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World Geography Ch. 5 & 6 Ch. 5 Human Geography Ch. 6 Human Systems
Population • Population Density – Average number of people living in an area. • World population is NOT spread evenly • There are 4 major regions of dense settlement – – Eastern Asia South Asia Europe Eastern North America
Population Density maps
Population Change • 3 factors cause change in populations. – Birthrate – Death rate – Migration • Emigrants – people who leave a country • Immigrants – people who enter a country • Natural Increase - population growth based just on Birthrates and Death Rates.
SECTION 1 Population Geography Reasons for Population Increases medical advances lead to better health care, which allows people to live longer. agricultural advances lead to increased food production, which allows more people to live in an area. sanitation advances lead to cleaner living conditions, which help people stay healthy.
Population Growth • • • 1 A. D. – 300 million 1600 – 600 million 1850 – 1. 2 billion 1930 – 2 billion 1975 – 4 billion Today – 7 billion – Increasing 80 million per year or 220, 000 per day
World population map
Culture • Culture – all the features of a people’s way of life. • Culture Traits – Activities and behaviors that people do. • Culture Region – an area that has many shared culture traits. • Ethnic Groups – a people with common cultural background or ancestry. • Culture Change – Acculturation – when one culture changes a great deal through its meeting with another culture – Innovation – new ideas that are accepted into a culture. – Diffusion – an idea or innovation spreads from one person or group to another and is adopted.
SECTION 2 Cultural Geography government religion Example: democratic system, elected officials at local, state, and national levels education language Culture Traits economy food housing clothing
Every plane trip in the world in a 24 hour period
Religion • Religion is a deep belief in God (or gods) that shapes a person (and society's) way of life. • Ethnic Religions – focus on an ethnic group. • Animist Religions – believe in presence of spirits and forces of nature. - Usually Polytheistic (belief in many gods) • Universalizing Religions – Believe that their religion is for everyone and seeks converts. – Christianity & Islam are the two largest – Monotheistic religions (belief in one God)
SECTION 3 World Languages and Religions Ethnic Religions • Confucianism • Hindusim • Judaism • Shintoism • Taoism Animist Religions • traditional religions Universalizing Religions • Christianity • Islam
Economics • Economics is: – The study of how things are made, bought, sold and used. – The study of how people make choices to satisfy their wants. • This includes goods (stuff) and services (things done for you. ) • Different country’s do this in different ways.
The study of ECONOMICS begins with the idea that people cannot have everything they need and want. NEED • Something like air, food, shelter that is necessary for survival WANT • An item (or service) that we desire but is not essential to survival
Economies • Subsistence Economy – goods and services for survival. • Market Economy – people freely choose what to buy and sell. – Free Enterprise – competition determines prices. – Capitalism – goods and services are privately owned. • Command Economy – Govn’t decides what to produce, where to make it, and what price to charge. – Property is publically owned. – Communism – is a command economy where the government controls all means of production.
SECTION 1 Economic Geography Economy Motivator Description Location traditional or subsistence survival People make goods for themselves or their families with little surplus. mostly in poor countries and rural areas market profit People freely choose what to buy and sell. most of the world’s rich countries command government regulations The government establishes products, locations, and prices. communist countries
FREE MARKET 1. People are free to buy, sell, and produce whatever they want, whenever they want, and any way they want 2. People can work wherever they want 25
FREE MARKET 3. Capitalism is another name for market economies 4. People enjoy a free enterprise system 26
Command Economy 1. Government decides what products to make, how many to make, how to make them, and who gets them 2. Government controls factories, farms, natural resources, transportation systems, and stores 27
Command Economy 3. Individual has little or no say 4. Soviet Union used to have this type of economy 5. There is no competition 28
Economic Indicators • Ways to measure economic development – Gross domestic product (GDP) is the dollar value of all final goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a given year. – Amount of Industry. – Literacy – Infrastructure – Technology
Developed and Developing Countries • Developed Countries - The world’s wealthiest countries. – Have Industry, Good Education, etc. • Developing Countries – Poorer countries of the world. – ¾ of the world lives in these – No or little industry and education, etc. – Rural people that live on subsistence farming
Hunting & Gathering and Agriculture • Hunting & Gathering –Hunting, foraging, or collecting foods from the surrounding land. (Living off the Wilderness. ) • Agriculture = Farming and animal herding (Living from cultivating the land for use)
SECTION 2 Urban and Rural Geography Agriculture and Human History Hunter-gatherers move with the seasons in search of food. Humans domesticate plants and animals. People develop agriculture and transform their environments. Agriculture provides surplus food and allows people to learn new crafts and skills. Towns and cities grow as civilizations develop. Trade between cities increases cultural diffusion.
City Life • Urbanization – growth in people living in towns and cities • In Developed Countries about 75% of people live in cities. • In Developing Countries less than half of people live in cities. • As pop. grows so will urbanization.
Politics • Government is the governing body of a nation, state, or community. – How a country is run or runs itself. • Not everyone has the same type of Government. • United Nations - worldwide organization that tries to settle problems among and within countries
SECTION 3 Political Geography Type of Boundary Description Example natural follow a feature of the landscape U. S. -Mexico border along the Rio Grande cultural based on cultural traits such as religion or language Spain-Portugal border geometric follow regular, geometric patterns such as latitude and longitude U. S. -Canada border
Government & Countries • Nationalism – feelings of pride and loyalty to one’s country • Totalitarian Government – Government ruled by one person or a few people. (Dictator). • Democracy – people decide who will govern. (majority always rules) • Republic – The people elect representatives who govern the nation. (Rule of Law) – America is a Democratic Republic – The Majority elects officials, but individual rights are protected by the Constitution.