US National Interests 1 What are threats to

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US National Interests 1. What are threats to the US? 2. What role should US National Interests 1. What are threats to the US? 2. What role should the US have in the world? Who decides the answer? 1

Theories to Guide National Interest? 1. “Isolationism” § regional power only 2. Internationalism § Theories to Guide National Interest? 1. “Isolationism” § regional power only 2. Internationalism § Realists v. Idealists 3. (Liberalism/Wilsonianism) Nationalism 2

Theories to Guide National Interest? “Isolationism” (regional power only) vs. Internationalism vs. Nationalism Realists Theories to Guide National Interest? “Isolationism” (regional power only) vs. Internationalism vs. Nationalism Realists Idealists (Liberalism) (Wilsonianism) 3

Pre-WW II Policies: US as a Regional Power Manifest Destiny 2. Free Market economics Pre-WW II Policies: US as a Regional Power Manifest Destiny 2. Free Market economics 1. Open access for US investment Spreading Democracy***** 4. Nervousness about Commitments 3. 4

Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941

FDR FDR

Post-WW II Choice Regional Power vs. Global Power Choice: Global (1947 -1952) 7 Post-WW II Choice Regional Power vs. Global Power Choice: Global (1947 -1952) 7

Explaining the Cold War Realism 2. Idealism 3. Economic Interests 1. 8 Explaining the Cold War Realism 2. Idealism 3. Economic Interests 1. 8

Marxism, Communism Theory: n Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels n The Communist Manifesto 1848 Marxism, Communism Theory: n Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels n The Communist Manifesto 1848 In Practice: n Dictatorship n No political freedoms n Command Economy: no economic freedoms 9

Communism in Power Soviet Union 1917 – 20 million deaths in 1950 s Lenin Communism in Power Soviet Union 1917 – 20 million deaths in 1950 s Lenin Stalin 10

Communism in Power People’s Republic of China 1949 – Estimates from 50 -100 million Communism in Power People’s Republic of China 1949 – Estimates from 50 -100 million (1949 -76) – Mao Zedong 11

US Cold War Policies 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Anti-Soviet/Anti-Communist Free Markets Spreading US Cold War Policies 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Anti-Soviet/Anti-Communist Free Markets Spreading Democracy*** Multilateralism Regional Conflict Deterrence and Forward Presence 12

1. Anti-Soviet/Anti-Communism “Truman Doctrine” speech, March 1947 n NSC-68 n – (US rearmament plan, 1. Anti-Soviet/Anti-Communism “Truman Doctrine” speech, March 1947 n NSC-68 n – (US rearmament plan, 1950) Harry Truman 13

Division of Europe (By 1948) 14 Division of Europe (By 1948) 14

Bipolarity The Cold War Balance of Power Israel Ethiopia Taiwan S. Korea S. Viet Bipolarity The Cold War Balance of Power Israel Ethiopia Taiwan S. Korea S. Viet Nam W. Berlin W. Germany Syria/Egypt Somalia China N. Korea N. Viet Nam E. Berlin E. Germany Britain/France/Japan Poland/Czech US USSR 15

Containment Kennan’s Long Telegram as published in Foreign Affairs, “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” Containment Kennan’s Long Telegram as published in Foreign Affairs, “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” by “X”, 1947 George Kennan 16

2. Free Markets Strong economy through free markets strong middle class and economic and 2. Free Markets Strong economy through free markets strong middle class and economic and social mobility *Still US belief that free markets will discourage radical ideologies political stability failure of communist subversion* peace (radical Islam in 21 st century) 17

US Policies For Europe: n “Marshall Plan” Speech, June 1947 Building Global Economic Order US Policies For Europe: n “Marshall Plan” Speech, June 1947 Building Global Economic Order n International Monetary Fund – IMF n General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – GATT (example of GATT Agreements) – World Trade Organization - WTO n World Bank 18

3. Spreading Democracy The Good News Europe and Northeast Asia Mixed Results Latin America 3. Spreading Democracy The Good News Europe and Northeast Asia Mixed Results Latin America and Southeast Asia 19

The Bad News Non-democratic nations that were US allies or US-supported during some part The Bad News Non-democratic nations that were US allies or US-supported during some part of the cold war: Nicaragua, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Panama, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Brazil, South Africa, Somalia, Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kenya, Zaire, South Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, Turkey, Thailand, Burma, Cuba 20

Worse News PM Mossadegh Iran, 1953 Pres. Arbenz Guatemala, 1954 Pres. Allende Chile, 1973 Worse News PM Mossadegh Iran, 1953 Pres. Arbenz Guatemala, 1954 Pres. Allende Chile, 1973 21

Strange News n Nixon and Mao Zedong 1972 22 Strange News n Nixon and Mao Zedong 1972 22

4. Multilateralism n North Atlantic Treaty Organization - NATO Central Treaty Organization - CENTO 4. Multilateralism n North Atlantic Treaty Organization - NATO Central Treaty Organization - CENTO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. SEATO Australia, New Zealand, US Pact – ANZUS United Nations n In Europe NATO vs. Warsaw Pact n n – deployments 23

5. Regional Conflict 24 5. Regional Conflict 24

Regional Conflicts Israel vs. Syria/Egypt/PLO Ethiopia vs. Somalia (1970 s) Taiwan vs. China (1949 Regional Conflicts Israel vs. Syria/Egypt/PLO Ethiopia vs. Somalia (1970 s) Taiwan vs. China (1949 -present) S. Korea vs. N. Korea (1948 -present) S. Viet Nam vs. N. Viet Nam (1956 -1975) FNLA/UNITA vs. MPLA (Angola, 1970 s-80 s) Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador (1970 s-80 s) US USSR 25

Rules of Regional Conflict n 1. No direct US-Soviet conflict n 2. No escalation Rules of Regional Conflict n 1. No direct US-Soviet conflict n 2. No escalation 26

6. Deterrence and Forward Presence From Great Powers to Superpowers! What would WW III 6. Deterrence and Forward Presence From Great Powers to Superpowers! What would WW III look like? Underneath all the political and military action during Cold War… US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, The Effects of Nuclear War, 1979 27

Atomic and Nuclear Weapons Quick Warning (The slides and discussion that follows can be Atomic and Nuclear Weapons Quick Warning (The slides and discussion that follows can be a bit gruesome – no slides of injuries to people, but pictures of the devastation to cities after the atomic bombs were dropped) 28

Hiroshima August 6, 1945 29 Hiroshima August 6, 1945 29

Hiroshima After the bomb 30 Hiroshima After the bomb 30

Hiroshima 31 Hiroshima 31

Nagasaki August 9, 1945 32 Nagasaki August 9, 1945 32

Atomic and Nuclear Weapons 33 Atomic and Nuclear Weapons 33

Strategic Bombers 34 Strategic Bombers 34

ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile 35 ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile 35

Trajectory of ICBMs 36 Trajectory of ICBMs 36

SLBM – Submarine-launched Ballistic Missile 37 SLBM – Submarine-launched Ballistic Missile 37

Launch Tube Hatches on USS Alabama 38 Launch Tube Hatches on USS Alabama 38

Launch (artwork) 39 Launch (artwork) 39

Info on Nuclear Weapons n Federation of American Scientists n US Strategic Command n Info on Nuclear Weapons n Federation of American Scientists n US Strategic Command n Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists n Natural Resources Defense Council n Nuclear Threat Initiative 40

Deterrence and Credibility n Influencing process the enemy’s decision making 41 Deterrence and Credibility n Influencing process the enemy’s decision making 41

Why so many Weapons: Deterrence Soviet First Strike: Successful: USSR “wins” US Second strike Why so many Weapons: Deterrence Soviet First Strike: Successful: USSR “wins” US Second strike US USSR 42

US Second Strike Capability Soviet First Strike US Second strike Scenario: Everyone Dies US US Second Strike Capability Soviet First Strike US Second strike Scenario: Everyone Dies US USSR 43

Forward Presence n US Military Bases World Wide 2007 44 Forward Presence n US Military Bases World Wide 2007 44




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