Women and War Lecture Notes for Peace Studies

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Women and War Lecture Notes for Peace Studies II January 24, 2007 (0900 -1030, Women and War Lecture Notes for Peace Studies II January 24, 2007 (0900 -1030, Rm. 404) Mikyoung Kim Hiroshima City University. Hiroshima Peace Institute

Multiplicity of Women’s Roles during War • • Women as Warriors Women as Workers Multiplicity of Women’s Roles during War • • Women as Warriors Women as Workers Women as Caregivers Women as Sex Symbols Women as Objects to Protect Women as Victims of Violence Women as Peace-Makers (refer to the attached visual images)

Women and War (I) War Casualties: • • • World War I: 80 percent Women and War (I) War Casualties: • • • World War I: 80 percent of casualties were soldiers World War II: 50 percent of casualties were soldiers Vietnam War: 80 percent of casualties were civilians In current conflicts: 90 percent of casualties are civilians (Source: Pettman, Worlding Women, p. 89)

Women and War (II) Military Personnel (1): • As of 1995, 22. 4 million Women and War (II) Military Personnel (1): • As of 1995, 22. 4 million men and women remain under arms, of which, the developing countries take up 65 percent of the world total (Source: Sivard, World Military and Social Expenditures, 1996, p. 8) • As of 1994, more than 500, 000 women serving in the regular and irregular armed forces taking less than 10 percent of state militaries (Source: Dan Smith, The State of War and Peace Atlas, 1997, p. 64)

Women and War (II)  Military Personnel (2): • Those countries having the highest rates Women and War (II)  Military Personnel (2): • Those countries having the highest rates if female participation in their armed forces include the following: New Zealand (14%)---Australia (13%) --- The U. S. (12%)--Canada (12%)---Russia (11%) • Only seven countries allow women to engage in all combat roles: Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway and Spain • And only seven more allow women limited combat experience: The U. S. , the U. K. , Israel, Japan, France, Finland Ghana (Source: Seager, The State of Women in the World Atlas, pp. 92 -93)

Women and War (III) Military Expenditures: • Out of $125 billion in military expenditure Women and War (III) Military Expenditures: • Out of $125 billion in military expenditure in developing countries, • • 4% would reduce adult illiteracy by half; • • 8% would provide basic family planning; • • 12% would provide primary health care for all • (Source: Human Development Report, 1994, UNDP)

Women and War (IV) Gender Differences in War Perception: • Date • • • Women and War (IV) Gender Differences in War Perception: • Date • • • ’ 39/08 ‘ 40/11 ‘ 60/10 ‘ 61/10 Issue Percent Agree Men Women 19 12 56 42 60 46 87 75 Go to war against Germany Take strong measures against Japan Tougher policy towards Russia Fight all-out nuclear war rather than live under Communist rule ‘ 68/04 Describe self as hawk, not dove 50 32 on Vietnam (step up, not reduce effort) ‘ 75/04 Wars are necessary to settle 55 38 difference between nations (Sources: Smith, Tom W. 1984, “The Polls: Gender and Attitudes toward Violence, ” Public Opinion Quarterly, 48: 384 -96)

Conclusion • • • The Multiplicity of Women and War The Feminist Theories & Conclusion • • • The Multiplicity of Women and War The Feminist Theories & Women and War Question and Answer Session




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