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Who is president after JFK is assassinated in 1963? Who is president after JFK is assassinated in 1963?

VII. Cold War: Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) Lyndon B. Johnson *Military build-up in Vietnam VII. Cold War: Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) Lyndon B. Johnson *Military build-up in Vietnam intensified to 500, 000 by 1967 What is the objective in Vietnam? CONTAINMENT: Problem? U. S. sponsored gov’t not popular in democratic South

Challenges U. S. soldiers face in Vietnam? Vietcong within civilian population (friend or foe? Challenges U. S. soldiers face in Vietnam? Vietcong within civilian population (friend or foe? ? ? ) Tunnels allow Vietcong to disappear Traps and land mines Vietcong supported by Soviets and China, and ready to pay any price for victory- independence How is fighting technique of Vietcong similar to Patriots during the American Revolution? ?

U. S. approach in Vietnam? “Search and Destroy” missions: “Body Count-” (tracking Vietcong killed U. S. approach in Vietnam? “Search and Destroy” missions: “Body Count-” (tracking Vietcong killed as progress) Napalm- gasoline based bombs Problem(s) : U. S. wins in field, but cannot force defeat U. S. soldiers kill civilians in search for Vietcong- Unclear number of enemies? Agent Orange- defoliate jungles

Americans Protest War: Dodging draft America views Vietnam as Civil War- question morality of Americans Protest War: Dodging draft America views Vietnam as Civil War- question morality of combat techniques **College Campuses

Turning Point: Tet Offensive. January 30, 1968 Vietcong launch series of surprise attacks in Turning Point: Tet Offensive. January 30, 1968 Vietcong launch series of surprise attacks in South Vietnam during new year festivities (TET) U. S. takes back cities, kill 32, 000 Vietcong…. but Tet proves that enemy is not prepared to surrender. “Quagmire”

What is happening in this picture? What is happening in this picture?

1968, 60% of Americans disapprove of LBJ’s handling of Vietnam LBJ announces he will 1968, 60% of Americans disapprove of LBJ’s handling of Vietnam LBJ announces he will not seek another term as president.

VII. Cold War: Richard Nixon promises an “honorable end” to Vietnam How? ? ? VII. Cold War: Richard Nixon promises an “honorable end” to Vietnam How? ? ? Vietnamization- withdrawing American troops while maintaining military aid to South Vietnam. Détente- policy of easing Cold War tensions 1972, Nixon visits China (takes advantage of rift between Soviets and Chinese)

Chap. #24 Nixon – Ford - Carter Chap. #24 Nixon – Ford - Carter

Nixon’s Background § Originally from California § Lawyer, Representative, Senator § Communist hunter in Nixon’s Background § Originally from California § Lawyer, Representative, Senator § Communist hunter in the 1950’s § VP under Eisenhower

The Conservative Backlash Nixon & Rep. Resent Liberalism of the 1960’s for: *Vietnam War The Conservative Backlash Nixon & Rep. Resent Liberalism of the 1960’s for: *Vietnam War *Social Unrest *Warren Court: For Coddling Criminals! *Taxes that only helped the poor and minorities!

§ In office, Nixon sought to address the major concerns of the silent majority § In office, Nixon sought to address the major concerns of the silent majority § Congress was controlled by Democrats, limiting his domestic plans § Nixon had to compromise with Congress § Boosted Social Security § Expanded Job Corp § Established the EPA and OSHA

Nixon’s Presidency § Appealed to “The Un-black, The Un-young, & The Un-poor”! § “New Nixon’s Presidency § Appealed to “The Un-black, The Un-young, & The Un-poor”! § “New Federalism” = Less Federal Government! § Revenue sharing with the States they get more power to decide where $ goes. § Welfare reform = roll back Great Society. Cut $ and require work or lose welfare!

Nixon and Civil Rights § Nixon's “Southern Strategy” § Appeal to discontent of southern Nixon and Civil Rights § Nixon's “Southern Strategy” § Appeal to discontent of southern white voters § Attempt to capture George Wallace's supporters § Nixon was cautious and conservative § delayed desegregation plans § opposed extending Voting Rights Act of 1965

Busing Controversy in Boston Busing Controversy in Boston

26 th Amendment 1971 18 year olds can Vote! § Democrats = Like § 26 th Amendment 1971 18 year olds can Vote! § Democrats = Like § Republicans = Oppose § Only 25% vote in 1972 § 2004 = less than 15%. § Why?

Supreme Court § Appoints (4) in his first Term: § C. J. Warren Burger Supreme Court § Appoints (4) in his first Term: § C. J. Warren Burger § Harry Blackman § Lewis Powell § William Rehnquist § Conservative “Face”

Troubled Economy § “Stagflation” = high unemployment & Inflation: § Caused by Deficit Spending Troubled Economy § “Stagflation” = high unemployment & Inflation: § Caused by Deficit Spending 1960’s. § International trade Competition § Flood of new workers: women & baby-boomers § Foreign Oil costs.

§ O. P. E. C. = Org. of Petroleum Exporting Countries § Yom Kippur § O. P. E. C. = Org. of Petroleum Exporting Countries § Yom Kippur War 1973 § Israel attacked by Egypt and Syria. § We supply Israel § O. P. E. C. Embargo against U. S. § 1 year later = oil is 4 times higher

Energy Crisis § U. S. Reaction § Alaskan Pipeline § 55 M. P. H. Energy Crisis § U. S. Reaction § Alaskan Pipeline § 55 M. P. H.

Gas Woes Gas Woes

Richard Nixon – Foreign Policy Richard Nixon – Foreign Policy

Kissinger and Realpolitik § Kissinger is Nixon's most trusted foreign policy advisor § Realpolitick Kissinger and Realpolitik § Kissinger is Nixon's most trusted foreign policy advisor § Realpolitick § German political philosophy § Foreign policy should be based on power, not ideals or moral implications § Practical politics § Nations do what is in their own best interest

Nixon and China § Nixon visits China after nearly 25 years if hostility § Nixon and China § Nixon visits China after nearly 25 years if hostility § Nixon wants to open relations with China. Why? § Scientific and cultural exchange, open markets § Nixon does not have to worry about being labeled “soft on communism” § Nixon hopes to play the world’s two largest communist countries against another

China Visit § Ping-Pong Diplomacy 1971. China Visit § Ping-Pong Diplomacy 1971.

China Visit China Visit

Impact § 1971 China admitted to U. N. § Taiwan is out! Impact § 1971 China admitted to U. N. § Taiwan is out!

Détente with the Soviets § New era of U. S. - Soviet § § Détente with the Soviets § New era of U. S. - Soviet § § relations Détente – relaxation of tensions and attempt to repair strained relations Cultural and scientific exchanges Less worry of nuclear war Attempt to avoid further 3 rd world conflicts

Moscow Summit § 3 months after visiting § § China, Nixon visits Moscow Trade Moscow Summit § 3 months after visiting § § China, Nixon visits Moscow Trade and military agreements were made SALT was signed – set limits on nuclear weapons Hope to stabilize the arms race and lower defense costs U. S. agrees to sell U. S. S. R surplus agricultural products

Watergate: Watergate:

All The Presidents Men § H. R. Haldeman ----Chief of Staff § John Ehrlichman----Chief All The Presidents Men § H. R. Haldeman ----Chief of Staff § John Ehrlichman----Chief Domestic Advisor § John Mitchell----Attorney General

CREEP (CRP) § Raised tens of millions $ § Engaged in “Dirty Tricks” campaign CREEP (CRP) § Raised tens of millions $ § Engaged in “Dirty Tricks” campaign against Nixon Foes.

The Break In § June 17 th , 1972 at Democratic National Headquarters. § The Break In § June 17 th , 1972 at Democratic National Headquarters. § 5 men arrested in business suits § “Bugs”, camera’s, $ on them. § Nixon feared a Ted Kennedy run for President § Nov. ’ 72 Nixon wins in landslide over Mc. Govern, S. D.

Watergate Fallout § White House Watergate Fallout § White House "enemies list“ § “Enemy Lists” = +200 F. B. I. told to discredit them / I. R. S. To Audit them § F. B. I. = Infiltrate S. D. S. & Black Panthers

Watergate Fallout § White House § § Watergate Fallout § White House § § "plumbers unit" created to plug up leaks of confidential information “Plug Leaks” “Dig up Damaging information”

Watergate Fallout § Burglars G. Gordon Liddy & Howard Hunt = Employees of CREEP Watergate Fallout § Burglars G. Gordon Liddy & Howard Hunt = Employees of CREEP § Nixon secretly approves $460, 000 to keep Burglars Quiet!

Woodward & Bernstein § Washington Post reporters who helped to break the Watergate story Woodward & Bernstein § Washington Post reporters who helped to break the Watergate story

The Trial § Jan. 1973 The burglars go on trial § James Mc. Cord The Trial § Jan. 1973 The burglars go on trial § James Mc. Cord admits he worked for C. R. E. E. P. (hush $ given burglars to conceal White House Involvement)! § Attorney General John Mitchell approved the break in § Nixon denies knowing anything about the “Break In”!

Senate Hearings § April 30, 1973 Dean / Ehrlichman / Haldeman Resign. § Archibald Senate Hearings § April 30, 1973 Dean / Ehrlichman / Haldeman Resign. § Archibald Cox = Prosecutor § Dean says, “President Directed Cover-up!.

Watergate Fallout § John Dean testified glibly and at great length as to the Watergate Fallout § John Dean testified glibly and at great length as to the involvement of the top echelons in the White House, including the president, in the cover-up of the Watergate break-in

The Great Tape Controversy § July 1973 Aide, Alexander Butterfield said, that tapes exist The Great Tape Controversy § July 1973 Aide, Alexander Butterfield said, that tapes exist in the White House ! § for months Nixon flatly refused to produce the taped evidence claiming executive privilege § U. S. v. Nixon § forced to give up the tapes

Other Problems § Oct ’ 73 V. P. Spiro Agnew Resigns / Income tax Other Problems § Oct ’ 73 V. P. Spiro Agnew Resigns / Income tax evasion / taking bribes as Governor of Maryland § Nixon appoints Gerald Ford as new V. P.

The Saturday Night Massacre § Archibald Cox was special prosecutor § Cox issued a The Saturday Night Massacre § Archibald Cox was special prosecutor § Cox issued a subpoena for relevant tapes and other documents from the White House § Nixon ordered the firing of Cox § A. G refused – resigned § Deputy AG refused- fired § Solicitor General finally agreed § Many Americans saw Presidents attempt to block the legal process as proof of guilt

Tapes § Nixon tries to release transcripts only – Courts order tapes! § Tapes Tapes § Nixon tries to release transcripts only – Courts order tapes! § Tapes = Gaps!!! (18 minutes on one tape) § Secretary Rosemary Woods said, “it was her fault”! § House begins Impeachment Hearings

Tapes Revealed § 1 of the tapes had Nixon giving orders, 6 days after Tapes Revealed § 1 of the tapes had Nixon giving orders, 6 days after the Watergate break-in, to use the CIA to hold back an inquiry by the FBI

The Unmaking of a President § the House Judiciary Committee pressed ahead with its The Unmaking of a President § the House Judiciary Committee pressed ahead with its articles of impeachment § Republican leaders in Congress made it clear that Nixon would best serve the nation, his party, and himself by resigning with "honor"

Unmaking of a President § Andrew Johnson = Only President impeached before Clinton! § Unmaking of a President § Andrew Johnson = Only President impeached before Clinton! § Aug. 9, 1974 Nixon Resigns, Gerald Ford becomes President. § 1 st President in history to Resign!

Nixon Resigns § Nixon choked back his tears and announced his resignation in a Nixon Resigns § Nixon choked back his tears and announced his resignation in a dramatic television appearance on August 8, 1974

§ Analysis of Richard M. Nixon's § Analysis of Richard M. Nixon's "Presidential Resignation" § The following is offered as one possible analysis of Richard M. Nixon's "Presidential Resignation, " particularly that portion of the speech presented in paragraphs 5 -15 of the speech. This two-claim interpretation of Nixon's argumentation is plausible, given his dual--and perhaps competing--objectives in the speech, namely to perform the official function of resignation and to praise his own administration.

I. To remain in office----------------My resignation will---------I am resigning. would be divisive help the I. To remain in office----------------My resignation will---------I am resigning. would be divisive help the country as President. and distracting. move forward. | Ford's Presidency------can end division. Ford will offer--------good leadership. II. . We ended the Vietnam--------------Achievements have been------My administration has war. significant. been a time of achievement and challenge. We opened relations----|-----with China. We established -----Friendly relations in the Middle East. ----We collaborated with USSR to limit nuclear arms. ---Around the world, many --------------- Challenges remaining--people lack needs of life In America we must strive for full opportunity of every person

Nixon Leaves the White House Nixon Leaves the White House

Effects of Watergate § Americans Disillusionment with Imperial Presidency. § Americans lost confidence in Effects of Watergate § Americans Disillusionment with Imperial Presidency. § Americans lost confidence in Government. § 1974, Freedom of Information Act = Citizens given access to files Government may have on them!

Ford Becomes President § Sept 1974 -Ford pardons Nixon § desired to end the Ford Becomes President § Sept 1974 -Ford pardons Nixon § desired to end the personal agony for Nixon § only president to never be elected Prez. or VP

Assassination Attempts § § Twice Ford narrowly escaped death Once by one of Charles Assassination Attempts § § Twice Ford narrowly escaped death Once by one of Charles Manson’s disciples

Economy Was Terrible § Worst Economic recession in 40 years. § Unemployment 10% § Economy Was Terrible § Worst Economic recession in 40 years. § Unemployment 10% § Inflation 10% § Japanese car sales go from 17% in 1970 to 37% in 1980, Over 50% foreign 2007 No One Wants A “Gas Guzzler”

Foreign Affairs § Carry on Détente § 1975 Cambodia seizes Mayaguez merchant ship § Foreign Affairs § Carry on Détente § 1975 Cambodia seizes Mayaguez merchant ship § 39 American’s Held § Rescue mission but 42 troops die to save 39!

1976 Election § Ford = Rep. / Carter = Dem. § Carter wins narrowly 1976 Election § Ford = Rep. / Carter = Dem. § Carter wins narrowly § I’ll never lie to the Am. People § Runs as a Washington outsider. § Doesn’t even work well with the Democrats in Congress.

Carter’s Agenda § Pardons draft dodgers § Created the Dept. of Energy –tax on Carter’s Agenda § Pardons draft dodgers § Created the Dept. of Energy –tax on gas guzzling cars and credits for alt. energy § $18 billion tax cut § Human rights for Foreign Policy

Civil Rights Issues § More African Americans and Women in his administration than any Civil Rights Issues § More African Americans and Women in his administration than any before. § Andrew Young = U. S. Ambassador U. N. § 1978 Supreme Court decision = Affirmative Action = Unconstitutional in Allan Bakke vs. University of California

Economic Problems § Inflation = 14% § Unemployment = 12% = worst since Depression. Economic Problems § Inflation = 14% § Unemployment = 12% = worst since Depression. § U. S. Goes from Manufacturing Jobs to Service Industry. § (FYI – April 2008 Inflation =3. 94% and Unemployment=5%)

Foreign Policy § Panama Canal Treaty 1977 § Turns Canal over to Panama 12/31/1999 Foreign Policy § Panama Canal Treaty 1977 § Turns Canal over to Panama 12/31/1999 § U. S. = Right to Defend Canal § Détente Dies! § S. A. L. T II Dies when Soviets invade Afghanistan 1979

Camp David Accords 1978 § Key Players § § § Carter – U. S. Camp David Accords 1978 § Key Players § § § Carter – U. S. Sadat – Egypt Begin – Israel § promise for peace § Israeli withdrawal from § Egypt would respect Israel’s borders

Iran Hostage Crisis § Rebellion in Iran, Shah overthrown § Ayatollah Khomeini a religious Iran Hostage Crisis § Rebellion in Iran, Shah overthrown § Ayatollah Khomeini a religious leader takes over § Shah comes to U. S. for Cancer Treatment § Nov. 4, 1979 Iranians seize U. S. Embassy & take 52 Americans Hostage

Iran Hostage Crisis § the captured Americans languished in cruel captivity § Iranian mobs Iran Hostage Crisis § the captured Americans languished in cruel captivity § Iranian mobs burned the American flag and spit on /burned effigies of Uncle Sam

Iran Hostage Crisis § Rescue mission fails § Crisis hurts Carter’s chance for reelection! Iran Hostage Crisis § Rescue mission fails § Crisis hurts Carter’s chance for reelection! § Hostages released as Reagan’s being sworn in as new President 1/20/1981, after 444 days of captivity.

Environmental Activism § Growing awareness of environmental pollution Environmental Activism § Growing awareness of environmental pollution

Earth Day / O. S. H. A. § Earth Day April 22, 1970. § Earth Day / O. S. H. A. § Earth Day April 22, 1970. § Recycling § River clean ups § Highways / etc. § O. S. H. A.

Environment Action § Environment Protection Agency = sets and enforces pollution standards. § 1970 Environment Action § Environment Protection Agency = sets and enforces pollution standards. § 1970 Clean Air Act. § 1970 Endangered Species Act.

Love Canal Crisis § Niagara Falls, N. Y. § Homes had been built on Love Canal Crisis § Niagara Falls, N. Y. § Homes had been built on a toxic waste dump. § People getting Sick. § Birth defects / Cancer. § Abandonment!

http: //www. health. state. ny. us/nysdo h/lcanal/lctimbmb. htm http: //www. health. state. ny. us/nysdo h/lcanal/lctimbmb. htm

Three Mile Island § Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Nuclear Power Plant came close to Meltdown! Three Mile Island § Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Nuclear Power Plant came close to Meltdown!

In 1979, roughly 25, 000 people lived within five miles of the giant cooling In 1979, roughly 25, 000 people lived within five miles of the giant cooling towers that became symbols of the nation's worst commercial nuclear accident.

After the March 28 accident, reporters from around the world descended on the nuclear After the March 28 accident, reporters from around the world descended on the nuclear power station on the Susquehanna River, 10 miles from the Pennsylvania state capital in Harrisburg

Workers from the nuclear power plant were checked for radiation exposure at the end Workers from the nuclear power plant were checked for radiation exposure at the end of their shifts

Pennsylvania Gov. Richard Thornburgh advised children and pregnant women to evacuate the area around Pennsylvania Gov. Richard Thornburgh advised children and pregnant women to evacuate the area around Three Mile Island

At a shelter in Hershey, Pa. , evacuees waited for word on when they At a shelter in Hershey, Pa. , evacuees waited for word on when they could return home

Four days after the accident, President Jimmy Carter, educated as a nuclear engineer, rode Four days after the accident, President Jimmy Carter, educated as a nuclear engineer, rode a school bus to the damaged plant.

Four years after the accident, a video camera lowered into the Unit 2 reactor Four years after the accident, a video camera lowered into the Unit 2 reactor core showed that damage to its uranium fuel was more extensive than originally thought

TMI-2 (on the left) has not been used since. TMI-2 (on the left) has not been used since.

Twenty percent of our nation's electricity is generated by 103 nuclear reactors in 66 Twenty percent of our nation's electricity is generated by 103 nuclear reactors in 66 locations around the country.

VII. Cold War: Richard Nixon promises an “honorable end” to Vietnam How? ? ? VII. Cold War: Richard Nixon promises an “honorable end” to Vietnam How? ? ? Vietnamization- withdrawing American troops while maintaining military aid to South Vietnam. Détente- policy of easing Cold War tensions 1972, Nixon visits China (takes advantage of rift between Soviets and Chinese)

June 1987, “Mr. Gorbachev tear down this Wall” Ronald Reagan June 1987, “Mr. Gorbachev tear down this Wall” Ronald Reagan

End of Cold War: Timeline (1989) --- (1990) --Berlin Wall Free elections in is End of Cold War: Timeline (1989) --- (1990) --Berlin Wall Free elections in is torn down East Berlin (1991) 14 Soviet Republics declare independence **Soviet Union collapses

(1992) President George Bush and Russian president Boris Yeltsin issue formal statement declaring end (1992) President George Bush and Russian president Boris Yeltsin issue formal statement declaring end to Cold War. Who “won” the Cold War?

Vladimir Putin and George Bush, Jr. Vladimir Putin and George Bush, Jr.