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Welcome to the third CCRI webinar 1. Land its Uses (Chris Short) 21 st Welcome to the third CCRI webinar 1. Land its Uses (Chris Short) 21 st September 1 pm 2. The Future of Food (James Kirwan and Damian Maye) 28 th September 1 pm 3. Communities in Transition (Carol Kambites) 5 th October 1 pm 4. Dead Bees, Cloned Cows and the ‘zombie’ rural (Matt Reed) 12 th October 1 pm Policy Conference: 19 th October 1

Countryside and Community Research Institute ‘Community’, ‘Social Capital’ and the ‘Big Society’: some reflections Countryside and Community Research Institute ‘Community’, ‘Social Capital’ and the ‘Big Society’: some reflections in the light of our research Dr Carol Kambites with James Derounian 10/04/10

Contents 1. The importance of researching rural communities 2. Three concepts: ‘community’, ‘social capital’ Contents 1. The importance of researching rural communities 2. Three concepts: ‘community’, ‘social capital’ and the ‘big society’ 3. Six research projects 4. Some thoughts 5. References 3

The importance of studying rural communities Rural areas as: • Centres of production • The importance of studying rural communities Rural areas as: • Centres of production • Centres of recreation • Habitats • Places to live Are rural communities different from urban communities? 4

Community All those people who live in a particular place 5 Community All those people who live in a particular place 5

Social Capital 'Those networks and assets that facilitate the education, coordination and co-operation of Social Capital 'Those networks and assets that facilitate the education, coordination and co-operation of citizens for mutual benefit' (Putnam, 1993) 'The glue that holds communities together': Bonding social capital: Close links between family and friendship groups Bridging social capital: Looser links between acquaintances, people who do business together etc. Linking social capital: Links that extend outside the community including influence on decision-makers and access to external funds 6

‘Big Society’ The transfer of power and responsibility from government and local government to ‘Big Society’ The transfer of power and responsibility from government and local government to local communities • Right to Build • Right to Buy • Right to Bid ? 7

Question 1 If ‘big society’ involves the transfer of power and responsibility from government Question 1 If ‘big society’ involves the transfer of power and responsibility from government and local government to ‘communities’ what types of ‘social capital’ does this need and will it be forthcoming? 8

The Future of Services in Rural England – a Scenario for 2015, for Defra, The Future of Services in Rural England – a Scenario for 2015, for Defra, 2005 left unchecked, many of the anticipated developments will be socially regressive; need to increase the human and social capital of rural areas; desirability of locally-tailored responses, without abdicating responsibility centrally; lessons from innovation in service delivery such as use of ICT, the coordination of service delivery and the expansion of community enterprise; the need to foster the more coordinated planning of service delivery across both the spatial and social dimensions. 9

Question 2 What impact is the ‘big society’ agenda likely to have on these Question 2 What impact is the ‘big society’ agenda likely to have on these factors? 10

The Social Contribution of Land-based Industries to Rural Communities, for the Commission for Rural The Social Contribution of Land-based Industries to Rural Communities, for the Commission for Rural Communities, 2007 the need for devolution of decision-making powers to the local (but not necessarily parish) level; the advantage of LEADER style ‘community chests’, providing small grants to develop projects, involving land-managers and the community; The extent to which places and communities differ. 11

Hatley: a divided community Clun: a lively community Rookhope: a remote exindustrial community 12 Hatley: a divided community Clun: a lively community Rookhope: a remote exindustrial community 12

Cydcoed Evaluation Project: Exploring the Market and non-Market Values of Cydcoed Intervention, for Forest Cydcoed Evaluation Project: Exploring the Market and non-Market Values of Cydcoed Intervention, for Forest Research, 2008 advice and support was provided as well as money; the local was found to be significant; building confidence and capacity; environmental benefits appear to be of less significance than the social benefits; projects have provided some employment opportunities, work for contractors, and some formal qualifications but these are of secondary importance to the social achievements of the programme. 13

Adaptation to Climate Change by Local Communities in Rural Europe; a Review of Some Adaptation to Climate Change by Local Communities in Rural Europe; a Review of Some Recent Experience for the Arkleton Trust, 2010 many projects were part of a larger initiative eg Transition Towns; many projects were a response to a local problem e. g. flooding or the rising cost of fuel. 14

Question 3 What interventions are needed to encourage community action and will this vary Question 3 What interventions are needed to encourage community action and will this vary from place to place? 15

Local Issues in Rural England – Messages from the Parish and Market Town Plans, Local Issues in Rural England – Messages from the Parish and Market Town Plans, for the Countryside Agency, 2005 1. The various parishes and small towns of England have their own individual sets of concerns, 2. The most commonly expressed concern was road traffic. 1. Other commonly expressed concerns included: • the local physical environment • local services and facilities • socio-economic issues, including unmet needs of the young, policing and housing 16

Strengthening the Role of Local Councillors: an analysis of evidence arising from the CRC Strengthening the Role of Local Councillors: an analysis of evidence arising from the CRC participation inquiry for CRC, 2007 some very good examples of active parish councils; many parish councils did not use their powers to the full; some very innovative schemes for consultation and involving people; confusion about who can do what. 17

Question 4 What should/could be the role of parish and town councils in the Question 4 What should/could be the role of parish and town councils in the ‘big society’? 18

Some thoughts: Places will vary both in needs and ability to meet them; Social Some thoughts: Places will vary both in needs and ability to meet them; Social capital is key and may be increased by local initiatives, but it is likely to be lowest where need is greatest; Need to involve disadvantaged groups; Remote rural areas may have special problems; There will need to be easily accessed funding for local projects; Some of this funding must be continuing. 19

Where now for rural community research? role of parish and town councils how are Where now for rural community research? role of parish and town councils how are community projects initiated? does community action increase with need? who gets involved in community action? involving the uninvolved do community projects provide employment? Can community action be a substitute for (some) service provision by local authorities and others? 20

The Research Projects • Moseley, M. J. , et al (2005) The Future of The Research Projects • Moseley, M. J. , et al (2005) The Future of Rural Services, Defra • Courtney, P, et al (2007) The Social Contribution of Land-based Industries to Rural Communities, CRC • Powell, J, et al (2008) Exploring the Market and Non-Market Values of Cydcoed Intervention, Forest Research • Kambites, C. et al (2010) Adaptation to Climate Change by Local Communities in Rural Europe, Arkleton Trust • Moseley, M. J. , et al (2005), Local Issues in Rural England: messages from the Parish Plans and Market Town Health-Checks, the Countryside Agency • Kambites, C. and Moseley, M (2007) Strengthening the Role of Rural Councillors: an analysis of evidence, CRC 21

Further information • ACRE (2010) ‘Implementing the Big Society’, policy position paper http: //www. Further information • ACRE (2010) ‘Implementing the Big Society’, policy position paper http: //www. acre. org. uk/DOCUMENTS/publications/Policypositionpap ers/Bigsociety. pdf • Community empowerment, housing and economic regeneration bill http: //www. direct. gov. uk/en/Governmentcitizensandrights/UKgovern ment/Parliament/DG_076367 • Derounian, J. ‘Parish Councils Supporting Communities in Transition’, powerpoint presentation, available from [email protected] ac. uk • Moseley, M. J. (2009) ‘Glimpses of Rural England 2004 -2007: evidence from nine social surveys, Countryside and Community Press, Cheltenham www. ccri. ac. uk 22