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v Natural resources v Timber, coal, water, What advantages did America have during its v Natural resources v Timber, coal, water, What advantages did America have during its growth? iron, copper v Transported via railroads v Didn’t need to import them v Petroleum v Kerosene in lamps and stoves v Drilling oil wells

v Workforce v US population triples What advantages did America have during its growth? v Workforce v US population triples What advantages did America have during its growth? between 1860 -1910 v 20 million immigrants v More workers v More consumers

v Government policies v Laissez-faire What advantages did America have during its growth? v v Government policies v Laissez-faire What advantages did America have during its growth? v Let people do as they choose without gov’t interference v Lower taxes v Very few regulations v Those with money decide how to use it

v Government policies (cont. ) v Entrepreneurs What advantages did America have during its v Government policies (cont. ) v Entrepreneurs What advantages did America have during its growth? v Investors v Risk money to start a business v Tariffs v Taxes on imported goods v More money spent on American goods

v Telephone, 1876 How did inventions spur the development of American industry? v Alexander v Telephone, 1876 How did inventions spur the development of American industry? v Alexander Graham Bell v Use an electrical current to transmit sound v “Come here, Watson. I want you. ” v Bell Telephone Company AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph Company)

v Thomas Edison How did inventions spur the development of American industry? v Phonograph, v Thomas Edison How did inventions spur the development of American industry? v Phonograph, 1877 v Early record player v Light bulb & electric generator, 1879 v Edison General Electric Company (GE), 1889 v Working towards providing electricity in American homes

v Nikola Tesla How did inventions spur the development of American industry? v Alternating v Nikola Tesla How did inventions spur the development of American industry? v Alternating current, 1893 v Power for most of North America today v X-rays v Wireless energy and communications

v Refrigerators How did inventions spur the development of American industry? v Ice Machine v Refrigerators How did inventions spur the development of American industry? v Ice Machine refrigerated rail car v Transport meat without spoiling v Clothes v Automatic loom v Shoes v Mass produced shoes v End of cobblers

v Transcontinental Railroads How did the American railroad system develop? v Pacific Railway Act v Transcontinental Railroads How did the American railroad system develop? v Pacific Railway Act v Public land for rail companies v Union Pacific vs. Central Pacific v Push towards West v Immigrants, veterans, miners, farmers v Tough conditions

v Growth of Railroads v Railroad consolidation How did the American railroad system develop? v Growth of Railroads v Railroad consolidation How did the American railroad system develop? v Linking of independent railways v Cornelius Vanderbilt v Shipping magnate – steamboats v Purchased and linked three Eastern rail companies v Profit! v Time zones v No longer used the sun

v Growth of Railroads (cont) How did the American railroad system develop? v Technology v Growth of Railroads (cont) How did the American railroad system develop? v Technology v More cars on a track v More products shipped in a single trip v Land grants v Building railways cost $$$ v Government gave land to rail companies v Rail companies sold it to settlers

v Robber Barons v Insider trading How did the American railroad system develop? v v Robber Barons v Insider trading How did the American railroad system develop? v Using information to manipulate prices, or to buy low & sell high v Jay Gould v Bribery v Crédit Mobilier Scandal v Union Pacific stockholders set up construction company v Sold stock to Congress v Deal with themselves for lots of $ v Distrust in Congress

v Rise of corporations v Owned by many people How did corporations shape American v Rise of corporations v Owned by many people How did corporations shape American industry? (stockholders) but treated as one person v Can own property, pay taxes, sue (and be sued) v Economies of scale v Sell stocks to raise money v Use $ to make a lot of goods at low prices v Result = competition

v Rise of corporations v Vertical integration v Company owns all What contributed to v Rise of corporations v Vertical integration v Company owns all What contributed to the rise of business? different aspects it depends on for operation

v Rise of corporations v Horizontal integration v Combining different What contributed to the v Rise of corporations v Horizontal integration v Combining different What contributed to the rise of business? companies in the same industry into one large corporation

v Rise of corporations v Monopoly v Controlling an entire What contributed to the v Rise of corporations v Monopoly v Controlling an entire What contributed to the rise of business? market v Trust v Merging businesses by managing others legally v Holding companies v Doesn’t produce anything but owns & controls businesses

v What is a union? How did the formation of unions affect American industry? v What is a union? How did the formation of unions affect American industry? v Association of workers formed to protect rights and further interests

v Causes of Unions How did the formation of unions affect American industry? v v Causes of Unions How did the formation of unions affect American industry? v Horrible working conditions v Improved standard of living? v Inequality of wealth v Deflation v Rise in value of $$$ v Owners cut wages

v Types of Unions v Craft worker unions How did the formation of unions v Types of Unions v Craft worker unions How did the formation of unions affect American industry? v Special skills v Machines, stone, iron, glass, shoes, etc. v Common laborers v Fewer skills v Lower wages v Trade unions v Craft workers AND common laborers in a particular industry

v Resistance towards unions How did the formation of unions affect American industry? v v Resistance towards unions How did the formation of unions affect American industry? v New hires forced to pledge to not join a union v Private investigators v Blacklist v Lockout v Replaced union workers with strikebreakers called “scabs”

v Resistance towards unions (continued) How did the formation of unions affect American industry? v Resistance towards unions (continued) How did the formation of unions affect American industry? v Courts didn’t recognize right to organize v Perception that unions were Marxist v Workers vs. owners v Overthrow government v Communism

v Women in the workforce How did the formation of unions affect American industry? v Women in the workforce How did the formation of unions affect American industry? v By 1900, women made up 18 -20% of labor force v Domestic service, teachers, nurses, secretaries, garment & food factories v Paid less than men for same job v Excluded by unions v Formed Women’s Trade Union League

Point Counterpoint The man who has his millions will want everything he can lay Point Counterpoint The man who has his millions will want everything he can lay his hands on and then raise his voice against the poor devil who wants ten cents more a day. Labor unions would have us believe that they transfer income from rich capitalists to poor workers. In fact, they mostly transfer income from the large number of non-union workers to a small number of relatively well-off union workers.

v Great Railroad Strike of 1877 v Panic of 1873 How successful were early v Great Railroad Strike of 1877 v Panic of 1873 How successful were early unions? v Railroads slashed wages v 80, 000 workers across 11 states went on strike v Destroyed equipment, blocked rails v President Hayes sent in troops v 100+ dead, millions of $ in damages

v Knights of Labor v Nationwide labor union v 8 -hour workday How successful v Knights of Labor v Nationwide labor union v 8 -hour workday How successful were early unions? v National bureau of labor stats v Equal pay for women v No more child labor v Worker-owned factories

v Knights of Labor v Opposed strikes, especially violent strikes How successful were early v Knights of Labor v Opposed strikes, especially violent strikes How successful were early unions? v Preferred arbitration v Third party decides v Successful strike against railroad wage cuts v Membership from 100, 000 to 700, 000 in one year

v Haymarket Riot v Nationwide strike for 8 -hour workday v Clashes between strikers v Haymarket Riot v Nationwide strike for 8 -hour workday v Clashes between strikers and How successful were early unions? police in Chicago left one dead v More protests Bomb police and protesters both open fire v 7 police, 4 workers dead v 8 arrested, including one Knights of Labor member

v Pullman Strike v Pullman Company made railroad cars v Forced employees to buy v Pullman Strike v Pullman Company made railroad cars v Forced employees to buy from How successful were early unions? stores owned by company v Workers strike v US Mail on rail cars v President Cleveland: Deliver the mail or else! v Sent in 12, 000 troops

v American Federation of Labor v Samuel Gompers How successful were early unions? v v American Federation of Labor v Samuel Gompers How successful were early unions? v Stay out of politics v Focus on working conditions and legal recognition of unions