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Unit Eight Nature and Nurture
• Task 1: • Task 2: • Task 3: Task 4: • Task 5: Nature? Nurture? Nature or Nurture? Video Clip Proverbs and Sayings
Task 1 Nature? – How tall might you be? Task 2 Nurture? – Why was Einstein so clever? Task 3 Nature or Nurture – Talking about twins Task 4 Video Clip Task 5 Proverbs and Sayings Nature and Nurture
Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Unit 8 Nature and Nurture Common sense and personal experience tend to suggest that nature and nurture are both important, each having a greater or lesser effect, depending both on the complexity of the gene and the conditions of the environment.
Task 1 Nature? Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 How tall might you be? Here is a formula to predict how tall you might be: Step 1. Father’s height + mother’s height (in cm). Step 2. Divide this by 2. Step 3. Add 7 cm for a boy, subtract 7 cm for a girl. Task 1
Task 1 Nature? Task 2 How tall might you be? Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Discussion: 1. Does the result equal to your real height? 2. Do you believe you are determined by the genes you inherit? Task 1
Task 1 Task 2 Nature? Spotting out the truth! Directions: Decide whether the following statements are Task 3 scientifically correct or not. Task 4 Task 5 Your genes have aofglasses is not The need to wearstrong enough the percentage Genes have great body fat on influence effect on youra middle-aged woman genetic. Most shortsightedness is height. This enables carried by to withstand pain. This our ability Your eating habits are governed by youis more determined by her genes caused by environmental height to predict what the adult yourseems to be muchusingif they are genes. It such as lesseasy to would be as related of influences or exercise. your children should be than by diet to our experiences while we are change your dining habits as it of given a good or reading a lots computers diet. growing up. would to print. your breathing! small change Task 1
Task 1 Nurture? Task 2 Why was Einstein so clever? Task 3 Listen to a passage about Einstein and answer questions: Task 4 Task 5 1. Was there something special about Einstein’s brain? Scientists have found that the part of his brain that has to do with visual imaging and mathematical thinking was enlarged. 2. Are there any other factors that helped nurture this genius? Einstein had a very supportive and encouraging environment in which to grow up. Task 2
Task 1 Nurture? Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Why was Einstein so clever? Was there something special Do you know he even failed at his first attempt to get into about his brain? a prestigious school in examined Einstein's brain very In fact scientists have Switzerland? He was born in thoroughly and found that the part of the brain that has to do Germany in a town called Wurm on the 14 th of March 1879. with visual imaging and mathematical thinking was in fact But his family moved to Switzerland when he was 16 years enlarged. However, this does not altogether account for his greatness. old. Do you know what subject caused him to fail? Yes, you There were other factors that helped nurture this genius. guessed it - English! He didn't give up though, and studied Einstein had a very supportive and encouraging environment hard and tried again, and was accepted the next year. Even in which to grow up. His parents allowed him to develop his curiosity. His he sometimes missed classes because he had at university mother taught him to play the violin and he played it very well. His uncle also encouraged him too much on his mind and could not tear himself away. enormously. Einstein, you know, was not very interested in school and would much prefer to think things out for himself. Fortunately, he had a good friend who took notes for him. Script Task 2
Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Nurture? Questions for Discussion 1. What do you think made Einstein’s success? 2. Is human behavior determined by genetics or by environment ? 3. How do you fancy a Nobel prizewinning scientist as your own father? Would you inherit his genes and turn into a genius too? Task 2
Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Nature or Nurture? Talking about Twins As twins are usually raised together and share a very similar environment as they grow up. But one third of all twins born share much more than this – identical twins have exactly the same genes. One of the most striking and magical features of identical twins is their appearance. Even close family often find it difficult to tell them apart. Task 3 Non-identical twins have genes which are as different as any normal brother or sister but their environment as they are growing up is very similar. Identical twins who have grown up apart were shown to have very similar dining habits despite their different upbringings. They like to eat at the same time of day and feel full after the same about of food.
Task 1 Nature or Nurture? Task 2 Talking about Twins Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 1. Do you know any twins? What can you say about them? 2. Why are people curious about twins? 3. How do you think it feels to be twins? 4. what it must be like to grow up alongside a genetic copy of yourself ? Task 3
Task 1 Video Clip Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Genes and environment, which can influence people deeper? In this movie, The Parent Trap, you will see a set of twin sisters, raised in different families, met in a camp. Will they resemble each other? Task 4
Task 1 Video Clip Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 ØClick to stop and click again to continue Task 4
Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Proverbs and Sayings Genius without education is like silver in the mine. Benjamin Franklin 未受教育的天才，犹如矿中之银。 富兰克林 Genius only means hard-working all one's life. 天才只意味着终身不懈的努力。 Mendeleyer 门捷列耶夫 The people who get on in this world are the people who get up and look for circumstances they want , and if they cannot find them, they make them. Bernard Shaw 在这个世界上，取得成功的人是那些努力寻找他们想 要机会的人，如果找不到机会，他们就去创造机会。 肖伯纳 Task 5
• In-Class Reading Twins, Genes, and Environment
Work in groups to answer the following questions. Many identical twins are much alike in both appearance and behavior, even when raised apart. Does it suggest that the genes play a more important role in one’s development? Sample No, it only suggests the power of the genes and the limitation of the effect of environment. In the study, these identical twins were raised in the same physical environment. Even when raised apart, they were put in homes with a similar background. Therefore, it’s not surprising that these twins developed similarly.
Could you describe the difference between Helen and Gladys? Sample Helen was confident, graceful, made the most of her personal appearance, and showed considerable polish and ease in social relationships. Gladys was shy, self-conscious, quiet and without charming or graceful manners. These differences were associated with the different social lives they had.
Why did one scientist say their contrast should be effective as an ad for college education? Sample That scientist’s remark told us that it was college education that distinguished Helen from Gladys. Helen had graduated from college and had been a teacher for twelve years, while Gladys didn’t even complete her primary study. Her formal education came to an end when she was in Grade three.
In your opinion, which plays more important role in the development of identical twins, genes or environment? Sample I think both of them are very important and they have interacting influence on the development of the identical twins. Genes alone are never responsible for any traits as well as the environment.
Introduction (Para. 1) No characteristic is caused exclusively by either environment or genes. Research on the relative effects of heredity and environment (Para. 2 -8) A. Studies on identical twins raised together (Para. 2) B. Studies on identical twins raised apart in similar environments (Para. 3 -4) C. Studies on identical twins raised apart in contrasting environments (Para. 5 -8)
Conclusion (Para. 9) What we can do is set by the genes, but what we actually do is largely determined by the environment.
… we see that there can be no development without the interacting environment. (Line 4) 4) 译 文 语 法 训 练 no + NP + without 构成双重否定，表达肯 定意义。 其中no修饰的名词短语可作主语。
Example In some countries no major business is conducted without eye contact, requiring face-toface conversation. 在有些国家里, 没有当面接触就做不成大生意, 需要面 对面的交谈。 No other reproduction in any form is permitted without written permission from the publishing house. 未经出版社同意不得以任何形式进行复制。
Example No one can read these microprints without a magnifying glass, a special glass that makes things look bigger. 没有放大镜，一种让东 西显得大一些的特殊玻 璃，谁也认不清这些印 的极小的字体。
… we see that there can be no development without the interacting environment. (Line 4) 4) 译 文 ……我们就会明 白，没有与其相互作 用的环境，就不可能 有任何个人的发展。
The relative effects of heredity and environment are most clearly observable in identical twins. (Line 7) 译 文 句 型 应 用 The (relative) effects of … are (most clearly) observable. 效果/影响是显而易见的 完全可以看出……的影响
Example The environmental effect of this new factory is most clearly observable in the surrounding field and river. 在周围的田地和河流中完全可以看到这个新 厂对环 境的影响。 The effect of the bombs was most clearly observable in the face of men, women, and children. 这些炸弹影响的结果已非常清楚地写在这些男人、 女人和孩子的脸上。
Example The effect of culture shock is most clearly observable in the unprepared visitors when they are involved in a strange culture. 当他们加入到一种陌生的文化中时，文化休克的 结果在毫无准备的参观者身上极其显著。
The relative effects of heredity and environment are most clearly observable in identical twins. (Line 7) 译 文 遗传和环境的相对影 响在同卵双胞胎中最易观 察到。
In a study … there were no more significant differences than existed among unseparated pairs of twins. (Line 21) 译 文 句 型 应 用 no more…than 和……一样不；比……更不；非常不 no more than (=only) 不过，仅仅
In a study … there were no more significant differences than existed among unseparated pairs of twins. (Line 21) “No more significant differences than existed”的完整形式是“No more significant difference than the differences that existed”。
Example He is no more a God than us. 他和我们一样不是上帝。 She hurried into the room with no more than a casual glance at the children standing outside. 她匆匆走进房间，对站在外面的孩子们只是漫不 经心地瞟了一眼。
Example Money is no more than our servant. 金钱不过是我们的仆人。 No place in China can produce more memories of the beauty of your country than Guilin. 中国没有其它地方像桂林 一样可以让人记住你们美 丽的国家。
In a study … there were no more significant differences than existed among unseparated pairs of twins. (Line 21) ……双胞胎之间的 译 文 差异并不比一起长大的 双胞胎之间的差异更显 著。
Important as they are, genes alone are never absolutely responsible for any trait. (Line 68) 译 文 语 法 训 练 这是as 引导的让步状语从句，从句要倒装。 该句相当于：Though they are important, . . . “形容词/副词/名词 + as / though + 主语 + 谓语” 句型，引导让步状语从句。
Example Poor as he was (though he was poor), he was honest. Much as I admire him as a writer, I don’t like him as a man. Teacher as he is, he cannot finish task in an hour. Brave though they were, they had no chance of winning.
Exercise 请选择正确的答案。 B ______, they did their best to help us. A) Young as they are B) Young as they were C) Strong as they are D) Powerful as they were. ______, he can’t work out the problem. D A) As clever as he was B) Though he may be clever C) Clever as he was . D) Clever though he may be ______, they fished in water. D A) As it was cold B) As cold it was C) Cold as the water was D) Cold as it was
Important as they are, genes alone are never absolutely responsible for any trait. (Line 68) 译 文 尽管基因非常重要，但是基因本身决不 能完全决定任何一个特点。
heredity (n. ) (Line 1, Para 1) [U] the passing on of qualities from parent to child in the cells of the body 遗传 ；遗传 性 Translation Some diseases develop because of the conditions one lives in; others are present by heredity. 有些疾病是由于人居住的环境形成的，有些是遗传 的缘故。 有些孩子性情温和似乎是遗传所致。 Some children seem to be gentle by heredity.
词汇辨析 比较 heritage, heredity 和 inheritance heritage 使用最广泛，不仅指一般的遗产，也 指世代相传的具有特色的精神财富或 物质财富。 heredity 特指生物遗传。 inheritance 指继承这一行为，不指继承的东 西。为抽象名词。
Exercise 请用 heritage, heredity 或 inheritance 填 空。 公正比赛是我们的传统。 heritage Fair play is part of our _______. 他将从姑母那里继承来的财产捐给了当地孤儿院。 The estate he received by _____ from his aunt inheritance was donated to the local orphanage. 我们的肤色取决于遗传。 The colour of our skin is heredity due to _____.
interact (v. ) (Line 5, Para. 1) (+ on / with) have an effect on each other or something else 互相作用，互相影响 Exercise 请用下面的提示词造句。 各国，互相作用 In international affairs, all countries are interrelated and interact on each other. 大学生，社会 We college students should actively interact with the society. We college students should be in active interaction with the society.
identical (adj. no comp. ) (Line 8, Para. 2) 1. ( + with / to) exactly alike 完全相同的，完全一样的 2. the same 同一的 Exercise 请辨析下列句子中 identical 的含义。 No leaves are identical. a. 相同的 b. 同一的 This is the identical hotel that we stayed in last year. a. 相同的 b. 同一的
Exercise 请用下面的提示词造句。 声音相同 Your voice is identical to your brothers. You and your brother have almost identical voices. 同一天 Both events happened on the identical day.
resemblance (n. ) (Line 16, Para. 3) the fact or an instance of being like or similar to another person or thing 相似，类似 resemble (v. ) look or be like 像，似 Translation 这对同卵双胞胎 (the identical twins) 长相相似但性 格不同。 The identical twins resemble each other in appearance but not in character. 这个赝品(counterfeit)与徐悲鸿的真迹极其相似。 There is a strong resemblance between the authentic work of Xu Beihong and the counterfeit.
substantially (Line 27, Para. 4) substance (n. ) 1. (C) a material; type of matter 物；物质 2. (the+, U) the important part; the real meaning 实质；本质； 主旨；大意 Exercise 请根据提示完成下面的对话。 Student A: What are they discussing? Student B: ______________ is how The substance of their discussion often and how long a student can surf on line. (他们讨论的主题)
Exercise 请根据提示完成下面的对话。 Student: What is water? substance vital to life Teacher: Water is a __________. (生命必须的物质)
substantial (adj. ) 1. solid; strongly made 牢固的；结实的 2. noticeable; important; of some size or value 显著的；重要的；有价值的 substantially (adv. ) quite a lot 相当大地 Translation 尽管年轻，他已为这个 程作出了相当大的贡献。 Though young, he has substantially contributed to the project. 出国留学意味着在生活上作出重大改变。 To study abroad indicates to make substantial changes in life.
illustrate (v. ) (Line 32, Para. 4) 1. (+ by / with) make the meaning (of something) clearer by giving related examples 阐明，说明 2. (+ with) put pictures in a book, article, etc. 给……作插图说明 Exercise 请完成下面的句子。 他通过讲述自身的体验来阐明他的论点。 illustrated his point He ________ by relating his own experience.
Exercise 请完成下面的句子。 如果你给这本儿童读物配上插图，它就更畅销了。 illustrate this children book If you ____________, it will sell much better.
近义词辨析 demonstrate 和 illustrate demonstrate 意为“示范；说明”。通常通过 动作示范来说明。 illustrate 通过给出实例、图表等来说明。 Exercise 请用 demonstrate或illustrate填空。 我们的 作人员会随时为您演示这台电脑的功能。 Our staff members are always ready to _____ demonstrate how this computer works. 这些数据表明这台电脑性能良好。 illustrated The data _____ that this computer worked well.
resume (v. ) (Line 51, Para. 6) 1) start doing something again after stopping or being interrupted (中断之后)继续 2) take again 重新占用 Exercise 请完成下面的句子。 失败后他很快就重振精神，投入新的 作。 resumed his spirits He ________ and threw himself into the new work soon after the failure.
Exercise 请完成下面的句子。 人们期望在交通高峰前恢复交通。 Traffic is expected to be resumed ______________ before the rush hour. 他的脸上很快就又露出自信的 神情。 His face quickly _____ resumed its confident expression _________. 女士们，先生们，请回到原来的坐位。 Kindly resume your seats ___________, ladies and gentlemen.
distinguish (v. ) (Line 57, Para. 7) 1) hear, see, or recognize 辨认出； 看清楚；听清楚 2) ( + from / between) make or recognize differences 辨别；区别； 3) behave (oneself) noticeably well 使出众，使扬名 Translation 有时人们无法谨慎地区别事实和传言。 Every so often, people can not carefully distinguish between facts and rumors.
Translation 他在与美国的商业谈判中表现突出。 He distinguished himself in the commercial negotiation with America. 根据他的制服很容易把他辨认出来。 A He is easily _____ his uniform. A. distinguished by B. recognize by
distinguished (adj. ) marked by excellent quality or deserved fame 著名 的，杰出的 distinguishable (adj. ) that can be clearly seen, heard, or recognized as different 清晰可见的；可辨别的 Exercise 请用 distinguished或distinguishable填空。 A: Can you distinguish a BUICK LESABRE from other cars? B: Of course! Its exterior is rather distinguishable _______. What’s more, it is distinguished ______ for its quality.
be liable to (Line 67, Para. 9) 1) 易于……的；有……倾向的；应受（处 罚的）；易遭；易患 2) + v. 容易做…… Translation A: No smoking, please! B: What if? Offenders are liable to fines of up to ￡ 100 A: __________________. (违者将处以最多可达 100英镑的罚款。) A: Ah, winter is coming! She is liable to flu in winter B: Poor Susan! ____________. (她冬天易患流感。) A: So long it is not bird flu.
be liable to (Line 67, Para. 9) 1) 易于……的；有……倾向的；应受（处 罚的）；易遭；易患 2) + v. 容易做…… Translation Human beings are liable to make mistakes under stress. 人类在压力之下容易犯错误。
exhibit (v. ) (Line 67, Para. 9) 1) show a particular quality, feeling, or type of behavior 显示，展示 2) show something in a public place so that people can go to see it 展出，展览，陈列 Exercise 请完成下面的句子。 exhibited great concern Though not rich, he __________ for those homeless children and make whatever effort to help them. (显示极大关怀)
Exercise 请完成下面的句子。 exhibiting Manufacturers are _____ their new model cars _________. (展示新 车模型) exhibit his paintings before the public He will _________________ in New York. (在公众面前展出)
这对双胞胎成长的自然环境几乎相同。 The twins were raised in much the same physical environments. 这对双胞胎在……方面及其相似。 The twins are remarkably alike in …. The twins maintain the closest resemblance to each other in …. ……时有例外。 Exceptions occurred when …. 双胞胎 / 一对双胞胎中的一个 / 两对双胞胎 / 同卵 双胞胎 the twins / one twin / two sets of twins / identical twins
患了相当严重的疾病 develop a rather severe illness 相距甚远的两家 the two families far removed from each other 海伦充分利用了她外表的优势。 Helen made the most of her personal appearance. 海伦在社交中显得很从容、有修养。 Helen showed considerable polish and ease in social relationships.
• 状语从句的翻译 – – – 状语从句的直译法 状语从句的倒译法 状语从句的转译法
状语从句的翻译 状语从句也称为副词性从句，与名词性 从句和形容词性从句（即定语从句）共同构 成英语从句体系。状语从句在全句中的作用 类似副词，因此，像副词一样，状语从句在 译文中的位置也较为灵活，可采用直译法、 倒译法，将其放在全句之前或全句之后。此 外，还可将状语从句转变为其他从句类型， 使中文译文表达更地道。
（一）状语从句的直译法 Once human beings stand up and become masters of their own fate, there will be no difficulties they may not overcome. 一旦人站起来，成为自己 命运的主宰，就不会有他 们克服不了的困难。
（二）状语从句的倒译法 The local government will set up more paper mills if they can get more raw materials. 如果能够得到更多的原材料，当地政府将兴建更多的造纸厂。
（三）状语从句的转译法 New things always have to experience difficulties and setbacks as they grow. 任何新生事物的成长都要 经过艰难曲折。 （状语从句转译为作为主 语的名词“成长”）。
状语从句是英语从句中较为常见的从句 类型之一，其类型多样，主要包括时间状语 从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、让步 状语从句、条件状语从句、目的状语从句、 结果状语从句、方式状语从句和比较状语从 句等九大类型。对于这些从句以及翻译热点 的了解，将有助于更好地进行状语从句的翻译。
1．时间状语从句 引导时间状语从句常见的词和词组有：when, whenever, as, while, before, after, until, till, since, ever since, now (that), once, so (as) long as, as soon as, every time, the moment, instantly, directly等。 Stormy applause broke forth in the audience the moment the singer stepped on the stage. 这名歌星一出现在舞台上， 观众席中就响起暴风雨般的 掌声。（倒译法）
2．地点状语从句 引导地点状语从句常见词和词组有：where, wherever等 Wherever a foreigner goes, he must do as the Romans do. 无论外国人到什么地方， 他都应入乡随俗。
3．原因状语从句 引导原因状语从句常见的词和词组有：as, because, since, seeing (that), considering, now that, not that … but that …, in that …等。 He felt a bit anxious, not that the equipment did not operate smoothly, but that his subordinates neglected observance towards the discipline of safety. 他略感焦虑，不是因为设备不能正常运转，而是他 的部下不遵守安全规章。
4．让步状语从句 引导让步状语从句常见的词和词组有：though, although, no matter, even if, even though, however, whatever等。 Granted that the children can not do things in the right way, the parents aren’t right in taking everything on themselves. 即使孩子做事的方式不对，父 母也不该为其包办一切事务。
5．条件状语从句 引导条件状语从句常见的词和词组有：if, unless, suppose, supposing, in case, so (as) long as, so far as, on condition (that), provided (that)等。 Supposing (Suppose) the explorers can not get the food supply in time, all the team members will die in the desert. 假如探险队员无法及时得到食 物，全体队员将死于沙漠。
6．目的状语从句 引导目的状语从句常见的词和词组有：that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, in case等。 The speaker worded his speech in a careful way that there might be no confusion to the listeners. 演讲者在演讲中措辞谨慎， 以免造成听众的混淆。
7．结果状语从句 引导结果状语从句常见的词和词组有：that, so … that …, such … that等。 The man was so rude towards his mother that all the standers-by were annoyed with his words and action. 那个男子对他母亲如此粗鲁， 以至于路人都被他的言行惹恼。
8．比较状语从句 引导比较状语从句常见的词有：than, as等。 The film newly released to the public was much better than we had expected. 新近公映的电影比我们 预期的要好得多。
9．方式状语从句 引导方式状语从句常见的词有： as 等。 We must devote our whole life to the construction of our country just as we had pledged before the national flag. 我们应该像在国旗前宣 誓的那样，将自己的一 生贡献给祖国的建设事业。
• 写作实践：Which has a stronger influence, heredity or environment? • 相关链接
Directions: Write a composition on the topic: Which has a stronger influence, heredity or environment? Your composition should be no less than 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese: 1) 父母遗传很重要； 2) 后天环境影响起关 键作用； 3) 我们是先天遗传与 后天环境的综合产 物。
Which has a stronger influence, heredity or environment? Which is more important in shaping a person’s character, heredity or environment? First, let us examine the influence of heredity. A kind-hearted mother may expect a child who is also gentle and kind. An engineer father who used to get high marks in mathematics tests is very likely to have a son or daughter who is also good at math and plans to be an engineer, maybe because the child inherits the “math gene” from the father. Stubborn (顽固的) parents are likely to have children who are as hard to turn as a donkey (犟牛般的子女).
However, the environment also plays a key role in molding many of a child’s characteristics. Environment can change a person no matter what one inherits from parents. Exercise, sports and good food, for example, can make a person grow taller and stronger, which explains the reason why young Chinese are obviously bigger and taller than their grandparents. Intelligent professionals’ children are not necessarily intelligent, so intelligence is not inherited. On the other hand, the son of a thief is not necessarily a thief.
In conclusion, we are the product of nature and nurture. It is family, schools, and society that work together to shape who we are. Therefore, both heredity and environment have great influence on a person’s personality. Heredity creates a person, but environment can create an improved one.
I. [GRE作文题目] “Many people believe that a few individuals or small groups (family, friends, teachers, celebrities, for example) have caused them to think and behave in the way they do. Yet it is always society as a whole that defines us and our attitudes, not a few individuals. ”
II. [IELTS作文题目 ] After birth，what will play a major role in one’s personality and development? Nature or Nurture?
III. [TOEFL作文题目 ] Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults. Other people think that friends are the most important influence on young adults. Which view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position.
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