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Zanzibar Tourism Safety & Security August 2014
ZATI & Best-AC: Background In early 2013, ZATI secured funding from the Business Environment Strengthening in Tanzania – Advocacy Component (BEST-AC) to examine areas of concern to the industry. Best-AC is funded by governments of Denmark, Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. The project’s objective is to enhance the quality and credibility of PSOs to engage effectively in public-private dialogue and to advocate for improvements in the business environment.
Who is affected by Crime? • Wananchi • Wenyeji • Wageni WOTE
WHY IS TOURISM IMPORTANT FOR ZANZIBAR? 1. Significant source of income for Zanzibar - Largest source of foreign exchange, 27%GDP, 80%FDI, generating export earnings of about $USD 1. 35 bn in Tanzania 2. Source of quality jobs for Tanzanians. 15, 000 direct, 50, 000 indirect – 50% of jobs by 2020. 3. Strong and numerous linkages to the rest of the economy provide opportunities for other sectors 4. Pro-poor industry (VCA 2009 $18 million annually to Zanzibaris) 5. Attracts investment (domestic and foreign) that can: - Be a steward of natural beauty - Promote and protect cultural heritage Source: National Bureau of Statistics; Tanzania National Competitiveness' Report 2011
WHY IS SECURITY IMPORTANT FOR TOURISM? Security a key decision when choosing a holiday destination. Arrivals and receipts decrease immediately after well-publicized security incidents in major tourism destinations. Social and economic well-being of Zanzibar seriously endangered by potential security incursions
Security in Zanzibar
Types of Tourism Crime 1. Papasi and Beach Boys – harassment and threats 2. Muggers with knives in town and shamba 3. Burglars who break into private homes –pangas 4. Individuals / groups who attack tourists on the beaches, or in hotel rooms – knives / pangas 5. Gangs who attack hotels at night, breaking through security, violent and armed. Pangas. . GUNS 6. Acid Attacks – Worrying new development.
MAIN TOURISM AREAS North-West North-East Stone Town South. East
SECONDARY / DEVELOPING TOURISM AREAS North-West North-East Central West Stone Town South. West South Central East South. East
LOCATION OF MAIN POLICE STATIONS North-West North-East Central West Stone Town South. West South Central East South. East
ARMED ATTACKS ON HOTELS / RESIDENCES North-West North-East Central West Stone Town South. West South Central East South. East
AREAS OF VIOLENT MUGGINGS North-West North-East Central West Stone Town South. West South Central East South. East
AREAS OF BREAK-IN THEFT North-West North-East Central West Stone Town South. West South Central East South. East
Analysis of Reported Incidences 2011/13
What are the reasons? CAUSES Growing population, many unemployed due to poor education Decline in general morality Easy access and communication Investors and Tourists are seen as ‘easy targets’ Rapid growth of tourism ISSUES Not enough police stations Police lack resources, attitude and training Low crime solving rate Lack of accountability – police often let off criminals Judiciary system does not follow up. Hotels have to employ outsiders
(i. ) Crime Prevention Greater / more effective police presence -Static (More Police posts and barracks) -Mobile (Cars, bikes, boats, fuel) -Communication (networks, equipment) -Training of the force – management, leadership, responsibilities
(i) Obstacles: Police Force falls under Ministry of Home Affairs, based in Dar es Salaam. A centralized Union organ, policing both Zanzibar and Tanzania Mainland Zanzibar is one of 28 regions, each with their own demands, although the only one with a dedicated Commissioner. Funding affected by political decisions made by Union Government
Potential Solutions: RGZ implements legal provisions to bring in VALANTIA, JKU, KMKM to work with Police in ensuring safety and security of isles. RGZ allocate sufficient resources to allow for Tourism Police to fulfil their mandate, under a Public/Private Sector steering committee. Legally recognize and build capacity of Polisi Jamii in urban/rural community areas for the benefit of wananchi and tourism stakeholders.
(ii) Criminal Arrest Follow-up after the event of a crime committed - Quick action – Rapid Response teams - Criminal Investigation Department on scene - Effective paperwork procedures
(ii) Challenges Insufficient or sparsely-located Police Stations with inadequate resources for efficient criminal investigation. Time required to mobilise investigation team and current practices invalidate procedures Ineffective and outdated evidence and paperwork requirements slow investigation
(ii) Potential Solutions Build new Police Stations in areas of principal tourism presence. Possibility for PPP Projects, as in Kendwa/Nungwi and Kiwengwa. Presence of Tourism Liaison Police Officers to assist, advise and expedite processes Support vehicles on secondment from other departments or auxiliary security services, including KMKM, JKU etc. Amend the Zanzibar Evidence Act and Criminal Procedures Act to simplify and expedite procedures, remove the need for the victim to be present during procedures, represented instead by Police.
(iii) Prosecution Efficient, clean judicial system Prosecuting council on quick response, with rotating judges and magistrates in regional courts. Tourism Court in permanent operation Bail/Fines/Sentencing. . As appropriate Heavier sentencing: Categorize serious crimes against tourism under the Prevention of Terrorism Act or Economic Crimes and Corruptions Act?
Other Recommendations: Tourism Police: Allocate necessary resources to make the unit active, and undertake a capacity-building exercise under a PPP steering committee. Polisi Jamii: Community Policing, undertaken by local communities in conjunction with tourism stakeholders to patrol villages and beaches. Capacity-building and training of both forces through overseas specialists. Enhance greater collaboration between the tourism stakeholders and law enforcement agencies.
Other Recommendations (2) Reform Business and Local Government laws to manage and punish informal traders (papasi) that have not registered with local shehas. Re-classify harassment as ‘extortion’ allowing for stronger measures to deal with papasi under the Zanzibar Penal Act no 6. (2004). Government to work with industry in preparing a ‘security code of conduct’, requiring an agreed policy when it comes to employment, evacuation, training, insurance and resources of in-house security forces.
Policy Recommendations Address the issues of Zanzibari youth’s marginalization, unemployment and drug use. Establish tourist offender register. Educating the public about the importance of the tourism industry and broader civic education. Develop ‘fit-for-purpose’ vocational training centres to enhance employment prospects of Zanzibaris. Implement an effective information and PR management system to influence the dissemination of information about criminal activity and incidents when they do occur
And what are the consequences? Kenya 2013/14 After Westgate attacks, tourism receipts for Kenya are predicted to fall by $215 m this year, affecting GDP by 0. 5%. Lamu Travel Warning The tourism industry in Lamu, Kenya, has dropped by more than 70% in 2011/2012 due to insecurity and travel advisories after the kidnappings and murder of tourists. Hotels incurred great losses and staff layoffs. IN THE CASE OF A NEGATIVE TRAVEL ADVISORY, INSURANCE COMPANIES WILL NOT OFFER PERSONAL TRAVEL INSURANCE TO TOURISTS.
Recent Negative Publicity on the Internet (i) Virtual Tourist Website (Most viewed post) “They woke us up by shining torches in our eyes. They told us they would kill us if we made a sound, and to give them all our money and belongings. One of the men held a machete to my throat. . In a country rife with corruption the Islanders do not have confidence in the Police. If Zanzibar wants to retain its reputation as a tropical paradise holiday destination, they will need to ensure that their tourists are well protected. ”
Recent Negative Publicity on the Internet (iii) Trip. Advisor “Be careful of papasi in Stone Town - some are drug addicts and just want to make some fast money. ” Virtual Tourist “The least-appealing aspect of our stay in Stone Town was the amount of hassle we were subjected to by touts - fake guides aggressively touting for business. ”
Recent Negative Publicity on the Internet (iv) Bradt Guide / Expert Africa "Zanzibar has more issues to grapple with than do other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. It is more dangerous to visit Zanzibar then many other places. "
Recent Negative Publicity on the Internet (v) Aftermath of acid attacks – UK Media – The Daily Telegraph, Daily Mail, The Times: “Many hotels in Stone Town said that many tourists had cancelled bookings in the wake of the attack, either avoiding Zanzibar altogether or …heading straight for island’s beaches. “ “Zanzibar: An exotic island with too many ghosts. ” “…militant Islamism began stalking the East African seaboard, with al-Qaeda recruiting not just from Zanzibar …” “It remains, despite appearances, a fairly unsecure place…”
Official Tourism Vision “To become a growing upmarket Tourism economy that creates jobs, alleviates poverty, protects the environment and preserves the culture in Zanzibar”
CONCLUSIONS Usipoziba ufa, utajenga ukuta Usalaama kwanza Utalii Kwa Wote Pamoja tujengee Zanzibar