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WHO SWEEPS THE STREET? VULNERABLE and PRIVILEGED TO BE EMPLOYED? Ekaterina Markova (ISSK) WHO SWEEPS THE STREET? VULNERABLE and PRIVILEGED TO BE EMPLOYED? Ekaterina Markova (ISSK)

Highlights — Intro — Theory — Data — Deeper look — — Working conditions Highlights — Intro — Theory — Data — Deeper look — — Working conditions Employment trajectories: de-skilled; traditional; temporary. Low social status Low paid job — Vulnerable and privileged — The relative high job satisfaction – possible causes? — External social recognition – important job — Satisfaction to have secure job — Working atmosphere, informal managerial support — Conclusions

Who sweeps the street? ― How the life of these people looks like? ― Who sweeps the street? ― How the life of these people looks like? ― What is the nature of their work? ― How much do they earn? ― What are their future perspectives and expectations? ― What about the job satisfaction?

Theoretical viewpoint • “MONEY DOES NOT BUY HAPPINESS” (Easterlin, 1974 and 1995). • The Theoretical viewpoint • “MONEY DOES NOT BUY HAPPINESS” (Easterlin, 1974 and 1995). • The relationship between financial resources and satisfaction tends to be particularly weak among the poor and deprived individuals (see Neff and Olsen 2007 for a brief overview; Neff, 2009) “adaptation” Working Conditions satisfaction paradox Individual Perceptions JOB SATISFACTION

Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Qualitative Data Inter. Waste • Private • 150 employees • 6 in-depth interviews City. Qualitative Data Inter. Waste • Private • 150 employees • 6 in-depth interviews City. Clean • Municipal • 763 employees • 3 in-depth interviews

Who are the sweepers? Ethnicity Education • Sweepers are mostly Roma • Basic Education Who are the sweepers? Ethnicity Education • Sweepers are mostly Roma • Basic Education - men • Illiterate – mostly the women • No qualification or special skills • Bulgarian language difficulties • Mostly women • Men are entering because of the crisis Gender Economic status • 180 -194 EUR/m - sweepers • 200 -347 EUR/m - waste collectors • Minimal wage (July 2012) is 148, 28 EUR

An in-depth look • Physical work • Working hours • Company specifics in job An in-depth look • Physical work • Working hours • Company specifics in job security • De-skilled • Traditional • Temporary Working conditions Economic status • Low paid job • Bank indebtedness • Family Employment trajectories Social status • Gender segmentation • Bad image and low social recognition

Vulnerable or privilleged? „In these times of crises we do not know how to Vulnerable or privilleged? „In these times of crises we do not know how to make ends meet. We buy only food, that’s all we buy, nothing else, dear, nothing else. When I get my money – like now for example I receive here 380 leva – I go home and buy what is most necessary and tomorrow I have no money, I am penniless. ” Sweeper, Inter. Waste „For ten years we lived without electricity and we borrowed from our neighbours. Borrow is not the right word because we gave them 20 leva each month. All we used in the house is one electric lamp and the TV set. . . ” Sweeper, Inter. Waste)

Satisfied poor – possible causes Positive external social recognition Job security Informal support and Satisfied poor – possible causes Positive external social recognition Job security Informal support and social inclusion

1. Positive external recognition Positive evaluation of sweepers’ efforts by passers-by and managers Socially 1. Positive external recognition Positive evaluation of sweepers’ efforts by passers-by and managers Socially important job Personal pride to work this ‘dirty’, low paid job

1. Positive recognition Examples „And they (the citizens, note of the editor) when they 1. Positive recognition Examples „And they (the citizens, note of the editor) when they get up in the morning – everything black (cleaned up from the snow, note of the editor). People get up and say – oh, everything is black, this is nice. And they continue to bless us. . And it is good for the people when it is clean and when they say – my dear, you are terrific, see how clean it is. ” (Female Sweeper, Inter. Waste) “After we have swept the streets and get back on these streets we feel happy because it is nice and clean. Oh, I often say it is so clean. People also admire our work. They say – you do great job, look how clean it is”. (Female sweepers, City. Clean)

2. Job security — Working as sweeper is only possible option to have income 2. Job security — Working as sweeper is only possible option to have income — Regular and secure job — Legal earnings, on time — Opportunity to pay loans / mortgages — An escape of poverty — “Better than nothing”

2. Job security - examples „Well, but I live in a family (…). “What 2. Job security - examples „Well, but I live in a family (…). “What is the problem for me to sweep when I am 33 years old? I take the broom, I will sweep and earn some money - it is better than nothing. (male Sweeper, Inter. Waste) "I am satisfied. There are people who cannot find any job, very often very difficult is to find a job. Very difficult. " (female sweeper, City. Clean)

3. Informal support ― The administration have stood firmly behind their employees in their 3. Informal support ― The administration have stood firmly behind their employees in their conflicts with citizens. ― Demonstrated profound knowledge of the specificities of the Roma ethnic group. ― Two-sided commitment: employer and employees „We do our job and to tell you the truth, they (the managers, note of editor) are very pleased with us. We are very pleased by. . . (the area organiser, note of the editor), because when you have problems – you tell him so. . . We always turn to him. . . He is not insolent, shouting at you, why don’t you sweep here, and so on. . We have full confidence in each other. We are pleased, of course. ” (Female sweeper, Inter. Waste)

3. Informal support – examples? “„… it is a bit problematic and difficult sometimes 3. Informal support – examples? “„… it is a bit problematic and difficult sometimes to work with them, but I have always stated that – we are blessed to have them. As you saw yourself, in an entire district there is only one ethnic Bulgarian sweeper. `… Not a single Bulgarian would like to come and do this type of job. And on numerous occasions, I am so thankful to them, for working with us, for being there. It is only thanks to them that we fulfill our functions and carry out these activities. ” (Organiser, City. Clean).

Conclusions and discussion — Satisfied poor? — Popular attitudes toward sweeping - humiliating, dirty Conclusions and discussion — Satisfied poor? — Popular attitudes toward sweeping - humiliating, dirty work done by Roma people should be changed. The male sweepers, as well as the women initially had to overcome their embarrassment, to find a way to deal with the sneering attitude of the others. Children Visit to Waste Company

Conclusion — Relative job satisfaction, in addition to remuneration and social prestige, probably depends Conclusion — Relative job satisfaction, in addition to remuneration and social prestige, probably depends on the social isolation and socioeconomic situation, part of which are the real chances of an individual to find another job. — When employment is the only possible option to get legal income, the remuneration and social prestige remain out of the limelight.

Conclusions - 2 ―The quality of work for Sweepers needs further improvement and research Conclusions - 2 ―The quality of work for Sweepers needs further improvement and research ―Support sweepers voice and the channels for expression of individual and collective sweepers’ inspirations ―Initiate consultation and information practices

www. walqing. eu ekaterina. markova@gmail. com www. walqing. eu ekaterina. [email protected] com