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Using Biometrics in Crime Prevention Presented by American Crime Prevention Institute
Biometrics can be defined as “the automated use of physiological or behavioral characteristics to determine or verify identity. ” Biometrics can accomplish two goals: l Tighten or improve security l Reduce security costs
Biometric Industry Sales l l l $20 Million in 1995 $200 Million in 2002 Project $6 Billion by 2006
Physiological biometrics are based on measurements and data derived from direct measurement of a relatively stable physical characteristic. Finger-scan, iris-scan, retinascan, hand-scan and facial scan are leading physiological biometrics. This type of measurement is basically unchanging and unalterable without significant duress.
l Behavioral biometrics are based on measurements and data derived from an action, and indirectly measure characteristics of the human body. Voice-scan, keystroke-scan and signature-scan are leading behavioral biometric technologies.
Two Basic Functions of Biometrics 1. 2. Verify a person’s identity (authentication) - Iris, finger and hand scanners - Very good authentication tools Picking someone out of a crowd (identification) - Facial scanners - Relatively poor identification tools
Identification versus Verification l Identification compares the living sample to the entire database – example is facial recognition or AFIS (automated fingerprint identification systems) – the time, processing power and cost needed to scan the entire database can be excessive.
Verification is the process of establishing the validity of a claimed identity by comparing a verification template to an enrollment template. The user’s biometric template is retrieved from storage by a PIN and compared to a live sample – most frequently used – hand geometry, iris scan, signature recognition, etc. Must 1 st obtain a “sample” Samples are converted to digital templates Enrollment template and live sample are compared and contrasted.
Types of Biometrics l l l l Fingerprint Recognition Retinal Scan Iris Scan Hand Recognition Voice Recognition Facial Scan Signature Recognition
Three-Factor Security l l l One factor (ID card) is not enough Finance and aviation moving toward threefactor security Three-Factor Security – – – User presents something he knows –password or PIN – least secure User presents something he has – plastic card Something he is – fingerprint or iris scan
Technologies and the Unique You l Fingerprint Recognition - oldest form of formal biometrics - has been used for over 100 years - location and direction of ridge endings and bifurcations on a fingerprint. It is estimated that the chance of two people, including twins, having the same print is less than one in a billion.
Fingerprint scanners are the most commonly used form of biometrics – and the least expensive and easiest to deploy – Ridges on fingers are converted to a digital template that can be compared with database records or a person. Fingerprint scanners can be fooled – use gelatin to create gummy fingers.
l Eyes – Retinal - vascular pattern (blood vessels) in the back of the eye is formed after 6 months of age technology available since mid-1980 s. Retinal scans shoot a low-intensity beam of light into the eyeball and record the pattern of veins in the eye. Users are required to stand close to the device and focus on a target, which makes the systems unattractive.
– Iris - composed of striations, filaments and coronas, - do not change over time – the iris pattern is on the eye surface. Iris scanning may become the leading biometric device of the future because of its accuracy, permanency and unobtrusiveness. The iris has more information in the infrastructure of its organ than any other component of the body.
Iris scanners measure over 200 different characteristics in a person’s eyeball. Identification can be made through eyeglasses and contact lenses. The system compensates for pupil dilation or contraction.
Iris scanners can photograph eyes from up to three feet away. The verification process takes about 2 seconds. The iris scan’s major advantage over a retinal scan is tat it does not require the user to focus on a target, because the iris pattern is on the eye’s surface (vs. the blood vessel pattern on the back of the eye – retinal scan.
l Hand Recognition measures the size, shape, thickness, width and length of a person’s fingers and hand – used in day care centers, hospitals, welfare agencies. Over 8, 000 hand recognition systems are in use.
l Voice Recognition – listens to various speech patterns to determine identity – pitch, tone, harmonic vibrations, cadence – is not one of the most reliable means of biometrics – is used for access control for mediumsecurity or high-throughput situations such as offices and labs
l Face Recognition (newest & oldest – picture on driver’s license) – size, shape, distances between parts of the face – can change over time – has experienced difficulties in achieving high level of performance
l l Signature Recognition – speed, stroke order, pressure and appearance of signature – the key in signature dynamics is to differentiate between the parts of the signature that are habitual and those that vary with almost every signing. Keystroke Recognition – keyed sequence, duration between characters – typing rhythms
Biometric Crime Prevention Applications l l l Airports – Heathrow in England – using iris scan for 2, 000 frequent flyers. Iris scan being used for prison identification Iris scans being used in ATM’s – Wells Fargo Many banks use thumbprints for identification It has been recommended that both facial and fingerprint scanning be used to identify documents issued to foreigners.
l l Some semi-tractors require thumbprints to start the engine – Kenworth. Some laptop computers require thumbprints for activation. Kroger supermarkets in Columbus, Ohio ask for thumbprints on checks Kroger’s in College Station, Texas - use of fingerprints to purchase groceries (“Secure. Touch-N-Pay”) – scan fingerprint at checkout counter & enter 7 -digit number
l l Texas is the nation’s leading proponent of consumer thumbprinting Disney World – handprint for season ticket holders Facial recognition is newest and oldest (photo ID) form of biometrics. Facial recognition used by Tampa PD (terminated) and Virginia Beach PD.
l l l Gaming casinos use facial recognition to identify card cheats. Military bases are testing facial recognition systems (Visionics) Department of Veterans Affairs is planning to use fingerprint recognition to combat entitlement fraud.
l l l Hospitals use fingerprint scanning devices to identify doctors Krispy Kreme and Sun-Maid use handgeometry technology when workers clock in and out. Experimenting with biometric trigger locks for electronic gun – shine infrared light into small section of skin and measure reflection.
l l l Social Security Administration testing biometrics tied to social security card Transportation ID cards (“Trusted Traveler”) – background checks – intended to ease congestion at airport security checkpoints and reduce security hassles for registered travelers. Several large corporations (AT&T, ITT, GM, Texas Instruments, Martin Marietta) employ voice recognition to protect computer, officer, lab and vault access.
Can Biometrics Be Defeated? l l l Absolutely Yes! Every biometric can be defeated if one allows sufficient amount of time, money and attempts. Employing biometrics raises the bar to the point where the costs of defeating the system may not justify the rewards.
Good Biometric Information International Biometrics Group www. biometricgroup. com
Thank you THANK YOU American Crime Prevention Institute is a division of the AEGIS Protection Group, Inc.
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