener diode 齐纳二极管 Logic 逻辑电路; Translating by Figure(象译):根据字母的形象表达原义 n n Loudspeaker 扬声器; semiconductor 半导体; guided missile 导弹 Modem=modulator+demodulator 调制解调器; Telex=teleprinter+exchange 电传 I shaped 字形; zigzag wave 锯齿波; U shaped magnet 马蹄形磁铁 Translating by Model(形译):文献中的型号、牌号、商标等可不译 n p-n-p junction p-n-p结; IBMPC/XT; Z 80 PIO 50

十、句子特征 n 1. 句子比较长,句子结构严密紧凑 可以采用以下手段 (1)with短语、形容词短语、分词短语 (2)with结构、分词独立结构 (3)各类从句 51 十、句子特征 n 1. 句子比较长,句子结构严密紧凑 可以采用以下手段 (1)with短语、形容词短语、分词短语 (2)with结构、分词独立结构 (3)各类从句 51

十、句子特征 n n n An initial analysis of the device parameters has been made 十、句子特征 n n n An initial analysis of the device parameters has been made with satisfactory results. 我们对器件参数进行了初步的分析,其结果令人满意。 An electron is about as large as a nucleus, its diameter being about 10 -12 cm. 电子与原子核的大小大致相同,其直径大约为 10 -12厘米。 S approximates e with an error less than 10 -7. S近似于e,其误差小于10 -7. A brief introduction to the principles of a computer is given with emphasis on software. 本文对计算机的原理做了简要的介绍,重点放在软件上。 A new method to solve this problem is presented, which is simple and practicable. 本文提出了解决这一问题的新方法,这种方法简单而切实可行。 52

十、句子特征 n 2. 趋于采用以下一些句型 (1)主语—系动词—表语(由主语担当) This is too small a signal. 这个信号太弱。 This is 十、句子特征 n 2. 趋于采用以下一些句型 (1)主语—系动词—表语(由主语担当) This is too small a signal. 这个信号太弱。 This is too difficult a book for beginners. 这本书对初学者来说太难了。 This is so sensitive an instrument that it can measure the slight change in pressure. 这台仪器是如此的灵敏以至于能测出压力的微弱变化。 53

十、句子特征 n 2. 趋于采用以下一些句型 (2)采用“主—谓—宾”句型来替代汉语中的“主—系—表” 句型 ①“have”句型 A. 表示尺寸、大小、长度、高度 “某物+have+a(an)+表示大小等的名词+of+数量” The mountain has a 十、句子特征 n 2. 趋于采用以下一些句型 (2)采用“主—谓—宾”句型来替代汉语中的“主—系—表” 句型 ①“have”句型 A. 表示尺寸、大小、长度、高度 “某物+have+a(an)+表示大小等的名词+of+数量” The mountain has a height of 2000 meters. This well has a depth of 40 meters. This road has a width of ten meters. 54

十、句子特征 B. 表示比较时的结构 “物A+have+比较级(或as+形容词原级)+要比较的名词+than(或as)+ 物B” X-rays have a shorter wavelength than light rays(do). X射线的波长比光线短。 十、句子特征 B. 表示比较时的结构 “物A+have+比较级(或as+形容词原级)+要比较的名词+than(或as)+ 物B” X-rays have a shorter wavelength than light rays(do). X射线的波长比光线短。 This substance has a more complicated chemical structure than that one(does). 这种物质的化学结构比那种物质复杂。 Alcohol does not have as high a boiling point as water(does). 酒精的沸点没有水的沸点高。 This circle has a smaller area than that square(does). 这个圆的面积小于那个正方形的面积。 55

十、句子特征 C. 表示优缺点的结构 “主语+have+优缺点等名词” That type of antenna has the advantages of simple structure 十、句子特征 C. 表示优缺点的结构 “主语+have+优缺点等名词” That type of antenna has the advantages of simple structure and high efficiency. 那类天线的优点是结构简单、效率高。 The zero matrix has the property that A+0=A 零矩阵的性质是A+0=A Some conductors have resistances which depend on the currents flowing through them. 有些导体的电阻取决于流过它们的电流。 56

十、句子特征 ②采用其他动词作谓语的“s-v-o”句型 Large transformers can achieve efficiencies of as much as 99%. 大型变压器可获得的效率高达 99%。 十、句子特征 ②采用其他动词作谓语的“s-v-o”句型 Large transformers can achieve efficiencies of as much as 99%. 大型变压器可获得的效率高达 99%。 You should use as simple a structure as possible. 你使用的结构应尽可能的简单。 It is generally possible to write down more node and loop equations than are needed. 一般很可能写出的节点和回路方程式的数目比需要的多。 57

十、句子特征 (3)采用“BE”句型 ①表示大小、数量 “某物+be+数量+表示大小的形容词” The mountain is 2000 meters high. The height of the 十、句子特征 (3)采用“BE”句型 ①表示大小、数量 “某物+be+数量+表示大小的形容词” The mountain is 2000 meters high. The height of the mountain is 2000 meters. 这山有2000米高。 These steel plates are 2 centimeters thick. The thickness of these steel plates is 2 centimeters. 这些钢板有2厘米厚。 This well is 40 meters deep. The depth of this well is 40 meters. 这口井有40米深。 58

十、句子特征 ②表示比较 “物A+be+比较级+in+要比较的名词+than+物B” This substance is more complicated chemically than that one. 这种物质的化学结构比那一种更复杂。 X-rays 十、句子特征 ②表示比较 “物A+be+比较级+in+要比较的名词+than+物B” This substance is more complicated chemically than that one. 这种物质的化学结构比那一种更复杂。 X-rays are shorter in wave length than light rays. X射线比光线的波长短。 This circle is smaller than that square. 这圆圈比那方块面积小。 59

十、句子特征 n 3. 用短语来代替从句,使句子结构紧凑 (1)用介词短语来代替状语从句 Because it interacts with the ground …because of its 十、句子特征 n 3. 用短语来代替从句,使句子结构紧凑 (1)用介词短语来代替状语从句 Because it interacts with the ground …because of its interacts with the ground If x is equal to zero, … for x equal to zero When we studied electricity, … in our study of electricity, … After the experiment had been completed, … On the completion of the experiment, … If the resistance is given, … For a given resistance, … If the pressure remains constant, … At constant pressure, … 60

十、句子特征 n 3. 用短语来代替从句,使句子结构紧凑 (2)用作主语的名词短语来代替表示条件、原因、目的等的状语从句 Since there is no atmosphere in space, scientists could 十、句子特征 n 3. 用短语来代替从句,使句子结构紧凑 (2)用作主语的名词短语来代替表示条件、原因、目的等的状语从句 Since there is no atmosphere in space, scientists could make pure drugs there. The absence of atmosphere in space would enable scientists to make pure drugs there. If the assumptions are thoroughly examined, it can be shown that… A thorough examination of the assumptions shows that… If we have a closer look, we will be convinced that… A closer look will convince us that… If the constant is chosen differently, a different form of the answer will be obtained. A different choice of the constant will lead to a different form of the answer. 61

十、句子特征 n 3. 用短语来代替从句,使句子结构紧凑 (3)其他情况 ①使用分词结构,避免用and来罗列并列的事情,防止句子松散 With no resistance in the circuit, the current 十、句子特征 n 3. 用短语来代替从句,使句子结构紧凑 (3)其他情况 ①使用分词结构,避免用and来罗列并列的事情,防止句子松散 With no resistance in the circuit, the current would increase forever. Accurate in operation and high in speed, computers have found wide use in every field. In these graphs the horizontal axis measures time, increasing toward the right away from the vertical axis. 它越朝垂直轴的右 方数值越大 62

十、句子特征 n 3. 用短语来代替从句,使句子结构紧凑 (3)其他情况 ②用短语作后置定语或用分词做前置定语代替 定语从句是句子结构简炼 There are many stars larger than the 十、句子特征 n 3. 用短语来代替从句,使句子结构紧凑 (3)其他情况 ②用短语作后置定语或用分词做前置定语代替 定语从句是句子结构简炼 There are many stars larger than the sun. (=that are larger than the sun) The building under construction(=that is being constructed)will be a computer factory. Those are the rays reaching the earth(=which reach the earth). 63

十、句子特征 (3)其他情况 ②用短语作后置定语或用分词做前置定语代替 定语从句使句子结构简炼 the signals which are not wanted the unwanted signals a 十、句子特征 (3)其他情况 ②用短语作后置定语或用分词做前置定语代替 定语从句使句子结构简炼 the signals which are not wanted the unwanted signals a satellite which has been made by man a man-made satellite an industry which grows fast a fast-growing industry an instrument which is used for writing a writing instrument A three-sided plane figure(名词(数词或形容词)-名词ed作定语) A U-shaped magnet The University of Utah artificial arm犹他州大学(复合名词) A signed decimal 10’s complement converter 64

十、句子特征 (3)其他情况 ③用名词短语代替从句 One of the advantage of transistor over vacuum tubes is their 十、句子特征 (3)其他情况 ③用名词短语代替从句 One of the advantage of transistor over vacuum tubes is their small size( that they are small in size). Note the wide range of values( that the range of values is wide) There is every possibility of plastics being used instead of steel( It is quite possibility that plastics will be used instead of steel) This is due to the existence of a capacitance across the junction( the fact that there exists a capacitance across the junction). 65

十、句子特征 n 4. 模仿国外科技 作者在科技书刊中常用的固 定、地道的说法和句型 The device is small in size. 这种器件的体积小。 Emphasis 十、句子特征 n 4. 模仿国外科技 作者在科技书刊中常用的固 定、地道的说法和句型 The device is small in size. 这种器件的体积小。 Emphasis is put on what is described in this chapter. 重点放在这一章所讲的内容上。 This device is characterized by small size, light weight, high efficiency and low cost. 这种器件的特点是体积小、重量轻、效率高、成本低。 Recent years have witnessed a very rapid growth of wireless communication services. 近年来无线通讯服务有了非常迅速的发展。 66