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URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN POVERTY - Approaches • Income – consumption poverty (absolute URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN POVERTY - Approaches • Income – consumption poverty (absolute and relative) • Deprivation – material – basic needs (structure) – means vs. ends • Deprivation – capability (agency) • Livelihoods – holistic but normative (structure and agency) SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS MODERNISATION THEORY Income Poverty According to modernisation theory urban poverty URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS MODERNISATION THEORY Income Poverty According to modernisation theory urban poverty should be temporary, disappearing as urban consumption matches production & migrants become integrated into city life. SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS MODERNISATION THEORY - Failure But experience from the 1970 s URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS MODERNISATION THEORY - Failure But experience from the 1970 s • increasing squatter settlements • expanding informal sector • declining access to water and sanitation Little sign of a ‘trickle down’ economy reaching the vast majority of urban populations SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN POVERTY – Changing Locations • The urbanisation of poverty URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN POVERTY – Changing Locations • The urbanisation of poverty - spatial • The feminisation of poverty - social • Multiple agents acting to ameliorate poverty – practice and policy SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN POPULATION SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN POPULATION SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN POPULATION BY REGION SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN POPULATION BY REGION SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POPULATION ON < 1$/DAY - 1998 (%) SA 460 – URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POPULATION ON < 1$/DAY - 1998 (%) SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS THE GROWTH OF INCOME POVERTY • Studies in the 1980 URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS THE GROWTH OF INCOME POVERTY • Studies in the 1980 s showed that the incidence of poverty rose in cities and this has been confirmed by studies of the urban impact of structural adjustment since then (Chant, 1996; Kanji 1995; Moser 1996). SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CHINA – Urban Poverty 1988 -1995 Adapted from: Haddad, L. URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CHINA – Urban Poverty 1988 -1995 Adapted from: Haddad, L. , M T Ruel and J L Garnett (1999), “Are urban poverty and undernutrition growing? Some newly assembled evidence”, World Development, 27(11), 1891 -1904 SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS GHANA – Urban Poverty 1987 -1992 Adapted from: Haddad, L. URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS GHANA – Urban Poverty 1987 -1992 Adapted from: Haddad, L. , M T Ruel and J L Garnett (1999), “Are urban poverty and undernutrition growing? Some newly assembled evidence”, World Development, 27(11), 1891 -1904 SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS INDIA – Urban Poverty 1977 -1993 Adapted from: Haddad, L. URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS INDIA – Urban Poverty 1977 -1993 Adapted from: Haddad, L. , M T Ruel and J L Garnett (1999), “Are urban poverty and undernutrition growing? Some newly assembled evidence”, World Development, 27(11), 1891 -1904 SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS COLOMBIA – Urban Poverty 1977 -1993 Adapted from: Haddad, L. URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS COLOMBIA – Urban Poverty 1977 -1993 Adapted from: Haddad, L. , M T Ruel and J L Garnett (1999), “Are urban poverty and undernutrition growing? Some newly assembled evidence”, World Development, 27(11), 1891 -1904 SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Poor City Households 11 – 20 % range SA 460 URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Poor City Households 11 – 20 % range SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE Source: http: //www. unchs. org/guo/gui/1998. zip

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Poor City Households 21 - 40 % range SA 460 URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Poor City Households 21 - 40 % range SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE Source: http: //www. unchs. org/guo/gui/1998. zip

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Poor City Households 41 - 80 % range SA 460 URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Poor City Households 41 - 80 % range SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE Source: http: //www. unchs. org/guo/gui/1998. zip

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS WHO ARE THE URBAN INCOME POOR? Conventional Wisdom Empirical Reality URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS WHO ARE THE URBAN INCOME POOR? Conventional Wisdom Empirical Reality • Informal Sector Workers • Casual Workers • Women-headed households • Women-maintained households • Residents of peripheral settlements • Residents in a range of low – income settlements SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS EXPLANATIONS – 1950 s and 1960 s Individual Social Problems URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS EXPLANATIONS – 1950 s and 1960 s Individual Social Problems • Focus on private behaviour • Focus on attitudes to social participation • Major Disciplines - psychology, sociology and community development • Main exemplar - Oscar Lewis ‘culture of poverty’ and ‘underclass’ position SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POLICIES Individual & social problem oriented • Compensatory measures • URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POLICIES Individual & social problem oriented • Compensatory measures • Food for work programmes • Labour intensive development strategies • Targeted approaches – e. g. problem areas; street children; women-headed households SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS INCOME IS IMPORTANT BUT … • Urban life is highly URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS INCOME IS IMPORTANT BUT … • Urban life is highly monetised – Money is important to purchase food and shelter – this take a greater proportion of poor household incomes • spatial issues are more important – access to land, housing and services – more crucial to urban well-being SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS EXPLANATIONS - 1970 s Sectoral Approaches • Focus on insufficiency URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS EXPLANATIONS - 1970 s Sectoral Approaches • Focus on insufficiency of resources for economic and social participation – basic needs • Major disciplines - economics, sociology, geography and traditional social policy • Main exemplars - Amis (urban labour markets); Castells (collective consumption) SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS OVERALL POLICY RESPONSES Sectoral Approaches • Migration policies • Labour URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS OVERALL POLICY RESPONSES Sectoral Approaches • Migration policies • Labour market policies • Area-based interventions - slum upgrading or urban basic services programmes • Some forms of community participation SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POLICY RESPONSES Employment Creation & Income Generation • • • URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POLICY RESPONSES Employment Creation & Income Generation • • • Intervention in labour markets Labour intensive strategies Enabling the informal sector Micro-enterprise and credit schemes Skills development SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POLICY RESPONSES Housing and Shelter • Enabling strategies in housing URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POLICY RESPONSES Housing and Shelter • Enabling strategies in housing provision • Increased security of tenure and occupation • Housing finance • Appropriate urban design SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POLICY RESPONSES Infrastructure & Services • Water supply, sanitation, drainage, URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POLICY RESPONSES Infrastructure & Services • Water supply, sanitation, drainage, Street lighting and garbage collection • Primary health care and education • Affordable transport • Appropriate policing SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CHANGING UNDERSTANDING OF POVERTY PC PC + CPR + SPC URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CHANGING UNDERSTANDING OF POVERTY PC PC + CPR + SPC + Assets + Dignity PC + CPR + SPC + Assets + Dignity + Autonomy PC = Private Consumption (Income) CPR = Common Property Resources SPC = State Provided Commodities Source: Baulch (1996), Editorial, IDS Bulletin, 27(1), 1 -10 SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS EXPLANATIONS Systems and Relational Approaches • Focus on social relations URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS EXPLANATIONS Systems and Relational Approaches • Focus on social relations • Focus on situational and institutional analysis • Major Disciplines - political science, anthropology, interdisciplinary approaches • Main exemplar - Perlman (marginalisation), Chambers (livelihoods) SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN POVERTY • • • Restricted access to URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN POVERTY • • • Restricted access to labour markets Limited opportunities in the informal sector High cost of living in a monetised economy Exclusions through the operation of land markets Poor housing and living environments Food insecurity and malnutrition SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN INEQUALITY • As well as recognising that many poor URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN INEQUALITY • As well as recognising that many poor people live in cities, we also need to recognised that these are often very unequal cities • The urban poor may have greater proximity to facilities and services than in the countryside, but this does not mean they can necessarily afford or access them SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CUMULATIVE IMPACTS OF URBAN POVERTY Source: http: //www. worldbank. org/urban/poverty/defining. URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CUMULATIVE IMPACTS OF URBAN POVERTY Source: http: //www. worldbank. org/urban/poverty/defining. html Lack of access to credits for business or house Lack of employment, inability to have a job, lack of regular income and social security, poor nutrition Inability to afford adequate housing Sense of insecurity, isolation and disempowerment Poor health, poor education SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE Tenure insecurity, evictions, loss of small savings invested in housing Unhygienic living conditions, low quality public services

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POLICY APPROACHES Systems and Relational Approaches • Cross-subsidisation initiatives • URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS POLICY APPROACHES Systems and Relational Approaches • Cross-subsidisation initiatives • City-wide and sector-wide responses • City mandates developed with sufficient resources and in liaison with national governments and sectors • Participatory development approaches SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS RESPONSES - GOVERNANCE • • • Rights and resources to URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS RESPONSES - GOVERNANCE • • • Rights and resources to participate in urban governance Access to information Access to expertise Legal and planning literacy Access to decision-making forums Access to judicial system SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES • ‘A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES • ‘A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living’ (Carney, 1998) • ‘… is the mix of individual and household survival strategies, developed over a given period of time, that seek to mobilise available resources and opportunities’ (Grown and Sebstad, 1989) SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Origins in rural poverty where households: • have a portfolio URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Origins in rural poverty where households: • have a portfolio of assets – – • Tangible (stores of cash and food, land, skills) Intangible (claims on others and government, access rights to welfare services) decide on portfolio use – For earning, by disposal, for kinship obligations, development of mutual support networks, or changes to diet. SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES • Depends on the portfolio held • Capability URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES • Depends on the portfolio held • Capability to find and make use of livelihood opportunities – influenced by household’s composition SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES Strategies adopted aim to: • cope with and URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES Strategies adopted aim to: • cope with and recover from stresses and shocks – • • stinting, hoarding, protecting, depleting or diversifying the portfolio maintain or enhance capabilities and assets provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES Poverty is thus characterised by: • • Lack URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES Poverty is thus characterised by: • • Lack of assets and the inability to accumulate a portfolio of them Lack of choice of alternative coping strategies SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN LIVELIHOODS Urban livelihoods involve mobilising resources and combining them URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN LIVELIHOODS Urban livelihoods involve mobilising resources and combining them through a mix of: • Labour market involvement • Savings • Borrowing and investment • Productive and reproductive activities • Income, labour and asset pooling • Social networking SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN LIVELIHOODS The mix of strategies are adjusted by individuals URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN LIVELIHOODS The mix of strategies are adjusted by individuals and households depending on: • Their circumstances – age, life cycle, education tasks • The changing context where they live and work SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN LIVELIHOODS Although economic activities are the main livelihood strategy URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN LIVELIHOODS Although economic activities are the main livelihood strategy of urban households, they may be supplemented by: • Migration • Maintenance of rural ties • Urban food production • Decisions about accessing education, health and housing • Participation in social networks SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN LIVELIHOODS Livelihoods concept recognises multiple activities for survival and URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN LIVELIHOODS Livelihoods concept recognises multiple activities for survival and improving well-being But it rests on two problematic concepts • HOUSEHOLD • STRATEGY SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS HOUSEHOLD A group of people who contribute to and (or) URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS HOUSEHOLD A group of people who contribute to and (or) benefit from a joint economy in either cash or domestic labour Whilst many urban households fit this definition – many do not – even those who do fit – households change over time due to: • life cycle and ageing • Culturally prescriptions • Decisions about the movement of members • Distribution of power within the household • Relations with others households and groups SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS STRATEGY The concept of strategy restores agency – the poor URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS STRATEGY The concept of strategy restores agency – the poor are not passive victims But strategy also implies control over assets and environment to pursue goal-oriented behaviour – therefore do the poor • React opportunistically to changing circumstances • Defend themselves against further impoverishment • Keep themselves on even keel • Engage in risky but potentially profitable activities • Who makes the decisions within the household? SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN LIVELIHOODS FRAMEWORK Human Social Natural Physical Financial Five livelihood URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS URBAN LIVELIHOODS FRAMEWORK Human Social Natural Physical Financial Five livelihood assets SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Natural Capital Human Social Physical Natural Financial • The natural URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Natural Capital Human Social Physical Natural Financial • The natural resource stocks from which resource flows useful for livelihoods are derived land • water • wild life • biodiversity • environmental resources Natural capital is of importance in peri-urban setting SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE Carney 1998, p. 4

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Social Capital Human Social Physical The social resources upon which URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Social Capital Human Social Physical The social resources upon which people draw in pursuit of livelihoods Natural Financial • networks • membership of groups • relationships of trust • access to wider institutions of society • Bonding social capital (strong ties) • Bridging social capital (weak ties) • Linking social capital - vertical links with those in positions of influence SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE Carney 1998, p. 4

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Human Capital Human Social Physical Natural Financial The skills, knowledge, URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Human Capital Human Social Physical Natural Financial The skills, knowledge, ability to labour and good health important to the ability to pursue different livelihood strategies SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE Carney 1998, p. 4

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Physical Capital Human Social Physical The basic infrastructure and the URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Physical Capital Human Social Physical The basic infrastructure and the production equipment and means which enable people to pursue their livelihoods Natural Financial • transport • shelter • water • energy • communications SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE Carney 1998, p. 4

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Financial Capital Human Social Physical The financial resources which are URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Financial Capital Human Social Physical The financial resources which are available to people and which provide them with different livelihood options Natural Financial • savings • credit • private transfers • pensions SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE Carney 1998, p. 4

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS VULNERABILITY CONTEXT: Trends 1 Resource Stocks What is happening to URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS VULNERABILITY CONTEXT: Trends 1 Resource Stocks What is happening to natural resource stocks and quality? Vulnerability Context Trends Shocks Culture Human Population Density Social Physical Natural What is the current density and how is it changing Financial SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE Technology What technologies exist which are of likely benefit to people in the area Carney 1998, p. 4

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS VULNERABILITY CONTEXT: Trends 2 Vulnerability Context Trends Shocks Culture Human URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS VULNERABILITY CONTEXT: Trends 2 Vulnerability Context Trends Shocks Culture Human Social Physical Natural Financial SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE Politics How are people in the area placed in terms of political representation Economics How do economic trends affect livelihoods Carney 1998, p. 4

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS VULNERABILITY CONTEXT: Shocks Vulnerability Context Climate Trends Shocks Culture Human URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS VULNERABILITY CONTEXT: Shocks Vulnerability Context Climate Trends Shocks Culture Human Social Physical Natural Financial SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE How does the climate affect peoples livelihoods and well-being (rainfall and rainfall variability) Conflict Is there any civil or resource conflict (or likelihood of such conflict) in the area Carney 1998, p. 4

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS VULNERABILITY CONTEXT: Culture Vulnerability Context Culture Trends Shocks Culture Human URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS VULNERABILITY CONTEXT: Culture Vulnerability Context Culture Trends Shocks Culture Human Social Physical Natural Financial SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE What effect, if any, does culture have on the way people manage their assets and the livelihood choices they make • unexplained differences between areas • ways in which things are done and constraints Carney 1998, p. 4

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS STRUCTURES & PROCESSES Vulnerability Context Transforming Structures and Processes Trends URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS STRUCTURES & PROCESSES Vulnerability Context Transforming Structures and Processes Trends Shocks Culture Human Social Natural STRUCTURES • levels of government • private sector • civil society Physical Financial SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE PROCESSES • Laws • policies • Incentives • institutions

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES Infrastructure and services Vulnerability Context Transforming Structures and URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES Infrastructure and services Vulnerability Context Transforming Structures and Processes Trends Shocks Culture Structures Human Social Physical Natural Financial Policies Processes LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES Infrastructure and services Vulnerability Context Transforming Structures and URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES Infrastructure and services Vulnerability Context Transforming Structures and Processes Trends Shocks Culture Structures Human Social Physical Natural Financial Policies Processes LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES LIVELIHOOD OUTCOMES SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CARE – Livelihood Framework http: //www. fao. org/documents/show_cdr. asp? url_file=/docrep/003/X URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CARE – Livelihood Framework http: //www. fao. org/documents/show_cdr. asp? url_file=/docrep/003/X 9371 e/x 9371 e 12. htm SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CARE – Livelihood Security http: //www. fao. org/documents/show_cdr. asp? url_file=/docrep/003/X URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CARE – Livelihood Security http: //www. fao. org/documents/show_cdr. asp? url_file=/docrep/003/X 9371 e/x 9371 e 14. htm SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CARE – Livelihoods Analysis http: //www. fao. org/documents/show_cdr. asp? url_file=/docrep/003/X URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS CARE – Livelihoods Analysis http: //www. fao. org/documents/show_cdr. asp? url_file=/docrep/003/X 9371 e/x 9371 e 14. htm SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS APPROACH IN POLICY TERMS • A critical response to the URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS APPROACH IN POLICY TERMS • A critical response to the inadequacy of income/consumption approaches to poverty • An approach which recognises social and institutional relations • Identifies and recognises vulnerabilities but builds on strengths of the poor themselves • In policy terms - an enabling approach SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE

URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Web sites CARE International – Make Cities Count http: //www. URBAN POVERTY AND LIVELIHOODS Web sites CARE International – Make Cities Count http: //www. careinternational. org. uk/resource_centre/urban/makecitiescountseries. htm CARE – Livelihoods http: //www. careinternational. org. uk/resource_centre/livelihoods. htm SA 460 – Urbanisation & Social Planning - Dr Sunil Kumar, Social Policy, LSE