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Wireless Sensor Networks for Fire Fighting and Fire Investigation CS 526 Semester Project Spring 2006 Sarah A. Summers
Firefighters Motivation FIRES KILL ! http: //www. usfa. fema. gov/download. jsp? url=/downloads/media/tree 24012056 k 1. rm
Firefighters Motivation n What you have just seen is just the early stages of a fire (45 seconds). n On average the fire department arrives at 61% of structural fires within 6 minutes. n By that stage the fire may have spread extensively. n The exact location of the fire will probably be unknown. n The extent of the fire will probably be unknown. n Result – the fire fighters are entering the scene almost blind.
Fire Investigators Motivation Best Case Scenario
Fire Investigators Motivation Worst Case Scenario
Goals n n n Determine how wireless sensor networks can help. Assess the current position of wireless sensor networks for fire detection and firefighting applications in buildings. Assess the challenges faced by fire detecting/tracking WSN. Assess the requirements for a pre-deployed fire detecting/tracking wireless sensor network. Consider the deployment scheme for sensors.
How Can Wireless Sensor Networks Help? n Provide information about the location of the fire. n Provide information about the extent of spread of the fire – where it is spreading and how quickly. n Temperature/Smoke at various locations with the structure.
Current WSN for Fire Detection/ Tracking in Buildings n FIRE - Fire Information and Rescue Equipment n Siren - Context-aware Computing for Firefighting
FIRE - Fire Information and Rescue Equipment n Smoke. Net – pre-deployed WSN detects fire. n Fire. Eye –firefighter head mounted display unit. n e. ICS – visual display showing resource allocation, personnel location and firefighter biometrics
SIREN - Context-aware Computing for Firefighting n n Tacit communication among firefighters using Wi. Fi enabled PDA with a built in mote. The mote in the PDA collects data from motes which are pre-deployed in the building to inform the firefighter of hazards and immediate danger. Pre-deployed motes also serve as location beacons – allows firefighter to navigate through the building. Each PDA connects to the PDA’s of other firefighters in a peering mode.
Challenges n n n Motes must detect an event without too many false alarms. Transmit information rapidly – location and event information – smoke, temperature rise or both. Reorganize rapidly when one or more mote goes down. Incident Commander must be able to link into the WSN. Provide Incident Commander with a visual display of the scene.
Types of Sensors n Temperature Sensors – detection and tracking n Smoke Detectors- detection n Infrared Detectors – tracking n Accelerometers – detection of structural collapse
Fire Data n Temperature changes in a simulated fire in a two storey family home.
Summary of Temperature Data Time (seconds) Ceiling Temperature Rise 5 121°C (218°F) Floor Temperature Rise 1°C (2°F) 20 187°C (337°F) 3°C (5°F) 137 673°C (1212°F) 318°C (547°F)
Deployment of Temperature Sensors Flaming fire results in rapid changes in temperature close to the ceiling. n Temperature changes closer to the floor are less rapid. n Deploy an array of sensors extending from ceiling level downwards. n Ceiling level sensors will be destroyed early but lower sensors should be able to continue passing data. n
Smoke Detectors Ionization smoke detectors – best suited for detecting flaming fires. n Photoelectric smoke detectors – best suited for detecting smoldering fires. n Since temperature sensors will detect flaming fires with rapid temperature changes, it would be best to use photoelectric smoke detectors to ensure rapid detection of smoldering fires. n
Firefighters And Wireless Sensor Networks (FAWSNet) n WSN comprised of pre-deployed temperature and smoke sensors. n Internet connection to the Fire Department. n Graphical User Interface for use by the Incident Commander which connects directly to the wireless sensor network.
Example FAWSNet Deployment
Example Deployment Cross Section of Room
Required Algorithms n Sentry algorithm to conserve mote power. n Temperature event algorithm. n Smoke event algorithm.
Future Work n Viability of sensing motes – mote protection n Tiny. Viz Simulation n Graphical User Interface n WSN Security n Additional Sensors n Physical Testing of Implementation
Conclusions n Wireless sensor networks have the potential to provide valuable information to firefighters and fire investigators. n There is still a lot of research to be done and a lot of issues remain to be resolved, but the fact remains that the provision of any additional information to firefighters that enhances safety must be beneficial.
References n Overview of Sensor Networks, D. Culler, D. Estrin and M. Srivastava, Computer, Vol. 37, Issue No. 8, August 2004, pp. 41 – 49, http: //csdl 2. computer. org/comp/mags/co/2004/08/r 8041. pdf n Sensor Network Operation, http: //www. intel. com/research/exploratory/sensornetwork_operation. htm n Intel Motes and Wireless Sensor Networks, http: //www. intel. com/research/downloads/SNOverview. CD. pdf n Sensor Nets/ RFID, http: //www. intel. com/research/exploratory/instrument_world. htm n Crossbow Technology Inc. Data Sheet, http: //www. xbow. com/Products/Product_pdf_files/Wireless_pdf/MICA 2_Datasheet. pdf n Sensor Based Efficient Multi-Floor Location Tracking, D. Sinha, Masters Thesis, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. http: //cs. uccs. edu/~gsc/pub/master/dsinha/doc/DEVJANI_PROJECT_REPORT. doc n Wireless Sensor Networks, pt 1: Introduction, Eliana Stavrou http: //webhosting. devshed. com/c/a/Web-Hosting-Articles/Wireless-Sensor-Networkspt-1 -Introduction/
References (continued) n TOSSIM: A Simulator for Tiny. OS Networks, P. Levis and N. Lee, September 17, 2003, http: //www. cs. berkeley. edu/~pal/pubs/nido. pdf n Design of Monocular Head-Mounted Displays for Increased Indoor Firefighting Safety and Efficiency, J. Wilson, D. Steingart, R. Romero, J. Reynolds, E. Mellers, A. Redfern, L. Lim, W. Watts, C. Patton, J. Baker and P. Wright, Proceedings of SPIE -Volume 5800, Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays X: Technologies and Applications, May 2005, pp. 103 -114, http: //bmi. berkeley. edu/fire/SPIEpaper. Final. pdf n Augmented Cognition for Fire Emergency Response: An Iterative User Study, D. Steingart, J. Wilson, A. Redfern, P. Wright, R. Romero and L. Lim, Proceedings of the 1 st International Conference on Augmented Cognition, Las Vegas, NV, 22 -27 July 2005, http: //bmi. berkeley. edu/our_lab/images/Aug. Cog. Final. pdf n Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting, X. Jiang, N. Y. Chen, J. I. Hong, K. Wang, L. Takayama and J. A. Landay, Proceedings of Second International Conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive 2004). , Vienna, Austria, April 18 April 23, 2004, http: //dub. washington. edu/projects/siren/pubs/pervasive 2004 -sirenfinal. pdf n Ubiquitous Computing for Firefighters: Field Studies and Prototypes of Large Displays for Incident Command, X. Jiang, J. I. Hong, L. A. Takayama and J. A. Landay, CHI Letters (Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI 2004). , Vienna, Austria, April 24 - 29, 2004, http: //dub. washington. edu/projects/siren/pubs/CHI 2004 -firefightersfinal. pdf
References (continued) n Full-Scale House Fire Experiment for Inter. FIRE VR, Report of Test, A. D. Putorti Jr and J. Mc. Elroy, November 2, 1999, Revised April 10, 2000, http: //www. interfire. org/features/fire_experiment. asp n System Smoke Detectors, http: //www. systemsensor. com/html/guides/A 05 -1003. pdf n Application of Wireless Sensor Mote for Building Risk Monitoring, N. Kurata, B. F. Spencer, Jr, and M. Ruiz-Sandoval, http: //www. unl. im. dendai. ac. jp/INSS 2004_papers/Poster. Presentations/P 8. pdf, (2003) n On Random Event Detection with Wireless Sensor Networks, P. K. Dutta, Masters Thesis, Ohio State University, 2004, http: //www. cs. berkeley. edu/~prabal/pubs/masters/dutta 04 masters. pdf n Energy-Efficient Surveillance System Using Wireless Sensor Networks, T. He, S. Krishnamurthy, J. A Stankovic, T. Abdelzaher, L. Luo, R. Stoleru, T. Yan, L. Gu, J. Hui and B. Krogh, Mobi. SYS ’ 04, June 6 -9, 2004, Boston, MA, http: //www. cs. virginia. edu/papers/tracking-mobisys 04. pdf