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Warm up Answer the following questions. DO NOT USE YOUR BOOK! 1. Which branch of government did the founders want to be the most powerful? 2. How were Senators originally elected? 3. What fraction of Senators must run for election every two years?
Congressional Membership House of Representatives Qualifications Number of members Term of office Representation based on: Salary Benefits and Privileges P. 69 Article I Section 2 Clause 2 Senate P. 70 Article I Section 3 Clause 3
Congressional Membership House of Representatives Qualifications Number of members Term of office Representation based on: Salary (in 2012) Benefits and Privileges 25 years old, citizen for 7 years, resident of state representing Senate 30 years old, citizens for 9 Years, resident of state representing 435 100 2 years 6 years equality population $174, 000 Stationary, postage, medical clinic, gym, can’t be arrested while attending Congress or on their way to or from Congress
The Functions of Congress p. 416 -420 • Lawmaking • Representation – Trustee v. Instructed-delegate views • • Service to Constituents Oversight Public-Education Conflict Resolution
Powers of Congress p. 420 -421 • Know some of the enumerated powers Article 1, Section 8, Clauses 1 -17 AND 12 th, 16 th, 20 th and 25 th Amendments (impose taxes, spend, regulate commerce, declare war, override a veto, propose amendments) • Powers of the Senate (treaties, presidential nominations of ambassadors, Supreme Court)
Powers of Congress, cont. • Necessary & Proper Clause, Article I, Sec 8 • Checks on Congress: (veto of President, Supreme Court, House elections every 2 years, Senate vs. House)
House/Senate Differences House Senate Constitutional Differences Local districts Entire state 2 -year term Originally elected by voters Orig. elected by state legis (until 1913) May impeach May convict Process and 435 Culture 100 More formal Debate limited Extended/filibuster Less prestige More media coverage More partisan More individualistic Specific Originates bills for raising $ Powers Advise/consent pres on appts &
Miscellaneous Info • Congress is not representative of the US population p. 424 • Congressional Elections & The Power of the Incumbency p. 424 -428 • Congressional Apportionment p. 428 -434 • Perks & Privileges p. 434 -435
How a Bill Becomes a Law page 380 • A bill starts when a Congressman writes and introduces it to the House. • The bill then goes to a committee where it is debated. • If it does not die in committee, the bill is voted on in the House. • If the bill passes, it goes to the Senate where the committee process is repeated. • If the bill does not die in committee, it is voted on in the Senate. • If the bill passes the Senate, it goes to a conference committee to work out any differences. • Each house then votes on the compromised bill. • If it passes both houses, it goes to the President. • If he signs the bill it becomes a law. • If he vetoes the bill, Congress can override the veto with a 2/3 vote in each house.
Remember!!! • All bills that deal with money, either taxing or spending, must start in the House. • All money that the government spends is appropriated by Congress.
How Work Gets Done in the House of Representatives Responsibilities of House Leaders Speaker of Majority Minority the House Leader Whips Responsibilities of House Rules Committee
How Work Gets Done in the House of Representatives Responsibilities of House Leaders Speaker of Majority Minority the House Leader The Boss, decides who gets to do what (talk, committees) Page 375 Helps plan the majority party’s legislative Program, assist the Speaker Page 376 Helps plan the minority party’s legislative programs Page 376 Whips Enforcer, makes sure members are present to vote and vote the “right” way Responsibilities of House Rules Committee Enters major bills on house calendars, moves some bills ahead of others, may include time limits for debate on a bill, specifies how much a bill may be changed or amended, settles disputes among House committees, delays or blocks bills that leaders do not want to be voted on (SEE PAGE 374)
Responsibilities of Senate Leaders Vice President Majority Leader President Pro Tempore Minority Leader Whips
Responsibilities of Senate Leaders Vice President Majority Leader President of the Senate, breaks tie votes Page 377 Plans Senate work schedule and agenda Page 377 Minority Leader Develops criticisms of majority party’s bills, plans legislative program for minority party Page 377 Whips Makes sure Senators are present for key votes Page 378 President Pro Tempore – temporary presiding officer of the Senate in the absence of the Vice President, mostly a ceremonial position page 377
Similarities and Differences in House and Senate Procedures House Senate
Similarities and Differences in House and Senate Procedures House Senate Speaker presides and controls who speaks Members introduce bills Formal atmosphere Majority leaders control flow of bills Five calendars Many ways to delay or block bills VP presides but can’t vote unless to break a tie Informal atmosphere Only two calendars Minority leaders plan to oppose majority party’s bills Few ways to block bills – But has filibuster
Committees in the House and Senate • Standing committees – deal with large issues that affect the nation • Subcommittee – specializes in subcategory of standing committee’s business • Select committee – study a specific issue and report findings to the House or Senate • Joint committee – act as study groups that report findings to both houses • Conference committee – resolve differences btwn House and Senate version of a single bill