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Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes a law. 1. 2. (Recommendation: write small for 3 there be many words a comin’) 4. 5. Bellwork: Day 3

Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes a law. 1. Bill is introduced in either the House of Reps or Senate. 2. 3 4. 5. Bellwork: Day 2

Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes a law. 1. Bill is introduced in either the House of Reps or Senate. 2. Bill is sent to committee, where it is checked and sent to Congress. 3. 4. 5. Bellwork: Day 2

Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes a law. 1. Bill is introduced in either the House of Reps or Senate. 2. Bill is sent to committee, where it is checked and sent to Congress. 3. House (or Senate) votes; 51% must vote yes. 4. 5. Bellwork: Day 2

Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes a law. 1. Bill is introduced in either the House of Reps or Senate. 2. Bill is sent to committee, where it is checked and sent to Congress. 3. House (or Senate) votes; 51% must vote yes. 4. Bill is sent to the other house of Congress. 5. Bellwork: Day 2

Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes Watch the following video and tell me in five steps how a bill becomes a law. 1. Bill is introduced in either the House of Reps or Senate. 2. Bill is sent to committee, where it is checked and sent to Congress. 3. House (or Senate) votes; 51% must vote yes. 4. Bill is sent to the other house of Congress. 5. President vetos or approves law. Bill becomes law. - (If vetoed, it must be approved in Congress with 66% of the vote. ) Bellwork: Day 2

Take out Assignment 2 Let’s review Take out Assignment 2 Let’s review

Assignment 5: The Legislative Branch Worksheet Finish Review Assignment 5: The Legislative Branch Worksheet Finish Review

Make a Bill Abortion Budget & Economy Civil Rights Corporations Crime Drugs Education Energy Make a Bill Abortion Budget & Economy Civil Rights Corporations Crime Drugs Education Energy & Oil Environment Families & Children Foreign Policy Free Trade Government Reform Here are some topics to help you get started. You may not have the same bill as someone else. Gun Control Health Care Homeland Security Immigration Infrastructure & Technology Jobs Principles & Values Social Security Tax Reform War & Peace Welfare & Poverty

Make a Bill Here are some topics to help you get started. You may Make a Bill Here are some topics to help you get started. You may not have the same bill as someone else.

Assignment 6: Congress Notes Assignment 6: Congress Notes

The Evolution of Congress The intent of the Framers: To oppose the concentration of The Evolution of Congress The intent of the Framers: To oppose the concentration of power in a single institution To balance large and small states Bicameralism They expected Congress to be the dominant institution

What does this graph tell us? What does this graph tell us?

The Constitution and the Legislative Branch Article I creates a bicameral legislative branch of The Constitution and the Legislative Branch Article I creates a bicameral legislative branch of government. The upper house is called the Senate in which each state receives two representatives. The lower house is called the House of Representatives which is apportioned by population. The Senate has a 6 year term with 1/3 of the seats up for reelection every two years. House members serve 2 year terms.

Apportionment and Redistricting The Constitution requires that all Americans be counted every 10 years Apportionment and Redistricting The Constitution requires that all Americans be counted every 10 years by a census. The census determines the representation in the House of Representatives. Redistricting (the redrawing of congressional districts to reflect changes in seats allocated to the states from population shifts) is done by state legislatures and, of course, always has political overtones. Called gerrymandering when too extreme.

Spend Money Regulate Commerce Taxation Powers of Congress Lawmaking Create Courts Declare War Make Spend Money Regulate Commerce Taxation Powers of Congress Lawmaking Create Courts Declare War Make all laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out the enumerated powers

Powers of Congress The most important constitutional power of Congress is the power to Powers of Congress The most important constitutional power of Congress is the power to make laws. This power is shared by the House and the Senate. In order to become a law, a bill must be passed by both the House and the Senate.

Key Differences House Senate • Initiate revenue bills • 2 -year term • 435 Key Differences House Senate • Initiate revenue bills • 2 -year term • 435 • Formal • Tax policy • advise and consent • 6 -year term • 100 • Relaxed • Foreign policy

Members of Congress is older, better educated, whiter, and richer than most of us. Members of Congress is older, better educated, whiter, and richer than most of us. However, great strides have been made. Currently, both California senators are women.

WOMEN MEMBERS OF THE 106 TH CONGRESS SENATE WOMEN SENATORS: 9 Barbara Boxer (D-CA) WOMEN MEMBERS OF THE 106 TH CONGRESS SENATE WOMEN SENATORS: 9 Barbara Boxer (D-CA) Mary Landrieu (D-LA) Susan Collins (R-ME) ARE WOMEN DIFFERENT? Barbara A. Mikulski (D-MD) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) Patty Murray (D-WA) Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-TX) Olympia J. Snowe (R-ME) Blanche Lambert Lincoln (D-AK) Total Democratic Senators: 6 Total Republican Senators: 3 HOUSE WOMEN REPRESENTATIVES: 56 Total Democratic Congresswomen: 41 Total Republican Congresswomen: 17

The Representational Role of Members of Congress How should an elected official represent his/her The Representational Role of Members of Congress How should an elected official represent his/her constituents? Trustee--representatives use their own best judgment Delegate--representatives vote the way their constituents want them to Politico--representatives act as trustee or delegate depending on the issue

Organization of Congress Every two years, a new Congress is seated. The first order Organization of Congress Every two years, a new Congress is seated. The first order of business is the election of leaders and adoption of new rules. Both houses of Congress are organized on the basis of party for both leadership and committee purposes.

Lawmaking Only a member of the House or Senate may introduce a bill but Lawmaking Only a member of the House or Senate may introduce a bill but anyone can write a bill. Over 9, 000 bills are proposed and fewer than 5 to 10% are enacted. Most bills originate in the executive branch. A bill must survive three stages to become a law: committees, the floor, and the conference committee. A bill can die at any stage.

Committees were designed to allow Congress to specialize in key areas Whichever party is Committees were designed to allow Congress to specialize in key areas Whichever party is in the majority controls all of the committees and has a majority on each committee House of Rep: The Rules Committee is the most powerful. They determine rules for how a law is introduced. . . Rules Committee determines whether amendments to a bill can be added, or whethere will be any debate on it at all! Senate is more informal. No rules committee. Instead, they can filibuster and stop the Senate from functioning

How Members Make Decisions It is rare for a legislator to disregard strong wishes How Members Make Decisions It is rare for a legislator to disregard strong wishes of constituents, particularly on hot button issues or those contentious issues that get a lot of media attention. The perceptions of the representative are important since he/she cannot really know how all the constituents feel about an issue. . . right? Members often introduce legislation that will benefit their district or state above that of the country. This is why more than 90% of Reps are reelected.

How Members Make Decisions Interest Groups Colleagues Caucuses Representative Constituents Party Staff Political Action How Members Make Decisions Interest Groups Colleagues Caucuses Representative Constituents Party Staff Political Action Committees

Congress and the President However, Congress retains several key powers vis-a-vis the president: funding Congress and the President However, Congress retains several key powers vis-a-vis the president: funding powers oversight impeachment/removal.

Congressional Oversight of the Executive Branch • Congress has the power to review the Congressional Oversight of the Executive Branch • Congress has the power to review the actions of the executive branch

Continuity and Change The framers of the U. S Constitution placed Congress at the Continuity and Change The framers of the U. S Constitution placed Congress at the center of the government. In the early years of the republic, Congress held the bulk of power. The face of Congress is changing as women and minorities have achieved seats. Today, the presidency has become quite powerful, particularly since FDR. Congress now generally responds to executive branch legislative proposals.

Figure 13. 2: Percentage of Incumbents Reelected to Congress Harold W. Stanley and Richard Figure 13. 2: Percentage of Incumbents Reelected to Congress Harold W. Stanley and Richard G. Niemi, Vital Statistics on American Politics, 1999 -2000 (Washington, D. C. : Congressional Quarterly Press, 2000), table 1 -18; 2004 updated by Marc Siegal.

Create Your Own Bill Requirements: 20 Points- Blank Bill Worksheet: Correctly fill out and Create Your Own Bill Requirements: 20 Points- Blank Bill Worksheet: Correctly fill out and use appropriate bill-language. This means do not use words like you, I, basically, kinda, sorta, sometimes, etc. Make sure you fill out everything in the right place. Carefully read where everything should go. 10 Points - Visual: Create a visual (poster, commercial, etc. ) for your Bill. Visual should look nice, describe in a few words what your Bill aims to do, and be complete by Bill Presentation Day. 20 Points - Bill Presentation: Present your Bill to the class. Be able to accurately describe what your Bill aims to do and persuade the Senate (class) to pass it. Be prepared to answer questions or take challenges from your colleagues.