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World War II Section 2 The Allied Response Preview • Main Idea / Reading World War II Section 2 The Allied Response Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Early American Involvement • Map: World War II in Europe and North Africa • War in North Africa and Italy • Faces of History: Dwight D. Eisenhower

World War II Section 2 The Allied Response Preview, continued • A Turning Point World War II Section 2 The Allied Response Preview, continued • A Turning Point in the Soviet Union • A Turning Point in the Pacific • Map: War in the Pacific

World War II Section 2 The Allied Response Main Idea The early years of World War II Section 2 The Allied Response Main Idea The early years of World War II went poorly for the Allies. But after the United States joined the war, the Allies soon recovered and began making gains against the Axis. Reading Focus • In what ways were Americans involved in the early years of the war? • How did the Allies make gains in North Africa? • What was the turning point in the Soviet Union? • What was the turning point in the Pacific?

World War II Section 2 Early American Involvement The Battle of the Atlantic • World War II Section 2 Early American Involvement The Battle of the Atlantic • Control of the ocean important • Food and equipment for England Soviet Union shipped by sea • Germany relied on U-boats • Inflicted great damage to shipping • U. S. offered military aid • Provided ships and military escorts for British convoys • October 1941—USS Reuben James; first U. S. Navy ship sunk by Germany

World War II Section 2 American Home Front • U. S. entered war two World War II Section 2 American Home Front • U. S. entered war two months later • Enormous task of mobilization; men and women volunteered for service • Factories converted; “victory gardens” planted; scrap drives and recycling to collect materials • Some negative effects of patriotism • Japanese Americans placed in internment camps during the war

World War II Section 2 Winning the Atlantic With U. S. officially at war, World War II Section 2 Winning the Atlantic With U. S. officially at war, German U-boats in American waters • Tried to destroy American merchant ships – Hundreds of ships lost to German subs – After 1943, Allies able to fight back more effectively • Allied factories at full production – Large numbers of ships and planes – More firepower helped locate and destroy U-boats – Key German code system broken • Losses dropped sharply – Vital supply line to Great Britain and Soviet Union kept open – Atlantic belonged to Allies

World War II Section 2 Find the Main Idea How were Americans on the World War II Section 2 Find the Main Idea How were Americans on the home front involved in the war? Answer(s): Many factories converted to produce weapons and supplies; Americans made do with less food, fuel, and other items; people planted "victory gardens".

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World War II Section 2 War in North Africa and Italy Italian and British World War II Section 2 War in North Africa and Italy Italian and British forces battled for control of North Africa. The Suez Canal and the oil fields of the Middle East were essential to the British war effort. After Italian forces failed against the British, Hitler was forced to send German troops to support the Italians. Back-and-forth fighting • • • Afrika Korps led by Erwin Rommel Pushed British back into Egypt Traded blows for two years 1942—Battle of El Alamein British victory under Gen. Bernard Montgomery • Axis power lessened in North Africa Americans join the battle • • Soviets wanted European front Invasion of western North Africa Dwight D. Eisenhower led troops Rommel caught between forces in east and west • Supply problems worsened • May 1943—surrendered to Allies Nearly 250, 000 Axis soldiers taken prisoner; with surrender, all of North Africa in Allied hands

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World War II Section 2 Fighting in Italy Next Allied goal: Italy itself • World War II Section 2 Fighting in Italy Next Allied goal: Italy itself • July 1943, Allied soldiers landed on the island of Sicily – Weak Italian resistance – Benito Mussolini forced from power • Allies capture Sicily – Made plans to invade the Italian mainland – Hitler tried to protect against the Allied march through Italy • September 1943 – Allies move into southern Italy – Strong German resistance as troops moved north – Bloody fighting continued for months

World War II Section 2 Summarize What did Allied troops accomplish in the war World War II Section 2 Summarize What did Allied troops accomplish in the war in North Africa and Italy? Answer(s): They drove the Axis out of North Africa and used it as a base for launching an invasion of Europe through Italy.

World War II Section 2 A Turning Point in the Soviet Union • 1941 World War II Section 2 A Turning Point in the Soviet Union • 1941 German invasion halted with winter • German equipment failed in bitter cold • Poorly equipped troops suffered greatly Leningrad • Citizens under siege in Hitler’s attempt to force a surrender • Winter of 1941— 1942, thousands starved to death daily • Siege of Leningrad cost 1 million civilian lives

World War II Section 2 Battle of Stalingrad In the spring of 1942, Hitler World War II Section 2 Battle of Stalingrad In the spring of 1942, Hitler ordered renewed assaults on the Soviet Union. He assembled troops from Italy, Romania, and Hungary. Even with fuel shortages, Axis forces fought well initially. On the Volga River • • Germans poised to take Stalingrad Key industrial city for Soviets Factories supplied Soviet armies Ports shipped grain, oil, and other products throughout country

World War II Brutal battle • City bombed into rubble; German troops moved in World War II Brutal battle • City bombed into rubble; German troops moved in • Hold city at all costs • Georgy Zhukov led Soviet counterattack • Axis soldiers with no food or ammunition • Hitler—“Surrender is forbidden” Section 2 Final victory • German officers surrendered early February 1943 • 1 million Soviet dead • Crushing defeat for Hitler; once invincible German army in retreat • Battle of Stalingrad turning point in war

World War II Section 2 Summarize Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a turning World War II Section 2 Summarize Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a turning point? Answer(s): The German army had seemed invincible, but after failing to take Stalingrad, it was now retreating to the west.

World War II Section 2 A Turning Point in the Pacific The attack on World War II Section 2 A Turning Point in the Pacific The attack on Pearl Harbor was an enormous success for Japan. The damage took time to overcome; U. S. ability to strike back was limited. • Three Pacific Fleet aircraft carriers undamaged – Air power provided support for Allied ground and naval forces – Japanese navy still ruled the seas – Allies focused on Europe • Vital territory fell to Japanese – Singapore, Hong Kong, Burma, and strategic islands – Target —U. S. -held Philippines – U. S. general Douglas Mac. Arthur led doomed defense – Americans surrendered in April 1942 • Bataan Death March – Forced march of 70, 000 American and Filipino prisoners – Brutal violence, tropical heat, and lack of food or water – Many survivors perished in inhumane prison camps

World War II Section 2 Carrier Battles Battle of the Coral Sea Battle of World War II Section 2 Carrier Battles Battle of the Coral Sea Battle of Midway • First carrier battle—May 1942 • June 1942—high seas battle • Off northeast coast of Australia • Midway a strategic island—home to U. S. military base • Japanese forces tried to take Port Moresby on island of New Guinea • Allied vessels tried to block attack • Each side lost a carrier in battle • A Japanese advance had been stopped • Japanese advantage—more ships and carriers • U. S. advantage—Japanese secret code broken • Admiral Chester Nimitz responsible for Allied victory; Japan’s navy suffered terrible blow

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World War II Section 2 Island Hopping Balance of power changed • • • World War II Section 2 Island Hopping Balance of power changed • • • Japanese lost sea advantage after Midway Allies developed island-hopping strategy Skipped over strongholds and captured weaker targets Captured islands used as bases for next attacks Bypassed Japanese strongholds cut off from outside supplies Guadalcanal • • Allied invasion of island late 1942 Six months of brutal battle Each side won small victories Battle of Guadalcanal ended with Japanese troops fleeing the island • Japanese continued to fight to the death Leyte Gulf • • • Allies captured more islands By 1944 back at Philippines Largest naval battle First major use of kamikazes Battle of Leyte Gulf—Allied victory Japan’s naval power virtually destroyed

World War II Section 2 Find the Main Idea How was the Battle of World War II Section 2 Find the Main Idea How was the Battle of Midway a turning point in the war in the Pacific? Answer(s): It changed the balance of power in the Pacific, eliminating the once great Japanese advantage on the seas, and allowing the Allies to go on the offensive.