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Violence against Women and Reproductive Health Shiv Chandra Mathur Professor of Preventive and Social Medicine. Director, State Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Rajasthan, Jaipur, India
Gender Perspective in Health • Individual Health and Well being of both Male and Female is integral to development. • Right to Health is a basic human right. • Gender inequality and health care inter-related.
What is Violence against Women • Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in private or public life. » As defined by United Nations
Significance of Violence against Women • Unequal status of women in society • Serious violation of human rights • Leads to range of health problems (Often in silence) • Pressure on medical care resources • Health care institutions can make significant contributions to addressing violence against women by supporting clinicians and clients.
Various forms of Violence against Women • Rape/Sexual Violence in Refugee camps • Forced sexual initiation or abuse • Sex-selective abortion • Acid throwing/honor killing (dowry related deaths) • Undue virginity examination • Forced caesarian section deliveries • Trafficking in women and Girls
Violence against Women – Health Issues • Fatal outcome: Suicide / Homicide • Non-fatal outcome: • Physical - Injury, PID, Unwanted Pregnancy, Miscarriage, Gynaec diseases • Mental - Depression, Anxiety, Sexual dysfunction, personality disorders.
Factors contributing to Violence against Women • Strictly enforced Gender roles • Association of masculinity with toughness and dominance • Punishment of women and children as an accepted value • Violence accepted as a standard way to resolve conflicts • Stress associated with poverty
Landmark events to resolve Violence against Women • • 1987 : Safe Motherhood 1993 : World Conference on Human Rights 1994 : IPD, Cairo 1995 : 4 th World Conference on Women 1996 : World Health Assembly* 1997 : FIGO Resolutions** 2001 : Special session of UN General Assembly on HIV/AIDS
Empowering Women to prevent VAW by Informing/Educating her • On provision of penalties against different types of crimes. • On Police agencies and their working. • On scientific steps in crime investigations. • On functioning of Judiciary. • On fundamental rights and duties. • On security measures.
NGO’s Working on VAW • International: • ARROW, Kualalampar (http: //www. asiaconnect. com. my/arrow) • Coordination of Women’s Advocacy, Switzerland (E-mail: [email protected] ch) • Health and Development Policy Project, , Maryland, USA (E-mail: [email protected] ap. org) • Isis-Women’s International Cross Cultural Exchange, Uganda (E-mail: [email protected] co. ug)
NGO’s Working on VAW cont • International: • Latin American and Caribbean Women’s Network against Domestic and Sexual Violence, Chile (E-mail: [email protected] cl) • Match International Centre, Canada (E-mail: [email protected] apc. org) • Women in Law and Development, Africa, Zimbabwe • National: • Chetna(Ahmedabad); Shakti (Jaipur)