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World War II Section 4: The End of the War
I. A. The Allies Advance The new coalition was formed called the Great Alliance (or Allies). It included Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. They agreed to fight until the Axis Powers-Germany, Italy, and Japan-surrendered unconditionally.
B. At the beginning of 1942, the Germans continued to fight the war against Britain and the Soviet Union. The Germans were also fighting the British in North Africa. The German Afrika Korps were led by General Erwin Rommel.
C. By May 1943, the German and Italian troops surrendered to the British and American forces in North Africa. General Erwin Rommel “Desert Fox”
D. In 1942, the Allies had their first successes in the Pacific. In the Battle of the Coral Sea in May, American naval forces stopped the Japanese and saved Australia from invasion. June 1942, was the turning point in the war when U. S. planes destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers in the Battle of Midway.
E. American forces against Japan were led by General Douglas Mac. Arthur. By November 1942, Japan was beginning to lose the war.
II. A. How the Homefront Helped the War? Women entered manufacturing jobs that men left behind when they went overseas to fight. Rosie the Riveter
The War Production Board helped turn the industry from peacetime into a manufacturing WAR MACHINE.
Tuskegee Airmen n B. The Tuskegee Airmen formed the first African American fighting unit in the US military
Tuskegee Airmen n n 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses 14 Bronze Stars 744 Air Medals 8 Purple Hearts
Navajo Code Talkers C. Members of the Navajo tribe, a Native American tribe mainly from the New Mexico area, were recruited to speak in code to prevent the Japanese from intercepting American messages.
Japanese-American Internment D. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, many Americans became afraid that Japanese -Americans were a threat to the national security of the United States.
Japanese-American Internment Acting on these fears, Franklin D. Roosevelt declared that all Japanese Americans must report to internment camps.
Japanese-American Internment The Supreme Court said it was for a military purpose meant to benefit the war effort, and therefore not an act of discrimination.
III. Last Years of the War A. On June 6, 1944 (D-Day), the Allies in Europe under U. S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower landed on the beaches in Normandy (France). This was the largest amphibious (sea) invasion in the history of the world.
B. The Allies landed over two million men and a half-million vehicles on the beaches of Normandy from June - August, the Allies eventually broke through the German lines. French resistance fighters rose up in German-occupied Paris was liberated by the end of August 1944.
C. The Soviets had turned the tables on the Germans in 1943. By early 1944, the Soviets moved into the Baltic states and in January 1945 they took over Warsaw (Poland).
D. By January 1945, Hitler had moved into an underground bunker in Berlin. In April 1945, the Soviets moved into Berlin and on April 30, Hitler would commit suicide. Hitler and Eva Braun
Italians are defeated Mussolini was executed by a firing squad
E. In Hitler’s suicide letter he would blame the Jews for the war. On May 8, 1945, German commanders surrendered. This is known as V-E Day, for victory in Europe.
F. Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted to create the United Nations - an organization to help resolve international disagreements. Britain, U. S. , and Soviet Union accepted Roosevelt’s plans and founded the United Nations in April, 1945.
G. Roosevelt dies in April 1945 and Harry S. Truman becomes president. The Manhattan Project Los Alamos, NM …secret project to develop the first atomic bomb.
Potsdam conference - July 1945 n 1. 2. 3. n They decided… The Big Three Harry Truman (United 1. Nazi leaders had to States) stand trial for war crimes. Clement Atlee (Great Britain) 2. Japan must Joseph Stalin surrender (USSR/Soviet Union) unconditionally. This was called the Potsdam Declaration.
The End of the War 6 Aug 1945 – atomic bomb (Little Boy) is dropped on Hiroshima 80, 000 killed 9 Aug 1945 – atomic bomb (Fat Man) is dropped on Nagasaki 40, 000 killed Enola Gay – airplane that dropped the atomic bombs
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Scarring from burns Burn victim
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Burn victims
H. The Japanese surrendered on August 14, 1945. Sept 2, 1945 is known as V-J Day for Victory in Japan. 17 million solders died from WWII and a total of 55 million died including civilian losses.
IV. Peace and the New War A. After the end of WWII, a new conflict emerged, the Cold War. The Cold War was an ideological conflict between the U. S. and the Soviet Union.
B. Many Western leaders thought that the Soviets intended to spread communism throughout the world. The Soviets saw the U. S. as promoters of global capitalist expansion.
C. • • Marshall Plan US sends aid to Europe to help them recover economically. US wants to help out European countries before the USSR gets to. US doesn’t want those countries to accept communism as their political system.
GI Bill Gave loans to returning WWII veterans so they could… 1. Go to college (higher-education) 2. Get other job training 3. Buy homes 4. Start businesses or farms n
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