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Urban Models Urban Models

How are Cities Organized, and How do they Function? How are Cities Organized, and How do they Function?

Functional Zonation The division of the city into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes Functional Zonation The division of the city into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes (functions).

Zones of the City • Central business district (CBD) • Central City (the CBD Zones of the City • Central business district (CBD) • Central City (the CBD + older housing zones) • Suburb (outlying, functionally uniform zone outside of the central city)

Modeling Cities: concentric zone model 1 CBD - businesses, highest land value 2 Transition Modeling Cities: concentric zone model 1 CBD - businesses, highest land value 2 Transition Zone - poorest people, blue collar used to live here 3 Independent Workers - apartments, blue collar workers (walk to work) 4 White Collar Homes – newer, more spacious homes 5 Commuters – people able to commute to CBD

Concentric Zone Model • Aka Burgess Model • Based on Chicago in the 1920’s Concentric Zone Model • Aka Burgess Model • Based on Chicago in the 1920’s • Central Business District (CBD) surrounded by 4 rings. • Lower class lives closer to CBD • Upper class lives further out – Can afford to commute

1 st Ring • CBD 1 st Ring • CBD

2 nd Ring Zone in transition • Industries • Slums • High density • 2 nd Ring Zone in transition • Industries • Slums • High density • Lower class (LC) • Mostly immigrants • Live in tenements – apartments

3 rd Ring • Zone of independent workers’ homes • Working class (LC, MC) 3 rd Ring • Zone of independent workers’ homes • Working class (LC, MC) • Older, well established neighborhoods • Small houses

4 th Ring • Middle class (MC) housing • Houses are larger 4 th Ring • Middle class (MC) housing • Houses are larger

5 th Ring • Upper class (UC) • Houses are largest here 5 th Ring • Upper class (UC) • Houses are largest here

Modeling Cities: sector model • Stresses the importance of transportation corridors. Sees growth of Modeling Cities: sector model • Stresses the importance of transportation corridors. Sees growth of various urban activities as expanding along roads, rivers, or train routes.

Sector Model • Aka Hoyt Model • Also based on Chicago • Also based Sector Model • Aka Hoyt Model • Also based on Chicago • Also based on social class • Social structure is based on transportation systems

Sectors 1. 2. 3. 4. UC MC LC College/univ. located in UC neighborhood 5. Sectors 1. 2. 3. 4. UC MC LC College/univ. located in UC neighborhood 5. Railroads, highways, ports located near LC areas 6. Industrial areas located close to LC areas 7. CBD in the middle

Sector Model • Certain areas are more attractive for various activities – Ex. industrial Sector Model • Certain areas are more attractive for various activities – Ex. industrial activities develop near good transportation lines

multiplenuclei model Stresses the importance of multiple nodes of activity, not a single CBD. multiplenuclei model Stresses the importance of multiple nodes of activity, not a single CBD. Ports, airports, universities attract certain uses while repelling others. * The reality is that none of these models, created between the World Wars, adequately describes U. S. cities. Taken together, though, they are useful.

Multiple Nuclei Model • Aka Harris and Ullman Model • Says urban growth is Multiple Nuclei Model • Aka Harris and Ullman Model • Says urban growth is independent of the CBD • Growth may begin in commercial, industrial, and residential suburbs outside the CBD

Multiple Nuclei Model • Example: Airports • Built on outskirts of the city • Multiple Nuclei Model • Example: Airports • Built on outskirts of the city • Hotels, restaurants, and other entertainment facilities spring up around airport to accommodate travelers.

Multiple Nuclei Model • Neighborhoods still based on social class • LC still live Multiple Nuclei Model • Neighborhoods still based on social class • LC still live closer to the CBD, transportation, and industrial centers • UC live farther out. • MC are a buffer between UC and LC. • UC and MC have their own smaller CBD so they don’t have to go all the way to the city

Urban Realms Model • Created by James E. Vance Jr. in 1960 s • Urban Realms Model • Created by James E. Vance Jr. in 1960 s • More modern • Show a larger area – Not as detailed • Takes into account superhighways and suburbs. (automobile dependent) • Each realm is separate & used for different purposes • self-sufficient suburban sectors (focused on their own independent CBD)

Edge Cities • outer cities grew rapidly and therefore became independent of the central Edge Cities • outer cities grew rapidly and therefore became independent of the central city. • Located near key freeway intersections • Developed around big regional shopping centers • Attract industrial parks, office complexes, hotels, restaurants, entertainment facilities, sports stadiums.

Urban Realms (and Edge Cities) of Los 23 Angeles Urban Realms (and Edge Cities) of Los 23 Angeles

Geographic Application of the Models • Social scientists & geographers can use data from Geographic Application of the Models • Social scientists & geographers can use data from a census to help in identifying where people live and their demographic information • The usage of all 3 models can help pinpoint where a specific type of person will most likely live • Segmentation: process of partitioning markets into groups of potential customers w/ similar needs & characteristics who are likely to exhibit similar purchasing behavior • Putting it all together: – Concentric model: housing is newer most likely in outer rings of the city (development) – Sector model: deals w/ income – Multiple nuclei model: similar ethnicity or racial background tend to live near one another Nielsen Claritas PRIZM

CBDs in Europe • Less skyscrapers • More public/semipublic services • More people live CBDs in Europe • Less skyscrapers • More public/semipublic services • More people live downtown & contain more consumer services • Shopping streets w/ no vehicles are common • Renovation of older buildings to stay centrally located • Higher rents for business & consumer service locations • What do cities look like: – Wealthy people still live in the inner portions, not just in the suburbs – New housing in suburbs are high-rises for lowincome people, many who are immigrants – Gov’t encourages high density suburban development to preserve countryside – Worse in suburbs: increased crime, drug dealing, less consumer services

Latin American City Model • AKA Griffin-Ford Model • Central spine extends out from Latin American City Model • AKA Griffin-Ford Model • Central spine extends out from the CBD • UC housing surrounds the spine

Latin American City Model • Outermost sector made up of LC housing – Squatter Latin American City Model • Outermost sector made up of LC housing – Squatter settlements • Called barrios or favelas • few services & primitive amenities • Migrants from other parts of country come looking for jobs

Sub-Saharan African City Model • Can still see relics of colonialism • 3 distinct Sub-Saharan African City Model • Can still see relics of colonialism • 3 distinct CBDs:

1. Colonial CBD • HQ of colonial gov. located here. • Architecture resembles the 1. Colonial CBD • HQ of colonial gov. located here. • Architecture resembles the colonizer’s country

2. Traditional CBD • Current commercial center 2. Traditional CBD • Current commercial center

3. Market or Bazaar CBD • Open air markets that sell just about everything 3. Market or Bazaar CBD • Open air markets that sell just about everything • Informal economy – No taxes paid

Outside the CBD • Neighborhoods with strong ethnic ties • Squatter settlements on outer Outside the CBD • Neighborhoods with strong ethnic ties • Squatter settlements on outer most ring.

Southeast Asian City • AKA Mc. Gee Model • Asian cities mostly built on Southeast Asian City • AKA Mc. Gee Model • Asian cities mostly built on coasts for trade purposes • Port zone is focal point.

Southeast Asian City • Special economic zones encourage growth. • Growth encouraged by: – Southeast Asian City • Special economic zones encourage growth. • Growth encouraged by: – trade with western countries. – investment by western companies.

Southeast Asian City • Squatter settlements and a market gardening zone located on the Southeast Asian City • Squatter settlements and a market gardening zone located on the outskirts.