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Value of Renewable Energy Distributed Energy Resource for Micro. Grid Applications Alex Hobbs, Ph. Value of Renewable Energy Distributed Energy Resource for Micro. Grid Applications Alex Hobbs, Ph. D, PE Director, NC Solar Center June 29, 2005 NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

North Carolina Solar Center • Operated by College of Engineering at NC State University North Carolina Solar Center • Operated by College of Engineering at NC State University • Created in 1988 as a Clearinghouse for RE Information, Training, Technical Assistance and Applied Research • Sponsored by the State Energy Office, NC Dept. of Administration • Other Funding: Industry, Federal Labs, US DOE, USDA, IREC, Foundations, Other State Agencies & NGOs NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

An Inclusive Interest in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy • Solar • photovoltaics • An Inclusive Interest in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy • Solar • photovoltaics • solar hot water • passive solar • daylighting • Wind • Biomass • animal & crop waste • landfill gas • Biofuels • ethanol • biodiesel • Green Buildings & Sustainable Design • Hydrogen & Fuel Cells • CHP & Distributed Generation • NC IOF Program www. ncsc. ncsu. edu NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy • The NC Solar Center hosts DSIRE Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy • The NC Solar Center hosts DSIRE - a comprehensive source of information on state, local, and utility incentives that promote renewables • www. dsireusa. org NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

IREC Interconnection Project • The NC Solar Center also hosts the IREC Interconnection Project IREC Interconnection Project • The NC Solar Center also hosts the IREC Interconnection Project - information on federal, state and utility net metering and interconnection programs • www. irecusa. org/ connect NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

The Problem in the Southeast • Little Change = Little Opportunity • No deregulation The Problem in the Southeast • Little Change = Little Opportunity • No deregulation = no RPS, CAF, net metering, etc. • No simplified interconnection or encouragement of independent power production – perceived generation supply glut • Utilities have no reason to change – maintain the monopoly and get a guaranteed rate of return • Have to fight the system to enter market – rules change at utility discretion to stop change from happening NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Southeast has relatively cheap power Risk of dying from coal fired power plant caused Southeast has relatively cheap power Risk of dying from coal fired power plant caused particulates Source: Clean Air Task Force NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Barriers facing Renewables Financing challenges High first costs Uncertain long-term commitment to incentives Uncertainty Barriers facing Renewables Financing challenges High first costs Uncertain long-term commitment to incentives Uncertainty in RE certificate markets Unreasonable interconnect requirements High standby/back-up power costs RE environmental benefits / fossil & nuclear environmental costs not valued Siting and permitting delays/uncertainties Non-core business investment for the customer NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Is There Hope in North Carolina? • YES! Four Major Drivers – Politically strong Is There Hope in North Carolina? • YES! Four Major Drivers – Politically strong Ag community wants to promote biomass – Air Quality makes strange bedfellows (see NC Clean Smokestacks – environmentalist tourism, health, etc) – Rural jobs in NC rather than WV, KY or middle east – Military Bases need to be sustainable NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Key Policy Needs in North Carolina • Portfolio Standards to encourage near market renewables Key Policy Needs in North Carolina • Portfolio Standards to encourage near market renewables (green power alone won’t cut it) • Net Metering & Simplified Interconnection to support small scale DG, PV and Wind (underway at the NCUC) • Public Building Requirements to raise awareness, supply GP and show state leadership • Institutional Green Power Purchases to support market development • Local Barrier Reforms in Zoning, Permitting, CC&Rs • Tax Credit Modifications to make the RE Credits “tradable” • Public Benefit Funds to Support Market Emergence and Development NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Solar Energy NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program Solar Energy NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Myth: Solar Can Never be a Big Part of US Energy Supply Solar from Myth: Solar Can Never be a Big Part of US Energy Supply Solar from 1% of the Mojave Desert can provide the annual energy expected from ANWR. Solar can supply all electricity for the U. S. using a 100 by 100 mile area in the SW. NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Myth: Solar Energy is Only for the Desert Portland, Maine receives 70% of the Myth: Solar Energy is Only for the Desert Portland, Maine receives 70% of the solar energy that falls on Las Vegas, NV – photovoltaics can and are used in every state in the United States, including Alaska Whr/m 2/day 1000 to 4000 to 5500 to 6500 to 7500 NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Myth: Investment in Solar Technology is Having no Effect Maturing an Energy Source = Myth: Investment in Solar Technology is Having no Effect Maturing an Energy Source = Time + Money PV ($1. 6 B)2 Renewables * PV is a $2 B per year industry growing over 25% per year (less than $ 13 B)1 Nuclear ($ 25 – $ 50 B)3 Hydroelectric (more than $ 50 B)4 1900 1950 2000 1 Cumulative Federal renewable energy federal appropriations (1999$) 2 DOE PV Program Budget History since 1975 3 Range of cumulative appropriations based on 1998 Nuclear Energy Institute Federal Spending Analysis (1997$) 4 Federal appropriations since 1903 (1999$) NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Myth: Solar Energy is too Expensive PV Increasingly Competitive 1980: $1. 00/k. Wh 2000: Myth: Solar Energy is too Expensive PV Increasingly Competitive 1980: $1. 00/k. Wh 2000: ~$0. 20 cents/k. Wh 2005: ~$0. 12 cents/k. Wh • Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) 2 -MW plant (2 acres) • Enough power for 660 Sacramento-area homes • Replaces some nuclear-generated power NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Myth: Solar Technologies take more energy to manufacture than the energy they produce NC Myth: Solar Technologies take more energy to manufacture than the energy they produce NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Myth: Solar Technologies Also Pollute the Environment Manufacturing • Small amounts of hazardous materials Myth: Solar Technologies Also Pollute the Environment Manufacturing • Small amounts of hazardous materials used in manufacturing are completely contained -- no emissions • PV’s are safe to produce • Solar is silent • Low or no water use The Solar 2 Power Tower, which includes integrated storage to provide baseload/intermediate generation. NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Myth: Solar Energy is not Available When it is needed Control and PV House Myth: Solar Energy is not Available When it is needed Control and PV House Net Load on the Electric Grid, Summer Peak Day: June 18, 1998 Measured Electrical Demand/Production (Watts) 5000 Control Home Net Load: 71. 1 k. Wh 4500 PVRES Net Demand: 15. 2 k. Wh PV Power to Grid: 15. 6 k. Wh 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 -500 -1000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time of Day (EST): June 18, 1998 NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

The Value of Solar • Flexible -- Either independent or “Gridtied” • Sized, sited The Value of Solar • Flexible -- Either independent or “Gridtied” • Sized, sited and installed faster • Avoids (or postpones) expensive transmission and distribution upgrades • With storage, a premium power or remote power solution • Provides energy savings and pollution avoidance NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Solar Potential • Fort Bragg is 251 sq. miles¹ • A photovoltaic (PV) array Solar Potential • Fort Bragg is 251 sq. miles¹ • A photovoltaic (PV) array covering 1% of the base would actually only be 0. 42% of the total area due to spacing and tilt of the panels • At 15% efficiency, this PV plant would produce 406 MW • This PV array would almost quadruple the total PV production of the US (140 MW²) and would be 40% of the current world production (1050 MW²) • It would cost $2 billion and would produce 500 million k. Wh/year, enough energy to run over 40, 000 NC households a year • Rules in NC give a 70% incentive, see DSIRE database NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program www. ncsc. ncsu. edu

Wind Energy NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program Wind Energy NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Wind Sizes and Applications Small ( 10 k. W) • Homes (Grid connected) • Wind Sizes and Applications Small ( 10 k. W) • Homes (Grid connected) • Farms • Remote Applications (e. g. battery changing, water pumping, telecom sites, icemaking) Intermediate (10 -500 k. W) • Village Power • Hybrid Systems • Distributed Power Large (500 k. W – 6 MW) • Central Station Wind Farms • Distributed Power • Offshore Wind Generation Stations NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Total Installed U. S. Wind Energy Capacity TOTAL: 6, 740 MW as of Jan Total Installed U. S. Wind Energy Capacity TOTAL: 6, 740 MW as of Jan 24, 2005 NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Cost Nosedive Driving Wind’s Success 38 cents/k. Wh 2. 5 -4. 5 cents/k. Wh Cost Nosedive Driving Wind’s Success 38 cents/k. Wh 2. 5 -4. 5 cents/k. Wh Levelized cost at excellent wind sites in nominal dollars, not including tax credit NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

From the Mountains to the Sea Buffalo Mtn, Tn NC Wind Working Group • From the Mountains to the Sea Buffalo Mtn, Tn NC Wind Working Group • Western Wind Program • Appalachian State Energy Center • Dr. Dennis Scanlon • Coastal Wind Program • NC State Solar Center • Ms. Beth Mast Future view of main channel to NC Ports NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Coastal wind resources are large NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program Coastal wind resources are large NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Carteret County Opportunities • Open Ground Farms – 46, 000 acres (72 square miles) Carteret County Opportunities • Open Ground Farms – 46, 000 acres (72 square miles) • Class 4 or better winds • Onshore Mainland Barrier • Offshore Sound State Ocean 22, 350 acres 20, 923 acres 1, 132, 078 acres 530, 883 acres • 1. 5 MW Turbine - Could install 36 turbines per square mile with 5 x 7 blade diameter separation • At 30% capacity factor produce over 1, 000 MWe equivalent year round output NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Who might use this resource? NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program Who might use this resource? NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Biomass Energy Power when you need it. NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program Biomass Energy Power when you need it. NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

USDA/DOE Biomass Programs NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program USDA/DOE Biomass Programs NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Policy Drivers • Rural Development • Climate Change Mitigation • Energy Security How do Policy Drivers • Rural Development • Climate Change Mitigation • Energy Security How do we replace fossil fuel based energy and products with home grown biobased materials? NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Biomass Resources in NC • 13 th in nation in bioenergy generation • 1. Biomass Resources in NC • 13 th in nation in bioenergy generation • 1. 6 million MWh of electricity generated from biomass sources • 1. 3 % of electricity generation • Estimated potential: 16 million MWh NREL biomass fact sheet for NC NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Advantages of Biomass • Crude Oil => $40 / barrel • Natural Gas => Advantages of Biomass • Crude Oil => $40 / barrel • Natural Gas => $7 / 1000 cf Twice the price of • Woody Biomass => $50 / dry ton • On a BTU basis at these prices, biomass resources are available for approximately half the cost of oil and gas • Equivalent to low-sulfur coal cost NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Disadvantages of Biomass • Coal has an energy content of 950, 000 BTU/ft 3 Disadvantages of Biomass • Coal has an energy content of 950, 000 BTU/ft 3 • Wood has an energy content of 260, 000 BTU/ft 3 • A biomass fired generation plant would need to burn 3. 7 times the volume of fuel that a comparable coal fired plant would require NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Biomass Supply Database Do the study first, transportation will drive the project cost. Resources Biomass Supply Database Do the study first, transportation will drive the project cost. Resources Studied • Corn Stover • Wheat Straw • Switchgrass • Hybrid Poplar • Hardwood Logging Residues • Softwood Logging Residues • Hardwood Cull Residues • Softwood Cull Residues • Bark from Mills* • Fine Wood from Mills* • Coarse Wood from Mills* • Construction Waste* • Demolition Waste* • Renovation Waste* • Municipal Solid Waste* NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Top 10 Counties - Potential County Dry Tons (<$50) Beaufort 322, 439 Halifax 271, Top 10 Counties - Potential County Dry Tons (<$50) Beaufort 322, 439 Halifax 271, 037 Bertie 257, 011 Duplin 254, 271 Northampton 251, 302 Wake 225, 099 Bladen 209, 383 Robeson 205, 341 Wilkes 194, 787 Warren 188, 901 Total 2, 379, 570 NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Potential 2039 Mwe Generation at 25% efficiency NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program Potential 2039 Mwe Generation at 25% efficiency NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Total Biomass Thermal Fuel Value 200 x 1012 Btu/yr 6650 Mwt 1662 Mwe NC Total Biomass Thermal Fuel Value 200 x 1012 Btu/yr 6650 Mwt 1662 Mwe NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Wood Biomass Craven County Wood Energy (CCWE) NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program Wood Biomass Craven County Wood Energy (CCWE) NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

CCWE Biomass Emissions NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program CCWE Biomass Emissions NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Landfill Gas Potential Landfill Locations from Fort Bragg • Can draw Landfill and nearby Landfill Gas Potential Landfill Locations from Fort Bragg • Can draw Landfill and nearby Cumberland County Landfill in Fayetteville • Fort Bragg Landfill produces enough gas¹ to obtain 0. 75 MWe² and 400 tons/hr of cooling² • Cumberland County Landfill produces enough gas to obtain ~3 MWe and over 1500 tons/hrof cooling • Combined potential resource of landfill gas totaling ~3. 75 MWe and close to 2000 tons/hr of cooling 1. 2. Landfill data from US EPA LMOP website and “Landfill Gas-to-Energy Project Opportunities: Landfill Profiles for the State of North Carolina” by US EPA LMOP Values based on a 27% efficient gas turbine and a 50% efficient heating/cooling system NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Ft. Bragg District Heating and Cooling 82 nd Airborne Compound Natural gas fired 5 Ft. Bragg District Heating and Cooling 82 nd Airborne Compound Natural gas fired 5 MW Solar gas turbine 1000 Ton absorptive cooler 28, 000 PPH HRSG NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Distributed Generation and Micro. Grids NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program Distributed Generation and Micro. Grids NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

What is Distributed Energy? NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program What is Distributed Energy? NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Distributed Energy Resources NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program Distributed Energy Resources NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

CHP Energy Savings NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program CHP Energy Savings NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Generation Efficiencies 1 MW 70% 60% CHP With CHP 50% 40% CCTG Fuel Cell Generation Efficiencies 1 MW 70% 60% CHP With CHP 50% 40% CCTG Fuel Cell Micro Turbine 30% 20% 10 k. W Hybrid Fuel cell 100 k. W Gas. Turbine Reciprocating Engines 1 MW Old steam 10 MW 100 MW NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program 1000 MW

DER Market Scenarios • Back-up generation • Distribution system enhancement – – – – DER Market Scenarios • Back-up generation • Distribution system enhancement – – – – – Feeder Relief Transformer bank relief Reactive support for the T&D Grid Serve remote loads Power Quality Peak shaving Energy needs (load growth) and Ancillary Services Loss reduction Transmission and distribution deferral Improve grid asset utilization • Local micro-grid • Interconnected local micro-grids and utility distribution systems NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Where Does CHP Fit With DER? • High Thermal Loads – – Cooling, Heating, Where Does CHP Fit With DER? • High Thermal Loads – – Cooling, Heating, or Dehumidification Steam, Hot Water, or Direct Heat • • High Electric Loads Coincident Thermal and Electric Loads Extended Operating Hours Where the Rates and Regulatory Climate are Favorable • Central HVAC System • Access to Fuels (Natural Gas or Byproducts) NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Micro. Grid pulls it together The Micro. Grid An aggregation of micro( sources, loadsand Micro. Grid pulls it together The Micro. Grid An aggregation of micro( sources, loadsand storage) – – – Presents itself as a single operating entity to the gri Customer centered; Key “value added” point Can participate in markets (load management) Recognizes combined heat and power applications No centralized fast control Visualizes an appliance model: “Plug & Play” model NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Micro. Grid Paradigm 13. 8 k. V 5 8 M 8 • Dispatchableload Utility Micro. Grid Paradigm 13. 8 k. V 5 8 M 8 • Dispatchableload Utility • Responds to realtime pricing • Simple protection Customer • Local voltage control • UPS functions • Local redundancy M 5 • Digital power • Loss reduction Loads, microsources & storage • Use of waste heat NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program

Do we have some questions? Alex Hobbs NC Solar Center aohobbs@ncsu. edu NC Combined Do we have some questions? Alex Hobbs NC Solar Center [email protected] edu NC Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Program