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Workplace Learning in the Horti/Floriculture Sector in East-Africa First International Conference on Educational Research for Development, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, May 12 -15, 2009 Prof. dr. Martin Mulder, Dr. Judith Gulikers E: martin. [email protected] nl I: www. ecs. wur. nl I: www. mmulder. nl
Competence and work: a generic working definition integrated capabilities n consisting of clusters of knowledge, skills, and attitudes n conditional for task performance and problem solving n and for being able to function effectively n in a certain profession, organisation, job, role and situation n
Competence: a two-fold concept 1. Sufficient performative proficiency l l l 2. Minimal capability to act Ability To be able to Formalised permissive authorisation l l l Legal, institutional or organisational approval to act and decide Power-responsibility To be allowed to
The three levels of use of ‘competence’ 1. Fragmented behaviorism l 2. Integrated occupationalism l 3. Skills Training Vocational Education Reflective professionalism l Professional development
Two kinds of competence n Behavior-oriented l l n Interaction competence Stress management Independency Self management, etc. Task-oriented l l Being able to supervise a greenhouse Implement integrated pest management, Maintain a fertigation system Manage a flower farm, etc.
Competence – developments in the literature n n n n Competence as basic motivation, White, 1959 Selection and placement, Mc. Clelland, 1973 Performance Improvement, Gilbert, 1978 The competent manager Boyatzis, 1982 Training and development, Zemke, 1982 Self assessment and development, Mc. Lagan, 1983 Core competence of the Corporation, Prahalad & Hamel, 1990 Work-process related competence Nordhaug, 1993 n Education, learning and work, Dubois, 1993 n Competence of group, Lado & Wilson, 1994 n Professional development, Eraut, 1994 n Lucia & Lepsinger, 1999 (OECD) n Conflicting roles and team competence, Quinn et al n Competence at work, Sandberg, 2000 n The great eight competencies, Bartram, 2005 n
Towards institutional use Jones & Voorhees, 2002 (USDE) n Rychen & Salganik, 2003 (OECD) n European Commisson, 2005 n European Parliament and Council 2006 n European Social Partners, 2006 n
Recent ECS publications on competence - 1 Biemans, H. , L. Nieuwenhuis, R. Poell, M. Mulder & R. Wesselink (2004). Competence-based VET in The Netherlands: backgrounds and pitfalls. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 56, 4, 523 -538. l Brinkman, B. , Westendorp, A. M. B. , Wals, A. E. J. & Mulder, M. (2007). Competencies for Rural Development Professionals in the Era of HIV/AIDS. Compare: A journal of comparative education, 37, 4, 493 – 511. l Karbasioun, M. (2007). Towards a Competency Profile for the Role of Instruction of Agricultural Extension Professionals in Esfahan. Doctoral dissertation. Wageningen: Wageningen University. l Karbasioun, M, H. Biemans & M. Mulder (2007). Supporting Role of the Agricultural Extension Services and Implications for Agricultural Extension Instructors as Perceived by Farmers in Esfahan, Iran. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 14, 1, 31 -44. l Karbasioun, M. Mulder & H. Biemans (2007). Towards a job competency profile for agricultural extension instructors: A survey of views of experts. Human Resource Development International, 10, 2, 137 -151. l
Recent ECS publications on competence - 2 Mulder, M. (2007). Competence – the essence and use of the concept in ICVT. European Journal of Vocational Training, 40, 5 -22. l Mulder, M. , T. Weigel & K. Collins (2006). The concept of competence concept in the development of vocational education and training in selected EU member states. A critical analysis. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 59, 1, 65 -85. l Weigel, T. , M. Mulder & K. Collins (2007). The concept of competence in the development of vocational education and training in selected EU member states. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 59, 1, 51 -64. l Wesselink, R. , H. J. A. Biemans, M. Mulder & E. R. van den Elsen (2007). Competence-based VET as seen by Dutch researchers. European Journal of Vocational Training. 40, 38 -51. l
Competence: an example - 1 Context: Making a DNA-profile in Crime Scene Investigations n Requires knowledge l n Requires skills l n working with artefacts Requires attitudes l l l n disciplinary knowledge accuracy coping with pressure integrity Together that requires professional competence
Competence: an example - 2 Context: Making an Investment Decision in a Flower Farm n Requires knowledge product and market knowledge l n Requires skills l n persuasive communication Requires attitudes seeking and using opportunities l self efficacy l feeling for timing l n Together that requires professional competence
Principles for CBL 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The competencies that are basis for the curriculum are defined. Vocational core problems are the organising unit for (re)designing the curriculum. Competence-development of students is assessed frequently (before, during and after the learning process). Learning activities take place in several authentic situations. In learning and assessment processes knowledge, skills and attitudes are integrated. Self-responsibility and (self)reflection of students are stimulated. Teachers both in schools and practice fulfil their roles as coach and expert in balance. A basis is realised for a lifelong learning attitude for students.
Matrix of competence-based VET Principle not starting partial completely Competences O O Core problems O O Assessment O O Authentic learning O O Integration O O Self responsibility O O Coaching O O Lifelong learning O O
Example of a principle Principle 2 Not competence based Starting to be competencebased Partial competencebased Completely competencebased Vocational core problems are the organising unit for (re)designing the curriculum (learning and assessment). There are no vocational core problems specified. There are vocational core problems specified, which are used as examples in the (re)design of the curriculum There are vocational core problems specified. These core problems are the basis for the (re)design of some parts of the curriculum. There are vocational core problems specified and these are leading for the (re)design of the whole curriculum.
Example of a principle Principle 3 Not competence based Starting to be competence-based Partial competence-based Completely competence-based Competencedevelopment of students is assessed frequently (before, during and after the learning process). Assessment is the final stage of a learning process and takes place at a fixed moment. Assessment takes place at several moments. Assessment is used formal assessment and does not play a role in the learning process of students. Assessment takes place before, during and after the learning process. Assessment is used for both formal assessment and competence development of students. Assessment takes place before, during and after the learning process. Assessment is used both formal assessment and competence development of students. Students determine moment and format of assessment themselves.
Competence-based curriculum redesign n n n NUFFIC NPT projects Uganda and Ethiopia Sectors: floriculture – horticulture Consortia with LEI – PTC+ – PPO – ECS Counterparts: schools + stakeholders Making the programs more demand-driven Include larger practical components Move towards activation learning methods
Example: Uganda n n n Floriculture curriculum Diploma and certificate level Vocational and Higher Education Uganda Bukalasa Agricultural College Mountains of the Moon University
Capacity Building Model in the Floriculture Sub Sector
Curriculum WP deliverables n n n n Core Competence Assessments Map of programme components List of course titles Boxes of learning outcomes Boxes of content specifications Specifications of allocated teaching time Specifications of entry requirements
Strategies for competence-based curriculum development Informal curriculum evaluation n Identification of stakeholders n Selection of representatives n Collection of opinions of experts n Further literature analysis on trends n Invited curriculum deliberation n Continuous interactive alignment with stakeholder needs and preferences n
From the curriculum to lesson plans and learning n n n Active learning Cooperative learning Argumentative learning Student-centered Socio-constructivist learning theory
Critical issues n n Articulation of educational philosophy of colleges and universities Personal epistemologies and inspiring mission statements Faculty development Attention to cross-cutting themes l n n n n Ensuring quality internship places - financing Ensuring practical training facilities (including basic resources) Inclusion of research input in courses Alignment with short practical courses – portfolio - APL Continued interaction is needed between all stakeholders Quality management and development program Integrated evaluation system l n Gender, HIV-Aids, Social, Managerial and Entrepreneurial skills course, semester, year, program, by teachers, students, alumni and other external stakeholders Flexibility in continuing improvement (vis-à-vis agreements)
Conclusions n n n n Overview of ins and outs of competence-based education Inclusion of workplace learning – authentic practical learning A promising educational innovation Provided that it is really competence-based To be clarified by applying the matrix of CBE Based on a demand-driven multi-stakeholder process I believe this innovation will be promising in terms of sustainable employability and socio-economic innovation