- Количество слайдов: 38
WHI. 8 Islam
Muhammad v Founder v Prophet v Revelations of Muhammad form the basis of Islam
Mecca v v v Muhammad was born in Mecca Hajj-pilgrimage to Mecca the Ka’ba is in Mecca
Medina v v Hejira. Muhammad fled to Medina to escape persecution First Muslim city
Jerusalem v v Dome of the Rock Important to all 3 mono religions
Islam originated where? v Arabian Peninsula
Spread of Islam v Muhammad and his followers spread Islam
Weak empires facilitated the spread of Islam: v Weak Byzantine and Persian empires
Islam spread to what areas?
Beliefs, traditions, and customs v v v Monotheism- belief in one god, Islam 3 rd mono religion Allah- Arabic word for God Muslims- followers of Islam
Beliefs, traditions, and customs v v Mosque- house of worship for Islam Qur’an (Koran)- The word of God, holy text for Islam Acceptance of Judeo-Christian prophetsincluding Abraham, Moses, and Jesus Five Pillars- duties of a Muslim
Five Pillars of Islam (duties of a Muslim) v v v Pronounce Faith- “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet” Prayer- pray 5 times a day facing Mecca Alms- giving to the poor (charity) Fasting- no food or drink during the month of Ramadan from sunrise to sunset Pilgrimage- Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) at least once in a lifetime if you are able
End of part I
WHI. 8 Spread & Turning Points of Islam v After Muhammad’s death, Muslim rule expanded rapidly, despite great distances, deserts, and mountain barriers.
v The Arabic language spread with Islam and facilitated (helped to spread) trade and learning across Islamic lands.
v Islam spread along trades routes from Mecca and Medina to Africa and Asia. v Muslim empires utilized slavery, but it was not based on race.
Weak Empires Islam spread into… • Byzantine • Persian • Fertile Crescent • Iran • Central Asia Muslims conquered Jerusalem, Israel Damascus, Syria Constantinople (Istanbul)
v Through trade and conquest, Islam spread into……. . Central & Southeast Asia, North Africa, and western Europe (Spain)
v The spread of Islam to the west was stopped in Europe at the Battle of Tours (France) in 732 CE by the Franks led by Charles Martel.
v Islamic Capital of Baghdad Falls to the Mongols
Islamic Factions- Division of Islam v Although Islam spread quickly through political unity and Arabic, the first Muslim empire was short-lived. v After the 4 th Islamic leader (Caliph) died, a split (schism) in the Islamic community occurred over who should be rightful ruler. Result: 2 factions (groups) Islam Believe that any righteous devout Muslim can become leader (majority of Muslims) Sunni Shi'a Believe the leader should be a descendant of Muhammad through the line of Ali (his sonin-law) (minority of Muslims, mostly Iran & Iraq)
End part 2
WHI. 8 Turning Points and Contributions v Turning Points – – – Death of Ali: Sunni-Shi’a Division Muslim conquests of Jerusalem and Damascus Islamic capital moved to Baghdad Muslim defeat at Battle of Tours Fall of Baghdad to Mongols Preserved Greek, Persian, and Indian learning
Cultural Contributions v Architecture – Mosques- domes & minarets – Dome of the Rock. Jerusalem
Cultural Contributions v Mosaics v Arabic alphabet
Cultural Contributions v Universities – Knowledge spread with Islam – (House of Wisdom in Baghdad Iraq, Cordoba Spain, Timbuktu Mali) v Translations of ancient text into Arabic – preserved ideas of ancient civilizations
Scientific Contributions v Arabic Numerals – Adapted from India, including zero v Al Jabr (Algebra)
Scientific Contributions v Medicine – Hospitals and medical schools – (foundation of western medicine) v Expansion of geographic knowledge – astrolabe- chart stars and planets – (first accurate maps, improved ships, used Chinese compass, made later exploration possible)
End part 3
5 Pillars of Islam Do Now Mecca, Allah, Pray, Fast, Muhammad, Alms 1 -“There is no God but _____ and _____ is the messenger of God. ” v 2 - All Muslims should ____ five times a day. v 3 - During the month of Ramadan, Muslims should ____ from dawn to dusk. v 4 - Muslims are supposed to give _______ to the poor. v
5 Pillars of Islam Do Now 1 -“There is no God but _____ and _____ is the messenger of God. ” v 2 - All Muslims should ____ five times a day. v 3 - During the month of Ramadan, Muslims should ____ from dawn to dusk. v 4 - Muslims are supposed to give _______ to the poor. v
Islam Do Nowstudy for Islam Quiz!!! v 1 -Identify two similarities in Islam and Judaism. v 2 - How are the Bible and Qur’an similar? v 3 - Was slavery used in the Muslim Empires? v 4 - Name two holy cities for Islam.
Islam Do Now Arabia, slavery, prophets, Qur’an, Mecca 1 -Abraham, Moses, and Muhammad are considered to be ____ in Islam. v 2 - Holy books for monotheistic religions include the Torah, Bible, and _______. v 3 - In the Muslim empires, ____ is not based on race. v 4 - Holy cities for Islam include Medina and ______. v 5 - Where did Islam originate? v
Spread of Islam Do Now 1 -Islam is divided between Shi’a and _______. v 2 - Islam spread by _____. v 3 - Ottoman Turks conquered ________ in 1453 C. E. v 4 - The Islamic empire conquered the weak Byzantine and ________ empires. v 5 - What Frankish leader stopped the Muslim army at the Battle of Tours? _________ v
Get out your homework NOW! Your quiz is in five minutes! WORD BANK Sunni, Arabic, Persian, Charles Martel, trade, Constantinople v v v 1 -Islam is divided between Shi’a and _______. 2 - Islam spread with _____. 3 - Ottoman Turks conquered ________ in 1453 C. E. 4 - The Islamic empire conquered the weak Byzantine and ________ empires. 5 - Who stopped the Muslim army at the Battle of Tours? _________ 6 - What language facilitated (or helped to
Islamic Contributions Do Now v 1 - Muslim shrine in Jerusalem v 2 - Language and numerals v 3 - Mathematical discipline (Al Jabr) v 4 - Islamic art v 5 - Navigational invention to chart the stars
v v v v 570 A. D. (C. E. ) Mohammed is born in Mecca. 613 Mohammed begins preaching in Mecca. 622 Hijrah (hegira, “migration”) from Mecca to Medina (region of Yathrib) 630 Mohammed returns to Mecca. 632 Mohammed dies, and his teachings are collected and recorded in the Qu’ran (Koran). 632– 661 Four Rightly Guided Caliphs rule and continue expansion of Islamic empire. 661– 750 Umayyad Dynasty rules; capital is moved to Damascus. 690 Dome of the Rock becomes an important monument. 711 Muslims invade Spain. 732 Muslims advance into Western Europe; they are halted at the Battle of Tours. 750 Abbasid Dynasty begins, lasting until 1255. 762 Capital is moved to Baghdad. 1258 Mongols pounce on Baghdad, kill the last Abbasid ruler, and destroy the city.
Do Right Now! v Get out a piece of paper. v Title it Crash Course Islam. v Take facts from the video. You can use these notes on your quiz immediately following the video. v https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v= Tpcbfxtdo. I 8