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Unit 6: World Religions Islam Daily Question: How did the religion of Islam develop? Warm-up Question: When you think of Islam and Muslims, what do you know? what do you think of? (You can write or draw a picture of what you know) What is one question you have about Islam?
The Origins of Islam started in the Middle East around the year 600 C. E. (AD). Islam means “surrender” or “submission”
The Origins of Islam The religion was founded on the teachings of Muhammad as a surrender to the will of Allah (God). The Qur’an, the sacred text of Islam, has the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad as told to him by Allah.
The Revelation of the Qur’an to Muhammad Read through the story. Decide who is saying what in the story. Insert the missing lines into the story. Re-read the completed story
The Origins of Islam Muhammad is not considered a God. He is only thought of as a prophet – or a messenger who delivers Allah’s (God’s) word to the people.
Muhammad’s Wisdom One day the Ka’bah in Makkah was burnt down and it had to be rebuilt. The sacred black stone was kept in a safe place until the Ka’bah had been rebuilt. Different tribes helped to rebuild the Ka’bah but when it came to putting the black stone in place, everyone wanted to be the one who placed it there. They started to argue and argue about who should replace the black stone. Finally they agreed that they needed somebody else to be a judge and decide who was important enough to place the black stone in the Ka’bah. Muhammad was chosen. He placed a white sheet on the ground, placed the black stone in the middle of the sheet, and asked each of the tribal leaders to hold a side of the sheet and then carry the stone to the right place. Muhammad then fixed the stone in its place. After that, Muhammad became known as Al Amin – ‘the trustworthy. ’
Mecca CITY IN HIJAZ AND CAPITAL OF MAKKAH PROVINCE IN SAUDI ARABIA. THE BIRTHPLACE OF MUHAMMAD AND SITE WHERE THE QUR’AN WAS WRITTEN, MAKKAH (MECCA) IS CONSIDERED THE HOLIEST CITY IN ISLAM. MUSLIM PILGRIMS CROWD AROUND THE KA’BA DURING THE HAJJ
The Origins of Islam Mohammad began spreading Islam from the city of Makkah (Mecca)– the most holy city in Islam today – and within a few hundred years the religion had grown tremendously.
Mosque A Muslim place of worship, usually having one or more minarets (tall slender tower with a balcony from which a muezzin calls Muslims to prayer) and often decorated with elaborate tracery and texts from the Qu’ran
The Spread of Islam spread quickly across the Middle East from North Africa to Spain, and across Asia almost to China. Muslims share a faith and share in a single Islamic community, called the ummah, which brings together many different peoples and cultures.
The Origins of Islam Today, Muslims live all over the world. Islam is the world’s second largest religion (one in five people in the world is Muslim) It is one of the fastest growing religions. Many beliefs and customs have changed little since it was founded.
Major Teachings of Islam Monotheistic (belief in one God) Islam believes all three religions (Judaism, Christianity & Islam) trace their origins to Abraham – Father of religions Islam’s sacred texts include people like Adam, Noah, Moses, etc. (just like Judaism & Christianity) Muslims believe Jews & Christians worship the same god they do.
The Holy Book – The Qur’an Muslims consider Jews and Christians to be “People of the Book” (Bible). God revealed messages to Moses, Jesus, and others just the same as he did to Muhammad before the Qur’an. The Qur’an says that God “earlier revealed the Torah (Judaism) and the Gospels (Christianity) as a source of guidance for people. ” For Muslims, the Qur’an is God’s final revelations to the world. It contains the most accurate messages about how God wants his followers to act and worship.
The Holy Book – The Qur’an is written in Arabic (many memorize all or parts) God describes his laws and moral teachings, or the “straight path. ” Contains passages of that Muhammad was told by the angel Gabriel, which Muhammad and his followers recited and memorized. Muhammad couldn’t write so scribes wrote down his words. In 651 C. E. , Caliph Uthman establishes an official edition of the Qur’an (other versions are destroyed). Muhammad called the Qur’an God’s “standing miracle” Most Muslims don’t allow the sacred book to touch the ground and handle it with ritual purity (care).
The Sunnah means “practice” and it is the example that Muhammad set for Muslims in his life. Muhammad’s actions are said to be an example of how to live life as a Muslim. Honor your parents Hospitality (take care of visitors/guests 300 years after Muhammad’s death, scholars compiled the stories of his words and actions in his life into collections – these “reports” or “tradition” were called hadith
Shari’ah is a collection of Jewish law based on the Qur’an and Sunnah. Mentions Muslim duties toward God (obedience to Qur’an and respect of others) Islamic law divides actions into categories: forbidden, discouraged, allowed, recommended and obligatory (required) Duties to other people are grouped: criminal, commercial, family and inheritance law.
Vocabulary Ummah: Islamic community Mosque: Islamic place of worship Qur’an: the holy book of the religion in Islam Sunnah: the example that Muhammad set for Muslims about how to live
Sayings of Muhammad Instructions: As a group, take turns reading out the sayings of Muhammad. After reading each one, write out what it means in your own words. After you read all the sayings, go back and put a star or check next to the ones you identify/agree with. Discuss with your group members the ones you identify/agree with and why – which ones are similar? Which ones are different?
Sayings of Muhammad “God does not look upon your bodies and appearances. He looks upon your hearts and your deeds. ” “One who has nothing of the Qur’an inside him is like a desolate or ruined house. ” “Hurt no-one so that no-one may hurt you. ” “Aid the poor and clothe them as you would clothe yourselves. Remember! One day you will appear before Allah and answer for your deeds. ” “I leave behind two things, the Qur’an and my example, and if you follow these guides you will not fail. ”
Sayings of Muhammad “To bring about a just, reconciliation between two contestants is charity, helping a person mount his animal or load his baggage onto it is charity, a good word is charity, to remove obstacles in the street is charity, smiling upon the face of your brother is charity. ” “No father gives his child anything better than good manners. ” “The world is green and beautiful and God has appointed you his steward over it. ” “The whole earth has been created as a place of worship, pure & clean.
Sayings of Muhammad “You will be rewarded by Allah for your acts of kindness towards living creatures. ” “God is gentle and loves gentleness in all things. ” “Prayer is like a refreshing stream into which you dip five times a day. ” “Forgive him who wrongs thee: do good to him who does evil to thee. Speak the truth although it be against thyself. ” “Beware of envy for envy devours good works like the fire devours fuel. ”
Journal Reflection Answer at least 3 of the following questions: ▪ How did Islam become the fastest growing religion in the world? ▪ Who is Muhammad and why is he important? ▪ Where do Muslims worship? ▪ After reading the sayings of Muhammad, what can you guess are the basic beliefs of Islam? Come up with at least 5 “teachings of Islam. ”
Homework Pick one of Muhammad’s sayings, then draw a detailed illustration OR write a short story that explains what the saying means to a Muslim.
Unit 6: World Religions Islam Daily Question: What are the beliefs and practices of a Muslim? Warm-up Question: What do you SEE? WONDER? What do you THINK ? What do you
The Five Pillars of Islam Shahadah (declaration of faith) Salat (daily ritual prayer) Zakat (charity) Sawm (fasting) Hajj (pilgrimage)
Shahadah “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger. ” This is the basic statement of the Islamic faith: anyone who cannot recite this wholeheartedly is not a Muslim. In Arabic: “Ashadu Alla Ilaha Illa Allah Wa Ashhadu Anna Muhammad Rasulu Allah” When a Muslim recited this they proclaim: That Allah is the only God, and that Muhammad is prophet That they personally accept this as true That they will obey all the commitments of Islam in their life. The Shabadah is written in Arabic on the flag of Saudi Arabia (a state that contains Islam’s holiest places)
Shahadah Becoming a Muslim Reciting this statement: “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger. ” Three times in front of witnesses is all that anyone need do to become a Muslim. A Muslim is expected to recite this statement out loud, with total sincerity, fully understanding what it means.
Shahadah Discussion Questions ANSWER QUESTIONS ON WORKSHEET How is this statement of belief similar to other religions? How is it different? Some examples are the Shema Israel and the Thirteen Articles of Faith in Judaism or the Nicene Creed in Christianity.
Pillar #2: Salat Obligatory Muslim prayers performed five times each day. God ordered Muslims to pray at five set times of day: Salat al-fajr: dawn, before sunrise Salat al-zuhr: midday, after the sun passes its highest Salat al-’asr: the late part of the afternoon. Salat al-maghrib: just after sunset Salat al-’isha: between sunset and midnight All Muslims as young as seven years old are encouraged to pray
Pillar #2: Salat This prayer gives a pattern to the day. In Islamic countries, the public call to prayer from the mosques sets rhythm of the day for the entire population, including non-Muslims. The prayer ritual is over 1400 years old. The prayer ritual is highly spiritual and connects Muslims around the world as they have the same words and movements at the same time. Prayer involves uniting mind, soul and body in worship. Muslims make sure they are in the right frame of mind before they pray; they put aside all everyday cares and thoughts to concentrate on God.
Pillar #2: Salat Muslims do not pray for the benefit of God. They pray because God told them to pray and they believe they obtain great benefit from praying. Muslims pray direct to God (as if standing in the presence of Allah) Muslims can pray anywhere, but it is especially good to pray with others in a mosque. Praying together helps Muslims to realize that all humanity is one, and all are equal in the sight of Allah. Muslims must be clean before they pray. They make sure of this by performing ritual washing, called wudhu. Mosques have washing facilities.
Salat Discussion Questions ANSWER QUESTIONS ON WORKSHEET Describe the process of prayer. How many times each day? When do you pray? What do prayers sound like? What do the movements look like? In which direction do Muslims pray? Why do they face this way? What are some of the things Muslims say during prayer? Why do Muslims pray? How is prayer in Islam similar to prayer in other religions? How is it different? Why is prayer important in Islam?
Zakat is giving a set proportion of your wealth/money to charity. It is considered a type of worship and selfpurification. Zakat is not charitable gifts given out of kindness or generosity, but a systematic giving of 2. 5% of one’s wealth each year to benefit the poor.
Zakat The benefits of Zakat: ▪ Obeying God ▪ Helping a person acknowledge that everything comes from God on loan and we do not really own anything ourselves. And since we can’t take anything with us when we die, then we don’t need to cling to it. ▪ Acknowledging that whether we are rich or poor is God’s choice, so we should help those he has chosen to make poor. ▪ Learning self-discipline ▪ Freeing oneself from the love of posessions and greed ▪ Freeing oneself from the love of money ▪ Freeing oneself from love of oneself ▪ Behaving honestly Pay a rate of 2. 5% on cash, gold and silver and commercial items. There are other rates for farm, mining, produce and animals.
Zakat Discussion Questions What is Zakat? What is emphasized in Zakat? Why do Muslims make donations? How much money is a person expected to give to charitable causes? What is the relationship between prayer and money? How is Zakat different from ordinary charity that Muslims might give?
Sawm is fasting. Muslims are required to fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. During the 29/30 days of Ramadan all adult Muslims must give up the following during the hours of daylight: ▪ Food or drink of any sort ▪ Smoking ▪ Sexual activity
Sawm Muslims who are physically or mentally unwell may be excused from fasting or those under the age of 12 or those who are pregnant. If an adult doesn’t fast, then he/she should fast at a later date or make a donation to the poor instead. Muslims abstain from physical acts during Ramadan. Muslims are expected to avoid evil thoughts and deeds.
Sawm Reason’s for the fast: Obeying God. Learning self-discipline. Becoming spiritually stronger. Appreciating God’s gifts to us. Sharing the sufferings of the poor and developing sympathy for them. Realizing the value of charity and generosity. Giving thanks for the Holy Qur’an, which was first revealed in the month of Ramadan. Sharing fellowship with other Muslims.
Sawm Eating in Ramadan Muslims will usually eat a large meal, called suhur just before dawn. When daylight is over, Muslims will break or open the fast with dates (fruit) or water, following the example of the Prophet Muhammad, before having a proper meal later. The evening meals during Ramadan are occasions for family and community get-togethers.
Sawm Eid ul-Fitr The month of Ramadan ends with the festival of Eid ul- Fitr. This involves dressing up and visiting the mosque for prayer, and with visits to family and friends for celebratory meals. Because Islam uses the lunar calendar, the month comes around 11 days earlier each year.
Sawm Discussion Questions As part of the Muslim religion, what does it mean to fast? Why do Muslims fast? What and when is Ramadan? What is Eid al-Fitr? How does fasting from eating and other activities affect people’s spiritual state of mind? What other religions include fasting? How is Sawm similar to fasting in other religions? How is it different?
Hajj Once a year, Muslims around the world gather together in Mecca and stand before the Kaaba praising Allah together. The pilgrimage to Mecca is designed to promote the bonds of Islamic brotherhood and sisterhood by showing that everyone is equal in the eyes of Allah. The Hajj makes Muslims feel real importance of life here on earth, and the afterlife, by stripping away all markers of social status, wealth, and pride. In the Hajj all are truly equal.
Hajj During the Hajj, Hajji’s or pilgrims wear simple white clothes (called Ihram) and perform acts of worship to renew their sense of purpose in the world. Mecca is a place holy to Muslims and no non-Muslims can enter. The Hajj occurs in the month of Dhul Hijjah (12 th month of lunar calendar). Every healthy adult Muslim must make the Hajj at least once in their lives if they can afford it and are physically able.
Hajj Discussion Questions How often must Muslims participate in Hajj? Where do Muslims go during Hajj? How many Muslims participate in Hajj? What is the goal of Hajj? What and where is the Ka’bah? Describe this place. What does it mean to enter spiritual purity? What is the purpose of the special garments? How does Mubarek describe his experiences as a pilgrim?
Hajj Discussion Question What do you think it is like to be a pilgrim in Mecca? Why do they think Hajj is one of the Five Pillars? What is the significance of Abraham to pilgrims? What other religions incorporate the idea of pilgrimage?
POSTERS Each group will be assigned a Pillar to make a poster to be displayed in the room to educate others on the Five Pillars of Islam. A description of the practice How people fulfill these obligations Illustrations/images that relate to the pillar Share the posters with the class
Journal Reflection Answer at least 3 of the following questions: Do you agree with any of the pillars of Islam? Which one(s)? Why? Do you disagree with any of the pillars of Islam? Which one(s)? Why? Which is the most important pillar in Islam? Why? What would your daily life be like if you were Muslim?
Homework FAITH INTERVIEW Interview someone who practices a faith we will be studying (Judaism, Christianity, Islam or Hinduism) – ideally a different religion than the one you interviewed last time. At least ten questions Write down both questions and answers
Unit 6: World Religions Islam Daily Question: What are the central conflicts surrounding the Islamic faith? Warm-up Question: What are myths or stereotypes you have heard about Islam or Muslims? Are these accurate? Why or why not?
Branches of Islam As in the other religions, there are different beliefs within the religion of Islam (sects in Judaism and denominations in Christianity). There are two dominant branches of Islam: Sunni and Shiite. Vocabulary Sunni: branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs (chief Muslim civil and religious ruler) as the successors of Muhammad; 90% of Muslims. Shiite: branch of Islam that believes Ali and his descendents are the true successors to Muhammad (rejects first four caliphs).
Fundamentalist There also different levels of extremism within Islam. We call someone who strictly maintains ancient or fundamental beliefs of a religion a fundamentalist. Fundamentalist: someone who strictly maintains ancient or fundamental beliefs of a religion (such as Islam).
Terrorism In the recent past, a number of Islamic fundamentalists have been named “terrorists” by the United States government and public. Specifically, terrorists caused the tragedy on September 11, 2001. A terrorist is a person who uses violence or intimidation in pursuit of political aims. However, this is very dependant on the perspective of those being attacked or attacking.
Terrorism on American Soil What happened on 9/11? How is 9/11 an act of terrorism? According to reports after 9/11, the Muslim belief in Jihad was used to validate/explain the actions of the terrorists.
Jihad Read worksheet What is jihad? Why and how can jihad be interpreted by “terrorists”? Is the religion validating terrorism? (saying terrorism is okay? ) Vocabulary Jihad: Muslims’ struggle with challenges within themselves and the world as they strive to please God.
Islamophobia 1. Read the Islamophobic statement and then explains the truth or falsity behind the statement in your own words. 1. Discuss as a class where some of these myths come from.
Park 51 Islamic Community Center “Ground Zero Mosque”
Historic Religious Conflict July 2009, real estate developer Soho Properties purchases 45 -47 Park Place. Sharif El-Gamal- CEO of Soho Properties, and a practicing Muslim, decides to build an Islamic Community Center
Park 51 Named Park 51, the center was planned to be an Islamic community center with a prayer space Similar to a YMCA, the center planned to have A theater and auditorium Fitness and exercise rooms (pool, basketball court, etc. ) Art Exibits, food courts, child care
So What Happened?
Historic Religious Conflict American citizens were split over the decision Opposition Insensitivity to those affected by 9/11. ▪ Building site was too close to “Ground Zero”, which some considered as a burial site. Why not build it somewhere else? ▪ Victory Mosque: many feared that it would show terrorists as “winning” ▪ Anti-Muslim sentiment/ Islamophobia- Another sign that Islam was “taking over” America ▪ The estimated cost of the center was to be about $100 million – could that money be spent somewhere else?
Historic Religious Conflict Support It is an Islamic Center, not a mosque. ▪ The center was intended to be similar to a YMCA, but with an area for prayer, not necessarily an actual mosque It is a good opportunity to strengthen relations between the faiths, and to promote religious tolerance and acceptance ▪ Many 9/11 survivors show support for this reason Islam did not attack the United States ▪ The attack was carried out by a group of extremists, not the entire Muslim community ▪ Additionally, many Muslims were victims on this day According the constitution, American’s have the right to free practice of religion, and the builders are legally allowed to develop the land as they please
Differing Views “It’s not about religion and is clearly an aggressive act that is offensive. ” – Newt Gingrich “A desecration, nobody would allow something like that at Pearl Harbor…lets leave some respect for who died there and why they died there” – Rudy Giulaini “The government should never, never be in the business of telling people how they should pray, or where they can pray. We want to make sure that everybody from around the world feels comfortable coming here, living here, and praying the way they want to pray. ” – Mayor Michael Bloomberg
Was it built? On September 21 st, 2011 the building was opened to the public It is not complete, and there are still plans to expand the building on the current job site No incidents occurred during the centers grand opening
Newscaster Discussion Questions:
Newscaster Quiz Questions:
Homework Fill in the compare/contrast Venn Diagram for the section on Islam. Make up missing work. Extra Credit: Islam Movie Review