Скачать презентацию VOTOPIA — Internet Voting Experience during 2002 FIFA Скачать презентацию VOTOPIA — Internet Voting Experience during 2002 FIFA

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VOTOPIA - Internet Voting Experience during 2002 FIFA World. Cup Korea/Japan. TM 1 International VOTOPIA - Internet Voting Experience during 2002 FIFA World. Cup Korea/Japan. TM 1 International Research center for Information Security (IRIS) Information and Communications University (ICU) 2 Information Security Dept. , Joongbu University Mar, 17, 2005 1 Prof Kwangjo Kim, [email protected] ac. kr 2 Prof. Byoungcheon Lee [email protected] ac. kr

Contents 1. Introduction to VOTOPIA 2. System Design 3. Implementation Details 4. Voting Result Contents 1. Introduction to VOTOPIA 2. System Design 3. Implementation Details 4. Voting Result 5. Concluding Remarks 6. Appendix l l E-voting research in ICU International collaboration in e-voting Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 2

1. Introduction to VOTOPIA (1) n An international project called “VOTOPIA” was carried out 1. Introduction to VOTOPIA (1) n An international project called “VOTOPIA” was carried out by effective collaboration among some of the prominent Korean and Japanese IT firms and research institutes l l Korea: IRIS, KISTI, KSIGN, LG CNS, SECUi. COM, STI, VOCOTECH Japan: NTT, University of Tokyo n IRIS, affiliated to ICU, Korea - initiated, managed, and coordinated the project Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 3

Introduction to VOTOPIA (2) n Korea/Japan teams initiated the idea of VOTOPIA* in 2000, Introduction to VOTOPIA (2) n Korea/Japan teams initiated the idea of VOTOPIA* in 2000, in order to show their strong support to the most prestigious mega event "2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan. TM". n Advance in Korean PKI l 10 M broadband Internet users at home l 3 M certificate holders for Internet banking, e-auction, etc. n Verify secure Internet voting system using cryptographic primitives and show its usefulness as replacement of paper voting. * VOTOPIA is in no way associated with FIFA and does not intend to violate international legal issues and digital copy rights. Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 4

2. System Design (1) n Type of voting system l l Remote Internet voting 2. System Design (1) n Type of voting system l l Remote Internet voting for large scale election based on blind signature under PKI environment n Authentication of voters l l Anyone registered once can cast a vote Issue certificate to voters n Meet basic cryptographic requirements in e-voting ü ü ü Privacy : All votes must be secret Completeness : All valid votes are counted correctly Soundness : The dishonest voter cannot disrupt the voting Unreusability : No voter can vote twice Eligibility : No one who isn’t allowed to vote can vote Fairness : Nothing can affect the voting Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 5

System Design (2) n Client side l l l Fast and easy, user-friendly web System Design (2) n Client side l l l Fast and easy, user-friendly web interface No tamper-proof device needed Consider various kind of platforms, OS, browsers, and Internet speed n Server side l Highly secure network and computer system n l l l Anti-hacking system (such as DOS attack, etc. ) Large DB handling Fault-tolerance and high reliability Reasonable processing in registration and voting Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 6

Paper Voting Scenario Registration Counting Voting at Booth Poll list Observer/ Administrator Voters Secret Paper Voting Scenario Registration Counting Voting at Booth Poll list Observer/ Administrator Voters Secret voting Voting office Tallying Identification by poll list Mar 17, 2005 Voting Sheet E-Voting Conference 2005 # slip 7

Internet Voting Scenario Registration Voters R 1. After setting up secure session, download registration Internet Voting Scenario Registration Voters R 1. After setting up secure session, download registration form Web servers CA server R 2. Send encrypted public key & registration information with session key R 3. Request certificate R 4. Issue certificate nload. Dow g votin t apple R 5. Save certificate V 1 C 2 . R V 3. Request Schnorr blind signature en ec dq eiv ue ry et he Admin server DB server fo rt fin Counting V 4. Receive Schnorr blind signature V 5. Verify admin’s blind signature . S C 3 V 2. Encrypt the ballot with counter’s public key in El. Gamal encryption al all yin re su g lt V 6. Send encrypted ballot & admin’s digital signature Voting V 7. Verify admin’s signature & decrypt ballot using counter’s private key Counter server Mar 17, 2005 V 8/C 1. Save all decrypted ballots E-Voting Conference 2005 8

Registration Stage Voters (After setting up secure session) R 1. Download registration form R Registration Stage Voters (After setting up secure session) R 1. Download registration form R 2 -1. Fill out the registration form R 2 -2. Generate private/public key pair R 2 -3. Save private key in safe R 2 -4. Encrypt the registration information & public key with session key R 2 -5. Send encrypted message (public key & registration information) Web servers R 3 -1. Decrypt encrypted message R 3 -2. Generate request for certificate CA server R 3 -3. Send request for certificate R 4. Issue certificate R 51. info Save rma regi tion stra & c tion ert ific ate R 5 -2. Registration completed DB server Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 9

Voting Stage Web servers Voters V 1. Download voting applet V 2. Encrypt the Voting Stage Web servers Voters V 1. Download voting applet V 2. Encrypt the ballot with counter’s public key in El. Gamal encryption V 3 -1. Request Schnorr blinding factor V 3 -2. Save Schnorr blinding factor V 3 -3. Receive Schnorr blinding factor DB server V 3 -4. Blind the encrypted ballot using received blinding factor V 3 -5. Generate voter’s Schnorr signature on the ballot V 3 -6. Send voter’s Schnorr sig. & blinded info V 3 -7. Request & receive voter’s certificate V 3 -8. Request & receive voter’s blinding factor Admin server V 4 -2. Receive admin’s blind signature V 3 -9. Verify voter’s digital signature V 4 -1. Generate admin’s blind signature V 5. Verify admin’s blind signature V 6. Send encrypted ballot & admin’s digital signature Counter server Mar 17, 2005 V 7 -1. Verify admin’s digital signature V 7 -2. Decrypt the ballot using counter’s private key V 8. Save all decrypted ballots E-Voting Conference 2005 10

Counting Stage Counter server C 1. Save all decrypted ballots Voters Web servers DB Counting Stage Counter server C 1. Save all decrypted ballots Voters Web servers DB server C 2. Send query for tallying C 3 -1. Ballot counting C 3 -2. Receive the final result C 3 -3. Post the final result C 3 -4. Look up the final result Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 11

3. Configuration of Servers (1) KISTI Backbone Network Cisco 6506/opal http: //mvp. worldcup 2002. 3. Configuration of Servers (1) KISTI Backbone Network Cisco 6506/opal http: //mvp. worldcup 2002. or. kr VLAN 1 Firewall SECUi. Wall Compaq Proliant ML 530 L 4 Switch CSS 11800 VLAN 10 Gb. E mvp 01 SUN V 880 Gb. E mvp 02 SUN V 880 mvp 03 mvp 04 SUN Enterprise 3000 SUN Enterprise 6500 Web Servers Mar 17, 2005 Gb. E ADMIN Servers E-Voting Conference 2005 Gb. E mvpsvr Compaq DB Server 12

Configuration of Servers (2) Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 13 Configuration of Servers (2) Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 13

Implementation Details n Client • Java 1. 2, JLOCK+ • MS Explorer 4. 0 Implementation Details n Client • Java 1. 2, JLOCK+ • MS Explorer 4. 0 on Windows 98 /ME/XP/2000 • Korean, Japanese, English and Chinese n Web, DB, Admin, and Counter Servers l Solaris 2. 5. 4 (SUN OS 5. 8), Oracle DB 8. 0. 6 , JDBC l Tomcat 3. 1, Apache 1. 3. 12, JSSWEB+ n Encryption and Certificate • El. Gamal encryption & Schnorr (blind) signature • Simplified X. 509 v 3 certificate issued by CA server Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 14

Homepage (http: //mvp. worldcup 2002. or. kr) Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 15 Homepage (http: //mvp. worldcup 2002. or. kr) Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 15

Registration Page Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 16 Registration Page Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 16

Voting Page Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 17 Voting Page Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 17

4. Voting Result n 2 times voting to select MVP and Best GK l 4. Voting Result n 2 times voting to select MVP and Best GK l Preliminary vote n n n l Period: Jun. 1 ~14 Candidates: 32 teams Notification: June 15 10 AM Main vote n n n Period: Jun. 16 ~ 30 Candidates: 16 teams notification): June 30 12 PM n One team has 20 players and 3 GKs Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 18

Data Size & Voting Time n Data Size l Applet for SSL Connection at Data Size & Voting Time n Data Size l Applet for SSL Connection at R 1 n l Voting Client Applet at V 1 n l 215 KB Voter’s Registration Information at R 2 -1 n l 207 KB Avg. 50 Bytes Key Size : Security / Performance Trade-off n n n Voter : 256 bit El. Gamal Encryption & 512 bit Schnorr Signature Administrator : 256 bit Schnorr Blind Signature & 512 bit Schnorr Verification Counter : 256 bit El. Gamal Decryption n Voting Time (V 1 - V 6) l Avg. 2 (or 3) min. under Pentium III 100 M LAN (or 56 K modem) l Including Admin’s & Counter’s Server Computation Time : avg 195 msec Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 19

Sample Vote (1) Voter's ID : tank 02's private key Private Key x: 9 Sample Vote (1) Voter's ID : tank 02's private key Private Key x: 9 fa 840 a 6974 fc 04810 db 89 b 73461 bb 8 d 561 a 20 bd Security Parameters: p: c 16 cbad 34 d 475 ec 5396695 d 694 bc 8 bc 47 e 598 e 23 b 5 a 9 d 7 c 5 cec 82 d 65 b 6827 d 44 e 95 378484730 c 0 bff 1 f 4 cb 56 f 47 c 6 e 51054 be 89200 f 30 d 43 dc 4 fef 9624 d 4665 b q : b 7 b 810 b 58 c 0934 f 642878 f 360 b 96 d 7 cc 26 b 53 e 4 d g: 4 c 53 c 726 bdbfbba 6549 d 7 e 731939 c 6 c 93 a 869 a 27 c 5 db 17 ba 3 cac 589 d 7 b 3 e 003 fa 735 f 290 cfd 07 a 3 ef 10 f 35155 f 1 a 2 ef 70335 af 7 b 6 a 5211 a 1103518 fba 44 e 9718 Admin's public key Public Key y: c 0 ace 983 c 8 c 4346 b 99 b 54 e 96505 f 94 b 7 b 2 ba 25 d 6764 c 16 fcb 9 f 239 cbc 447402 f Security Parameters: p : f 668 a 94 f 0 ce 284 e 30776 b 59 b 319 fec 12 ba 069 d 10 c 56498 e 2 bd 0 cb 42 f q : e 3109 c 1 fd 13 c 8 d 637 f 6 c 39 e 6 c 0 a 6 e 9 df g : a 7688634018 f 161 c 62 de 5014 ca 99 e 983759 fb 4 f 67 b 575 bbc 4 b 51 d 32392177 a 40 Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 20

Sample Vote (2) Counter's public key Public Key y: b 6 fbabc 9259 a Sample Vote (2) Counter's public key Public Key y: b 6 fbabc 9259 a 1267 fcde 3 a 82 ebc 060781 c 9404 b 7 caf 4 c 07837 fb 86 b 1054207 fb Security Parameters: p : e 204679 a 6 b 62 fe 440 c 0 bfea 01223 d 98 b 7 b 65 a 6 b 1095962 b 41 d 502 d 21 q : ad 9 c 0 afead 1 c 2 e 24900 e 4799 ddcade 6 b g : 329 d 730 dea 5 e 5 cff 79 b 9 a 46968414 e 16 ec 610 dbdd 3 e 1 b 7 d 090 aec 0 bdef 310411 Message from Admin 1(tilde. A): 2004 d 4 c 5 ff 693 b 20 ad 4574 a 062 c 1 eb 80 d 6 e 2 e 0 d 79639 f 755 cd 9 e 4 de 14593 f 9 ceec Vote : 10000001431000000160 Tag : 4277 bb 955 fad 5 f 86 Encoded vote(vi) : 31303030313433313030303136304277 bb 955 fad 5 f 86 Message for El. Gamal encryption : 31303030313433313030303136304277 bb 955 fad 5 f 86 Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 21

Sample Vote (3) Random number k for El. Gamal encryption : 4 af 1 Sample Vote (3) Random number k for El. Gamal encryption : 4 af 1 c 2911 bd 5 f 59789307 fd 12366436 e 68 dbd 0 ae G(=g^k mod p) : 316 aafb 99 ed 1 a 7565 e 09 d 795 a 1 c 4 bc 1 bc 884 f 5069 b 3 e 3 af 12 c 61976 bd 929 cd 35 M(=m*(y^k) mod p) : 9 f 88 bcf 0128 a 500 c 218 c 8 fbde 13 a 21 ca 8 eae 32 caa 58 ac 9339 d 8 c 3 a 5 eaa 79489 d Encrypted vi(ev) : 4400209 f 88 bcf 0128 a 500 c 218 c 8 fbde 13 a 21 ca 8 eae 32 caa 58 ac 9339 d 8 c 3 a 5 eaa 79489 d 0020316 aafb 99 ed 1 a 7565 e 09 d 795 a 1 c 4 bc 1 bc 884 f 5069 b 3 e 3 af 12 c 61976 bd 929 cd 3 5 Blinding encrypted vi Random commitment tilde. A for blinding given by signer 4 d 4 c 5 ff 693 b 20 ad 4574 a 062 c 1 eb 80 d 6 e 2 e 0 d 79639 f 755 cd 9 e 4 de 14593 f 9 ceec Message to be blinded 4400209 f 88 bcf 0128 a 500 c 218 c 8 fbde 13 a 21 ca 8 eae 32 caa 58 ac 9339 d 8 c 3 a 5 eaa 79489 d 00 20316 aafb 99 ed 1 a 7565 e 09 d 795 a 1 c 4 bc 1 bc 884 f 5069 b 3 e 3 af 12 c 61976 bd 929 cd 35 Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 22

Sample Vote (4) Blinding factor u : 1 a 35 c 544169 b 7 Sample Vote (4) Blinding factor u : 1 a 35 c 544169 b 7 df 3 cde 2488 f 5 ae 6179 ad 3 c 50 ea 7 Blinding factor v : e 1254 df 36 ad 334 dc 92 e 7 f 5 c 75224 f 2 b 77 b 179924 r'(=tilde. A * g^u * y^v) : 8 ac 9 e 4 f 8917 d 0961 a 017 b 0706 bb 2 cc 9145161 dab 9 b 01322849 ce 97878 ffb 67 d 5 e'(=hash(r', msg)mod q) : 2 c 81051411 f 5826 f 47 fa 9825 b 579 bb 6 eb 97 bf 01 d e (= e'-v mod q) : 2 e 6 c 5340785 edaf 6347 edc 4523 fbb 296 ff 0 b 40 d 8 Blinded ev(tilde. C=e) : 2 e 6 c 5340785 edaf 6347 edc 4523 fbb 296 ff 0 b 40 d 8 Message for Schnorr Sig. : 2 e 6 c 5340785 edaf 6347 edc 4523 fbb 296 ff 0 b 40 d 8 random factor k of Schnorr Sig. : b 09 bd 1 ea 81 f 8 f 91 c 2 ec 9 cc 8 a 805 b 4150 ced 8 bf 37 r(=g^k mod p) : a 04164 bfc 61 f 673 d 77 d 29 aae 45 fb 503394823 bbf 96 bb 1407 acdbbf 2 a 76069313204 ae 1 cf 8 e 9 fc 8862 f 3 d 07 c 27 ac 2 f 6 dc 529 d 47 d 5 e 06 f 2450715 a 1 a 5034 c 996 ff voter's sig. (s, e) of message tilde. C Schnorr Sig. factor e (= hash(r, msg) mod q) : 3 b 6226900 a 5333 f 29 f 8 c 0 ca 99 b 1 c 0 c 5 aeee 5 a 1 c 7 Schnorr Sig. factor s (= k - e*x mod q) : 12 ed 689 be 782 fbcae 8 d 8 f 823226997769 fc 469 d 0 Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 23

Sample Vote (5) Message to admin 2 (eai=(s, e)|tilde. C|tilde. A) : 8 e Sample Vote (5) Message to admin 2 (eai=(s, e)|tilde. C|tilde. A) : 8 e 0054001 e 00066 b 6 d 616 e 3232001490 a 9 ab 12 dc 8 f 91 be 844 dc 57575 ff 741 f 6565 bab 30032003000 2 e 0502001412 ed 689 be 782 fbcae 8 d 8 f 823226997769 fc 469 d 000143 b 6226900 a 5333 f 29 f 8 c 0 ca 99 b 1 c 0 c 5 aeee 5 a 1 c 700142 e 6 c 5340785 edaf 6347 edc 4523 fbb 296 ff 0 b 40 d 8002004 d 4 c 5 ff 693 b 20 ad 4574 a 062 c 1 eb 80 d 6 e 2 e 0 d 79639 f 755 cd 9 e 4 de 14593 f 9 ceec Message from admin 2, that is, admin's blind signature (ezc) : 53001 d 000561646 d 696 e 001411 cc 6504 f 02 e 79 e 6811 c 8046 cf 13 ebb 47 d 4 f 6 e 6600320030002 e 0502 00148 bcd 80 bd 228501354422 eacf 5032171 ee 491725000142 e 6 c 5340785 edaf 6347 edc 4523 fbb 296 ff 0 b 40 d 8 Unblinding Admin's blind sig. factor s (= omega-e*x mod q) : 8 bcd 80 bd 228501354422 eacf 5032171 ee 4917250 Admin's sig. factor s' (= s+u mod q) : a 603460139207 f 291205335 eab 182 eb 9 b 85680 f 7 Admin's sig. factor e' (= e+v) : 2 c 81051411 f 5826 f 47 fa 9825 b 579 bb 6 eb 97 bf 01 d Unblinded admin sig. (bs) : 2 e 05020014 a 603460139207 f 291205335 eab 182 eb 9 b 85680 f 700142 c 81051411 f 5826 f 47 fa 9825 b 57 9 bb 6 eb 97 bf 01 d Message to Bubo(esev=bs||ev) 76002 e 05020014 a 603460139207 f 291205335 eab 182 eb 9 b 85680 f 700142 c 81051411 f 5826 f 47 fa 982 5 b 579 bb 6 eb 97 bf 01 d 004400209 f 88 bcf 0128 a 500 c 218 c 8 fbde 13 a 21 ca 8 eae 32 caa 58 ac 9339 d 8 c 3 a 5 eaa 79489 d 0020316 aafb 99 ed 1 a 7565 e 09 d 795 a 1 c 4 bc 1 bc 884 f 5069 b 3 e 3 af 12 c 61976 bd 929 cd 35 Vote Result : 10000001431000000160 Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 24

Daily Access Record Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 25 Daily Access Record Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 25

IIS Attack Monitored in Error. log File at Apache Server [Thu Jul 4 23: IIS Attack Monitored in Error. log File at Apache Server [Thu Jul 4 23: 59: 48 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/msadc/. . %5 c. . /. . %5 c/. . ? . . /winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Thu Jul 4 23: 59: 48 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/scripts/. . 유. . /winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Thu Jul 4 23: 59: 48 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/scripts/. . 헃. . /winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Thu Jul 4 23: 59: 48 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/scripts/. . %5 c. . /winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Thu Jul 4 23: 59: 48 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/scripts/. . %2 f. . /winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Fri Jul 5 01: 06: 56 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/c/winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Fri Jul 5 01: 06: 56 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/d/winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Fri Jul 5 01: 06: 56 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/scripts/. . %5 c. . /winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Fri Jul 5 01: 06: 56 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/_vti_bin/. . %5 c. . /winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Fri Jul 5 01: 06: 56 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/_mem_bin/. . %5 c. . /winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Fri Jul 5 01: 06: 56 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/msadc/. . %5 c. . /. . %5 c/. . ? . . /winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Fri Jul 5 01: 06: 56 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/scripts/. . 유. . /winnt/system 32/cmd. exe [Fri Jul 5 01: 06: 56 2002] [error] [client 210. 107. 135. 145] File does not exist: /user/mvp/public_html/scripts/. . 헃. . /winnt/system 32/cmd. exe Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 26

# of Typical Hacking (Filtered by IDS) (1) Type of Hacking Date Mar 17, # of Typical Hacking (Filtered by IDS) (1) Type of Hacking Date Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 27

# of Typical Hacking (Filtered by IDS) Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 (2) # of Typical Hacking (Filtered by IDS) Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 (2) 28

Packet Control (by Firewall) (1) n Allowed Packet (Jun. 7 th , 2002) Allowed Packet Control (by Firewall) (1) n Allowed Packet (Jun. 7 th , 2002) Allowed Packet Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 29

Packet Control (by Firewall) (2) n Disallowed Packet & Session (Jun. 7 th , Packet Control (by Firewall) (2) n Disallowed Packet & Session (Jun. 7 th , 2002) Disallowed Packet Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 Allowed Session 30

Statistics of Preliminary voting n. Age: l Below 10 yrs: 9 (1. 0%), 11~ Statistics of Preliminary voting n. Age: l Below 10 yrs: 9 (1. 0%), 11~ 20 yrs: 200 (22. 1%), 21~30 yrs: 454 (50. 3%), 31~40 yrs: 176 (19. 5%), 41~50 yrs: 49 (5. 4%), 51~60 yrs: 7 (0. 8%), Above 61 yrs: 8 (0. 9%) n Continents: l Asia: 863 (95. 6%), Europe: 16 (1. 8%), North America: 10 (1. 1%), Oceania: 4 (0. 4%), South America: 6 (0. 7%), Africa: 4 (0. 4%) Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 31

Top 10 MVPs in Preliminary Voting Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 32 Top 10 MVPs in Preliminary Voting Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 32

Statistics of Main Voting n. Age: l Below 10 yrs: 13 (0. 4%), 11~ Statistics of Main Voting n. Age: l Below 10 yrs: 13 (0. 4%), 11~ 20 yrs: 1, 725 (47. 1%), 21~30 yrs: 1, 551 (42. 4%), 31~40 yrs: 270 (7. 4%), 41~50 yrs: 85 (2. 3%), 51~60 yrs: 13 (0. 4%), Above 61 yrs: 5 (0. 1%) n Continents: l Asia: 3, 604 (98. 4%), Europe: 23 (0. 6%), North America: 20 (0. 5%), Oceania: 8 (0. 2%), South America: 4 (0. 2%), Africa: 3 (0. 1%), n List of nations more than 5 voters : l Korea: 3, 474. Japan: 90, Vietnam: 18. China: 14, Canada: 8, USA: 7, India: 6 , Australia: 6, France: 5, Netherlands, Brazil, Denmark, England, Germany, Russia, Peru, Taiwan, Indonesia, Finland, Spain, etc. Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 33

Top 10 MVPs in Main Voting Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 34 Top 10 MVPs in Main Voting Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 34

5. Concluding Remarks n Lessons we learned l l Need Performance/Security Trade-off Proper anti-Hacking 5. Concluding Remarks n Lessons we learned l l Need Performance/Security Trade-off Proper anti-Hacking mechanisms with double screening n l S/W Portability n l l Firewall (H/W), Intrusion Detection System (S/W) Platform independent by Java Hard to meet all the security requirements Multiple voting with different ID’s due to weak identification n Further Works l Extensions n n l Strong authentication (bio-identification), Mobile Internet voting Absence voting, I-polling Trial Overcome Non-technical Problems (Digital Divide, Political Consensus, legal issue, etc. ) Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 35

Concluding Remarks n Further consideration for Internet voting l l Secure design of voting Concluding Remarks n Further consideration for Internet voting l l Secure design of voting system considering more extensive security requirements Secure implementation n n l Public verification of Internet voting system n n l l Use implementation standard for e-voting implementation Use trusted computing platform with proper access control Make the source code publicly available (e. g. open source) for public verification Certification of the voting system Public education for easy adaptation of Internet voting More serious identification of voters is required n n Mar 17, 2005 Use extensively used, trusted financial certificate for Internet voting Voters have to keep certificates securely by themselves E-Voting Conference 2005 36

Internet Banking vs. Internet Voting ATM Banking Computer Voting Internet Banking Internet Voting Personal Internet Banking vs. Internet Voting ATM Banking Computer Voting Internet Banking Internet Voting Personal interest Continuously using Keep certificate securely Use computer in secure environment Use computer at home through public communication channel Public interest Occasionally using Keep certificate securely (? ) Use extensively used, trusted financial certificate for Internet voting! Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 37

E-Voting Research in ICU n Receipt-free voting l l Byoungcheon Lee and Kwangjo Kim, E-Voting Research in ICU n Receipt-free voting l l Byoungcheon Lee and Kwangjo Kim, “Receipt-free Electronic Voting Through Collaboration of Voter and Honest Verifier”, Proceeding of JWISC 2000, pages 101 -108, Okinawa, Japan, Jan. 25 -26, 2000. Byoungcheon Lee and Kwangjo Kim, "Receipt-free electronic voting scheme with a tamper-resistant randomizer", ICISC 2002, LNCS 2587, pp. 389 -406, Springer-Verlag, 2002. Byoungcheon Lee, Colin Boyd, Ed Dawson, Kwangjo Kim, Jeongmo Yang and Seungjae Yoo, "Providing Receipt-Freeness in Mixnet-Based Voting Protocols", ICISC 2003, LNCS 2971, pp. 245 --258. Springer-Verlag, 2003. Riza Aditya, Byoungcheon Lee, Colin Boyd and Ed Dawson, "An Efficient Mixnet-Based Voting Scheme Providing Receipt. Freeness", Trustbus 2004, LNCS 3184, pp. 152 --161. Springer. Verlag, 2004. Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 38

E-Voting Research in ICU n Implementation issue l Riza Aditya, Byoungcheon Lee, Colin Boyd, E-Voting Research in ICU n Implementation issue l Riza Aditya, Byoungcheon Lee, Colin Boyd, Ed Dawson, "IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES IN SECURE E-VOTING SCHEMES", The 5 -th Asia-Pacific Industrial Engineering and Management Systems Conference (APIEMS 2004), ANA Hotel, Goldcoast, Australia, Dec. 12 -15, 2004. n Real world voting l l l Kwangjo Kim, Jinho Kim, Byoungcheon Lee, and Gookwhan Ahn, “Experimental Design of Worldwide Internet Voting System using PKI”, SSGRR 2001, L'Aquila, Italy, Aug. 6 -10, 2001. Kwangjo Kim, Jinho Kim, and Byoungcheon Lee, “No More Panic in Florida: Reality or Dream? ”, Rump Session of Crypto 2001, UCSB, Aug. 21, 2001. Move to VOTOPIA Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 39

International Collaboration in E-voting n VOTOPIA project with NTT, U. of Tokyo, Japan l International Collaboration in E-voting n VOTOPIA project with NTT, U. of Tokyo, Japan l E-voting experiment during 2002 FIFA World. Cup Korea/Japan. TM n Collaboration with QUT, Australia l l Prof. Byoungcheon Lee, 2003. 7. ~2004. 6. E-voting research n Collaboration with MIT, USA l l Prof. Kwangjo Kim, 2005. 3. ~2005. 5. MIT-CALTECH e-voting project Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 40

Thank you for your attention Q&A Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 41 Thank you for your attention Q&A Mar 17, 2005 E-Voting Conference 2005 41