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Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Warm-up Activities Additional lnformation for the Teacher’s Reference Text The Ant and the grasshopper Further Reading Speaking Skills Additional Work
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Warm-up Activities 1. The teacher may divide students into five or six groups and ask them to introduce any fable that they have heard of to their group members. 2. Introduce to the students the fable The Ant and the Grasshopper and invite comments on the ant and grasshopper in the fable. To which party does your sympathy go? In a field one summer’s day a Grasshopper was hopping about, chirping and singing to its heart’s content. An Ant passed by, bearing along with great toil an ear of corn he was taking to the nest.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “Why not come and chat with me”, said the Grasshopper, “instead of toiling and moiling in that way? ” “Jam helping to lay up food for the winter”, said the Ant, “and recommend you to do the same”. “Why bother about winter? ” said the Grasshopper, “we have got plenty of food at present. ” But the Ant went on its way and continued its toil. When the winter came the Grasshopper had no food and found itself dying of hunger, while it saw the ants distributing, every day, corn from the stores they had collected in the summer. Then the Grasshopper knew: It is best to prepare for the days of necessity.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Additional lnformation for the Teacher’s Reference 1. Somerset Maugham was a famous English novelist, shortstory writer, playwright and critic. He was born in Paris and educated at King’s School, Canterbury, and at Heidelberg. In World War I, he served as a secret agent. He qualified in 1897 as a doctor from St. Thomas medical school but abandoned medicine after the success of his first novels and plays. His players are no longer popular, and his fame rests on his many short stories and four of his novels: Of Human Bondage (1915), The Moon and Sixpence (1919), Cakes and Ale (1930) and The Razor’s Edge (1944). These reveal a cynical but sometimes compassionate view of humanity.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 2. La Fontaine was a French writer , remembered especially for his Fables (1668 - 1694), moral tales drawn from AESOP and oriental sources which he used to comment satirically on contemporary society.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 3. Monte Carlo is a town in the independent principality of Monaco, on the Mediterranean coast known as the French Riviera. It is an international resort with a gambling casino, a yacht harbor and an annual automobile rally and the Monaco Grand Prix car race.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Main Idea of the Text Introduction to the Author and the Article The Ant and the Grasshopper Notes Phrases and Expressions Exercises
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Main Idea of the Text In this short story, Somerset Maugham, by describing two brothers’ attitudes toward life, examines the nature and inconsistent qualities of human beings. George was a hard-working and respectable man with a decent job as a lawyer. He was also a faithful husband loving father to four daughters. He believed that the industry should be rewarded and giddiness punished. His brother Tom, however, was an unscrupulous and good-for-nothing scoundrel. He philandered with the prettiest girls, danced, ate in the most expensive restaurants, and dressed beautifully. He borrowed money from relatives and friends. At the beginning, he fooled George
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper by making empty promises repeatedly. Later on he even went to such an extreme that he blackmailed his brother. Loading money to his brother, George appeared to be in Tom’s favor at the first sight. On a second thought, readers can find that George helped his brother only for his own sake. For instance, he gave Tom some money in order that Tom might quit his job as a bartender. By doing so, he saved his face and the good reputation of his family. But unfortunately Tom took advantage of his weakness of vanity over and over again. The story offers a new interpretation of the fable of La Fontaine The Ant and the Grasshopper whose classical teaching is that in an imperfect world industry is rewarded and giddiness punished, and reveals the dual personality of ordinary people.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Introduction to the Author and the Article William Somerset Maugham (1874 - 1965) was a famous English novelist, short-story writer, playwright and critic. He was born in Paris and educated at King’s School, Canterbury, and at Heidelberg. After qualifying as a medical student he became a successful playwright and novelist. His plays are no longer popular, and his fame mainly rests on his many short stories and four of his novels, Of Human Bondage (1915); The Moon and Sixpence (1919), Cakes and Ale (1930) and The Razor’s Edge (1944).
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper In this short story, which is chosen from Maugham’s Collected Short Stories, Maugham, by describing two brothers’ attitudes toward life, examines the nature and inconsistent qualities of human beings.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Text The Ant and the Grasshopper William Somerset Maugham When I was a very small boy I was made to learn by heart certain of the fables of La Fontaine, and the moral of each was carefully explained to me. Among those learned was The Ant and the Grasshopper, which is devised to bring home to the young the useful lesson that in an imperfect world industry is rewarded and giddiness punished. In this admirable fable ( I apologize for telling something which everyone is politely, but inexactly, supposed to know) the ant spends a laborious summer
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper gathering its winter store, while the grasshopper sits on a blade of grass singing to the sun. Winter comes and the ant is comfortably provided for, but the grasshopper has an empty larder, he goes to the ant and begs for a little food. Then the ant gives him her classic answer: “What were you doing in the summer time? ” “Saving your presence, I sang all day, all night. ” “You sang. Why, then go and dance. ” I do not ascribe it to perversity on my part, but rather to the inconsequence of childhood, which is deficient in moral sense, that I could never quite reconcile myself to the lesson. My
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper sympathies were with the grasshopper and for some time I never saw an ant without putting my foot on it. In this summary (and I have discovered since, entirely human) fashion I sought to express my disapproval of prudence and commonsense. I could not help thinking of this fable when the other day I saw George Ramsay lunching by himself in a restaurant. I never saw anyone wear an expression of such deep gloom. He was staring into space. He looked as though the burden of the whole world sat on his shoulders. I was sorry for him. I suspected at once that his unfortunate brother had been causing trouble again. I went up to him and held out my hand.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “How are you? ” I asked. “I’m not in hilarious spirits, ” he answered. “Is it Tom again? ” He sighed. “Yes, it’s Tom again. ” “Why don’t you chuck him? You’ve done everything in the world for him. You must know by now that he’s quite hopeless. ” I suppose every family has a black sheep. Tom had been a sore trial to his for twenty years. He had begun life decently enough, he went into business, married and had two children.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper The Ramsays were perfectly respectable people and there was every reason to suppose that Tom Ramsay would have a useful and honourable career. But one day, without warning, he announced that he didn’t like work and that he wasn’t suited for marriage. He wanted to enjoy himself. He would listen to no expostulations. He left his wife and his office. He had a little money and he spent two happy years in the various capitals of Europe. Rumours of his doings reached his relations from time to time and they were profoundly shocked. He certainly had a very good time. They shook their heads and asked what would happen when his money was spent. They soon found out, he borrowed. He was charming
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper and unscrupulous. I have never met anyone to whom it was more difficult to refuse a loan. He made a steady income from his friends and he made friends easily. But he always said that the money you spent on necessities was boring; the money that was amusing to spend was the money you spent in luxuries. For this he depended on his brother George. He did not waste his charm on him. George was a serious man and insensible to such enticements. George was respectable. Once or twice he fell to Tom’s promises of amendment and gave him considerable sums in order that he might make a fresh start. On these Tom bought a motor-car and some very nice jewellery. But when circumstances forced George to realise that his brother would
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper never settle down and he washed his hands of him, Tom, without a qualm, began to blackmail him. It was not very nice for a respectable lawyer to find his brother shaking cocktails behind the bar of his favorite restaurant or to see him waiting on the box-seat of a taxi outside his club. Tom said that to serve in a bar or to drive a taxi was a perfectly decent occupation, but if George could oblige him with a couple of hundred pounds, he didn’t mind for the honour of the family giving it up. George paid. Once Tom nearly went to prison. George was terribly upset. He went into the whole discreditable affair. Really Tom had gone too far. He had been wild, thoughtless and
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper selfish, but he had never before done anything dishonest, by which George meant illegal; and if he were prosecuted he would assuredly be convicted. But you cannot allow your only brother to go to gaol. The man Tom had cheated, a man called Cronshaw, was vindictive. He was determined to take the matter into court; he said Tom was a scoundrel and should be punished. It cost George an infinite deal of trouble and five hundred pounds to settle the affair. I have never seen him in such a rage as when he heard that Tom and Cronshaw had gone off together to Monte Carlo the moment they cashed the cheque. They spent a happy month there.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper For twenty years Tom raced and gambled, philandered with prettiest girls, danced, ate in the most expensive restaurants, and dressed beautifully. He always looked as if he had just stepped out of a bandbox. Though he was fortysix you would never have taken him for more than thirty-five. He was a most amusing companion and though you knew he was perfectly worthless you could not but enjoy his society. He had high spirits, an unfailing gaiety and incredible charm. I never grudged the contributions he regularly levied on me for the necessities of his existence. I never lent him fifty pounds without feeling that I was in his debt. Tom Ramsay knew everyone and everyone knew Tom Ramsay. You could not approve of him, but you could not help liking him.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Poor George, only a year older than his scapegrace brother, looked sixty. He had never taken more than a fortnight’s holiday in the year for a quarter of a century. He was in his office every morning at nine-thirty and never left it till six. He was honest, industrious and worthy. He had a good wife, to whom he had never been unfaithful even in thought, and four daughters to whom he was the best of fathers. He made a point of saving a third of his income and his plan was to retire at fifty-five to a little house in the country where he proposed to cultivate his garden and play golf. His life was blameless. He was glad that he was growing old because Tom was growing old too. He rubbed his hands and said:
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “It was all very well when Tom was young and goodlooking, but he’s only a year younger than I am. In four years he’ll be fifty. He won’t find life so easy then. I shall have thirty thousand pounds by the time I’m fifty. For twentyfive years I’ve said that Tom would end in the gutter. And we shall see how he likes that. We shall see if it really pays best to work or be idle. ” Poor George! I sympathized with him. I wondered now as I sat down beside him what infamous thing Tom had done. George was evidently very much upset. “Do you know what’s happened now? ” he asked me.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper I was prepared for the worst. I wondered if Tom had got into the hands of the police at last. George could hardly bring himself to speak. “You’re not going to deny that all my life I’ve been hardworking, decent, respectable and straightforward. After a life of industry and thrift I can look forward to retiring on a small income in gilt-edged securities. I’ve always done my duty in that state of life in which it has pleased Providence to place me. ” “True. ” “And you can’t deny that Tom has been an idle, worthless, dissolute and dishonourable rogue. If there were any justice he’d be in the workhouse. ” “True. ”
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper George grew red in the face. “A few weeks ago he became engaged to a woman old enough to be his mother. And now she’s died and left him everything she had. Half a million pounds, a yacht, a house in London and a house in the country. ” George Ramsay beat his clenched fist on the table. “It’s not fair, I tell you, it’s not fair. Damn it, it’s not fair. ” I could not help it. I burst into a shout of laughter as I looked at George’s wrathful face, I rolled in my chair, I very nearly fell on the floor. George never forgave me. But Tom often asks me to excellent dinners in his charming house in Mayfair and if he occasionally borrows a trifle from me, that is merely force of habit. It is never more than a sovereign.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Notes La Fontaine (Jean de la Fontaine 1621 -1695): French writer, remembered especially for his Fables (1668 -1694), moral tales drawn from AESOP and oriental sources which he used to comment satirically on contemporary society Saving your presence: with an apology for saying this in your presence. a black sheep: a person who does something bad, especially something which brings embarrassment and loss of respect to the family
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Notes Monte Carlo: a town in the independent principality of Monaco, on the Mediterranean coast known as the French Riviera. It is an international resort with a gambling casino, a yacht harbor and an annual automobile rally and the Monaco Grand Prix car race. He always looked as if he had just stepped out of a bandbox: He always looked very clean and fresh. Providence: God Mayfair: a fashionable area in London, east of Hyde Park sovereign: a former British gold coin worth ￡ 1
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Phrases and Expressions settle down: adopt a more stable or quiet way of life; get used to a new way of life wash one’s hands of sb. / sth. : refuse to be responsible for sb. / sth. any longer be in sb’s debt: feel grateful to sb. for his / her help make a point of doing sth. : do sth. because one considers it important or necessary
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Translation of the Text 乔治兄弟 威廉·毛姆 当我还是个小男孩的时候，就有人教我背诵拉封丹的寓言故事，并 细心地给我讲解每一个故事的寓意。记得有一则名为“蚂蚁和草蜢”的 寓言，它向孩子们揭示了一个有益的启示： 在不完美的社会里存在着 奖勤罚懒的规则。 在这则绝妙的寓言中（很抱歉，我插一句，客气地说，应该人人都 听说过，但不够精确。），小蚂蚁劳累了整整一个夏天，储备冬粮，而 草蜢则坐在草叶上对着太阳放声歌唱。冬天到了，小蚂蚁粮食充足而草 蜢则粮仓空空。他到蚂蚁家去乞讨食物，蚂蚁给了他一个经典式的回答：
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “你整个夏天都在忙什么？” “恕我直言，我在唱歌，我整日整夜在唱歌。” “原来你在唱歌。那么你就接着唱吧，接着跳吧。” 其中的寓意我一直难以接受。我认为不是因为自己过于执拗，而是 因为儿时不合逻辑的思维，那时尚未形成健全的道德观。我非常同情那 只草蜢，甚至有一段时间我一见到蚂蚁就非踩上一脚不可，以这种简明 的方式来表明自己看不惯蚂蚁这种审慎、理性的做法（自那以后我发现 自己这样做也是完全合乎人性的）。 前几天，当我看到乔治独自在餐馆用餐，我禁不住想起了这则寓言。 我从未见到过任何人有如此阴郁的表情。他怔怔地望着前面，看上去似 乎全世界的重担都落到了他一个人的肩膀上。我为他感到难过。我怀疑 是他不争气的兄弟又给他惹了麻烦。我走过去，向他伸出了手。
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “你好吗？”我问。 “就是心里不太高兴。”他答道。 “又是汤姆惹的吗？” 他叹了口气。 “是的，又是他。” “干嘛还要管他？你已经做得仁至义尽。你该知道他已经是无可救 药的了。” 我认为家家户户都有败类。20年来汤姆一直是个令家人头疼的家伙。 他的人生起步颇为体面： 开始做生意，后来结婚而且有两个孩子。拉 姆齐一家人非常受人尊敬，完全有理由相信汤姆会有一个成功而风光的 人生。但有一天，事先没有任何征兆的，他声称自己讨厌 作，而且也 不适合婚姻生活。他要享受人生。他不听任何人的规劝，就离开了妻子， 离开了办公室。他有点钱，在欧洲不同国家的首都快快活活地过了
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 两年。有关他的种种行为的传闻不时传到了亲戚的耳朵里，他们都深感震 惊。毫无疑问，他生活得很开心。亲戚们无可奈何地摇着头说，等他把钱 花完了看他怎么办。他们很快发现： 他靠借债过日子。他富有魅力，而 且厚颜无耻。他向我借钱时，我从未遇到过比他更难以拒绝的人。他从朋 友那里获得稳定的收入，而且特别善于交友。他经常说把钱花在生活必需 品上毫无意义，而有趣的花钱方式是用它来享受奢华。为此他依赖哥哥乔 治来满足自己的享受，而他的魅力在乔治身上没有白费。乔治是个一本正 经的人，对汤姆的花言巧语丝毫没有察觉，同时他也是个正派的人，有一 两次轻信了汤姆要改过自新的诺言，给了他一笔数目可观的钱让他重新开 始生活。汤姆用这笔钱买了一辆汽车和一些漂亮的珠宝饰物。但当事实使 乔治明白他的弟弟决不会安定下来，因而不想再管他时，汤姆开始敲诈乔 治，良心上丝毫没有感到不安。当一位受人尊重的律师发现自己的弟弟在 自己喜爱的餐馆的柜台后面调制鸡尾酒，或看见他坐在出租马车的驭座上
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 等候在自己常去的俱乐部外面时，终究感到有点不光彩。汤姆说，做餐 馆酒吧服务员或赶出租马车完全是个体面的职业，但如果乔治愿意给他 几百英镑的话，他不会介意为了家族的荣誉放弃这种职业。乔治如数照 付了。 有一次汤姆差点坐牢。这让乔治非常不安。他后来还介入了整个让 人丢尽脸面的事情。汤姆的确太过分了。他粗野、鲁莽、自私，但他从 前从未干过任何骗人的事，也就是乔治所指的非法的事。如果汤姆被起 诉，他肯定会被判刑的。可是乔治总不能让唯一的弟弟去坐牢。被汤姆 欺骗的那个人叫克朗萧，他是个报复心极强的人。他坚决要和汤姆对簿 公堂；他说汤姆是个恶棍，理应受到法律制裁。结果乔治花费了相当的 精力和500英镑才平息了此事。但当他听到汤姆和克朗萧两人把支票兑 换成现金后马上到蒙特卡洛去了，我从未见他如此暴跳如雷过。他们两 人还在蒙特卡洛高高兴兴过了一个月。
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 20年来，汤姆时常吃喝嫖赌、出入豪华宾馆、打扮入时。他经常衣 冠楚楚。尽管他已经 40又6，但你决不会把他看成是 35岁以上的人。和 他相处令你非常开心，尽管你知道他一文不值，但还是会禁不住愿意和 他交往。他兴高采烈，快乐无比， 魅力十足。他经常向我要钱购买生 活必需品，但我总是慷慨解囊。每当他向我借 50英镑时，我总是感觉欠 了他的债。无人汤姆不认识，无人不认识汤姆。你也许不欣赏他，但你 无法不喜欢他。 可怜的乔治，他比这个鲜廉寡耻的弟弟仅年长一岁，看起来却像 60 岁。25年来他每年的休假从未超过两个星期。他每天早晨 9点半到办公 室，直到 6点才离开。他正直、勤奋、值得人们尊敬。他有个贤妻。他 从未背叛过她，甚至连不忠的念头也从未有过。他有四个女儿，他是个 最称职不过的父亲。他总是尽量省下三分之一的收入，打算在 55岁退休 后住到乡村里的一栋小房子里。他可以在那里种花养草，打打高尔夫球。 他的一生无可挑剔。他很高兴自己一天天变老，因为汤姆也在变老，他 搓搓手说道：
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “不错，汤姆年轻英俊时过得很快活。但他只比我小一岁。再有四 年他就 50了。那时候他就会知道生活不容易。到 50岁时，我将有三万英 镑的积蓄。25年来我一直认为他最终会穷困潦倒。等着瞧吧，汤姆将怎 样忍受这样的日子。等着瞧吧，是努力 作有好报还是游手好闲有好报。 ” 可怜的乔治，我很同情他。当我在他旁边坐下之后，我仍不知道汤 姆到底干了什么不光彩的事。乔治显然很心烦。“你知道现在发生什么 事了吗？” 我做好了最坏的准备。我猜想汤姆可能最终已落入警察之手。乔治 几乎说不下去了。 “你不会否认吧，我这一辈子勤勤恳恳、为人正派、令人尊重，光 明正大。我勤奋劳动，俭朴生活了一辈子，期望退休时能靠从金边股票 中获得一笔小小的收入。我尽心尽职了一生，对此上帝感到很满意。”
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “是这样。” “你不能否认吧，汤姆是个无所事事、一无是处、生活放荡和不知 廉耻的恶棍。如果真有公理的话，他应该呆在劳教所里。” “是这样。” 乔治的脸涨得通红。 “几星期以前他和一位大得几乎可以当他母亲的女人订了婚，现在 这个女人死了，她的一切都留给了他。50万英镑，一艘游艇，在伦敦的 一栋房宅和乡下一栋别墅。” 乔治捏紧的拳头重重地砸在桌子上。 “这不公平。我敢说，这不公平，他妈的，这太不公平了。” 我再也忍不住了。看着乔治愤怒的表情，我禁不住哈哈大笑，我在 椅子里笑得前仰后合，几乎掉到地板上。乔治永远不会原谅我。不过， 汤姆经常邀我到他在梅费尔漂亮的豪宅里去就餐。尽管他时而会向我借 点钱，那也仅仅是出于习惯，从来没超过一英镑。
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper, which is devised to bring home to the young the useful lesson that in an imperfect world industry is rewarded and giddiness punished. The fable The Ant and the Grasshopper is designed to instruct the young people with a practical moral teaching that in an imperfect society hard work is appreciated and it will payoff while being too fond of excitement and pleasure is discouraged and it will be punished.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper I apologize for telling something which everyone is politely, but inexactly supposed to know. . . To be polite, I suppose that everyone has known the fable; but I doubt whether it is accurate, so I’m sorry for telling the story again.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper I do not ascribe it to perversity on my part, but rather to the inconsequence of childhood, which is deficient in moral sense, that I could never reconcile myself to the lesson. When I was a child I could never accept the moral lesson of the fable, which I attribute to my immature moral consciousness rather than to my unreasonable feeling or behavior.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper In this summary (and I have discovered since, entirely human) fashion I sought to express my disapproval of prudence and common-sense. In this concise way (since then I found it a completely human way) I tried to show my disapproval of the ant’s carefulness and practical good sense and judgment.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper For twenty-five years I’ve said that Tom would end in the gutter. And we shall see how he likes that. For twenty-five years I’ve said that Tom would end in poverty and let’s see how he feels when he lives in poverty.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Tom had been a sore trial to his for twenty years. For twenty years Tom had been troublesome and annoying as a test of his family’s patience.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper I suppose every family has a black sheep. I take it as a fact that every family has a person who brings embarrassment and loss of respect to the family.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper I never saw anyone wear an expression of such deep gloom. He was the first one that I ever saw who appeared to be so gloomy.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper He would listen to no expostulations. He wouldn’t listen to any earnest and kindly reasoning against what he was doing at all.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper He made a steady income from his friends and he made friends easily. He borrowed money regularly from his friends and he was so charming that he won friendship easily.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper He did not waste his charm on him. He got what he wanted from his brother with his attractiveness.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper George was a serious man and insensible to such enticements. George was so sincere that he was easily fooled by his brother’s tricks.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Once or twice he fell to Tom’s promises of amendment and gave him considerable sums in order that he might make a fresh start. For several times George believed Tom’s promises to change himself and gave him a considerable amount of money so that he could live a new life.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper devise (a plan, system or machine) vt. — design Examples: She devised a method for quicker communications between offices. Scientists have devised a test that shows who is most likely to get the disease.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper bring home sth. — make explicit sth. in an emphatic way Examples: The point is brought home in yesterday’s detailed statistics. The episode has brought home to me the pointlessness of this war.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper giddiness n. — the state of being rarely serious or living for the pleasure of the moment. Examples: It is generally agreed that in an imperfect world giddiness is to be punished. He was tired of hard work and felt a desire for a life of complete giddiness.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper industry n. — the fact of working very hard Examples: The clerk was rewarded for his industry. She has demonstrated a great deal of industry in finishing the project on time.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper laborious adj. — taking a lot of time and energy Examples: After the lengthy and laborious negotiation, the two parties finally reached an agreement. Collecting the raw materials proved to be a long and laborious task.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper ascribe sth. to sb. (sth. ) — consider sth. to be caused by, written by, or belonging to sb. (sth. ) Examples: There seems no particular reason to ascribe economic rationality to one group and not the other. While the outbreak of the disease directed media attention to pollution in the North Sea, ascribing the guilt to pollution was premature.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper perversity n. — the quality or state of being unreasonable in one’s behavior Examples: Undoubtedly, it would be wrong to continue out of perversity. I am a reasonable man, but, forced to revenge, I am not without a certain sense of perversity.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper on someone’s part — made or done by sb. Examples: There’s no need for any further instruction on my part. There are instances of excessive force on the part of security police.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper reconcile oneself to sth. — accept sth. although it makes one unhappy to do so Examples: These men reconcile themselves to circumstance, make their own compromises with destiny until happier times. Brilliant or not, I must reconcile myself to the idea that I would never reach the top.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper chuck vt. — throw sth. away in a careless way Examples: She took off her shoes and chucked them on the floor. Somebody in the passing crowd chucked a bottle onto the field.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper waste sth. on sb. — use sth. extravagantly, needlessly or without an adequate result Examples: He didn’t waste his charm on his fiancée who grew fond of him. I can’t believe you wasted your money on that junk!
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper qualm n. — feeling of doubt, esp. about whether what one is doing is right Examples: I have no qualms about recommending the same approach to other doctors. The manager has no qualms about dropping players who do not perform well.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper make a point of doing sth. — do sth. because one considers it important or necessary Examples: She made a point of spending as much time as possible away from her home. He makes a point of letting others know he takes care of his children.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper gutter n. — a condition of life in which someone is poor and has no self-respect Examples: Instead of ending up in jailor in the gutter, he was remarkably successful. He was an alcoholic who has only recently gotten his life out of the gutter.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper prudence n. — sensibility and carefulness Examples: A lack of prudence in the business world may lead to financial problems. But what passion was there in a life lived with prudence?
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper expostulation — earnest and kindly reasoning against something one intends to do or has done Examples: My expostulations had no results. His brother wouldn’t listen to any expostulations.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper convict vt. — find ( sb. ) guilty of a crime , esp. in a court of law Examples: We convicted him of his errors. These criminals have been convicted of sin.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper infamous adj. — well known for wicked behavior Examples: An infamous plot was cracked. He was mistakenly considered as an infamous traitor.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Exercises I. Comprehension questions 1. What is the moral lesson of the fable The Ant and the Grasshopper? How did the narrator as a child react to the fable? 2. What was George’s mood when the narrator saw him in a restaurant? 3. What accounted for Tom’s decision to leave his family and office? 4. What kind of life did Tom live in Europe?
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 5. By what means did Tom cheat George out of his money? 6. Why did George fall to Tom’s promises of amendment again and again? 7. How did Tom become a wealthy man? 8. How did George feel when Tom suddenly became rich?
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper II. Topics for Discussion 1. What is the author’s purpose of telling the fable The Ant and the Grasshopper? 2. Maugham once says “we are a haphazard bundle of inconsistent qualities. ” Does George belong to this category? State your reasons. 3. If you have a scapegrace brother, will you adopt the same attitude towards him as George does? Will you stick to the blood-is-thicker-than-water principle when dealing with his wrong doings?
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 4. Do you think every family has a black sheep as the author asserts?
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper III. Vocabulary A. Replace the italicized parts in the following sentences with words or phrases from the text that best keep the original meanings. 1. ( hilarious 2. ( provide for ) We were invited to a fancy-dress party at Alison’s last Sunday and everyone of us had a good time. ) Bob died of cancer last year, leaving his wife two young daughters; so she had to give them all the things necessary for life.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 3. ( dissolute ) Flynn is a charming fellow, still handsome though dissipated, and always eager to have a good time. 4. ( ) It was a very long journey from York to London and Ross was grateful for John’s company. ) After being fired for spending too much time on the phone, the vengeful secretary spread vile rumors about the company. society 5. ( vindictive
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 6. ( saving your ) presence “Some of the members of your organization are unscrupulous schemers, sorry to say this when you’re here. ” 7. ( levied … on) The judge imposed a $3 million fine on the paper mill for polluting the river and its environment. 8. ( One of the good things about Amanda is that you can always rely on her inexhaustible enthusiasm. unfailing )
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 9. ( brought home to ) 10. ( wash my ) hands of At the forum they showed a documentary which made all the people present aware of the seriousness of the financial situation. If you are going to regard every suggestion I make as a criticism, then I will stop being involved in the whole matter.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper B. Find the words from the text that are most nearly opposite in meaning to the words in bold type in the following sentences. 1. ( prudence ) They were embarrassed at his indiscretions in talking about family matters in front of strangers. 2. ( thrift ) Jack was always spending a lot of money on luxury goods, and his extravagance eventually led him into bankruptcy.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 3. ( forgiven ) 4. ( ) gloom 5. ( infamous ) The attack on World Trade Center in September 2001 was a terrorist act condemned by almost all nations of the world. His unusual name and undernourished body have long been a source of merriment for his friends and colleagues. Myra comes from an illustrious political family which includes one Member of Parliament and two former Cabinet ministers.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 6. ( assuredly ) When I entered the room, the man greeted me uncertainly and asked if he was in the right place. 7. ( blameless ) The judge agreed that the defendant had been depressed and was therefore not fully responsible for her actions. 8. ( convicted ) Just as expected, yesterday the court acquitted Graham Sykes and five associates of fraud charges.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 9. ( sympathy ) I try to be broad-minded, but do feel antipathy toward people who are dirty and unkempt. 10. ( enticement ) It is hoped that the severe prison sentences will serve as a deterrent to other would-be offenders.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper C. Choose the word or phrase that best completes each of the following sentences. B 1. Hard training will ___ you richly when it comes to the actual competition. A. bring C. serve B. pay D. make A 2. At the news conference, the foreign minister ___ a confident smile and answered all the questions raised by the journalists. A. wore C. settled B. expressed D. cultivated
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper C 3. After years of research, scholars have finally ___ this anonymous play Christopher Marlowe. A. taken. . . for C. ascribed. . . to B. obliged. . . with D. reconciled. . . to B 4. Most parents have occasional ___ about whether they’re doing the best thing for their children. A. burdens C. necessities B. qualms D. securities
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper A 5. It ___ me to thank you for all you have done for the association in the last few years. A. falls to C. falls on B. falls into D. falls in with 6. I never heard anyone in my village mention my uncle Tony D — I think he was a bit of a. ___ A. white elephant C. guinea pig B. dark horse D. black sheep
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper D 7. The ___ that she suggested for discussion were based on the most recent medical research. A. contributions C. expostulations B. occupations D. amendments C 8. Rosa used to be quiet and introverted, but now she is ___ being sociable. A. looking forward to C. making a point of B. going back on D. standing up to
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 9. Mary broke off her engagement to John when she found D him often ___ the pretty girls in his office. A. putting up with C. making fun of B. seeing through D. philandering with B 10. Instead of ending up in jail or ___, she was remarkably successful and became one of the wealthiest people in Britain today. A. in the raw C. in the extreme B. in the gutter D. in the flesh
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper IV. Cloze Fill in the blanks with words from the following list. Use the words in their proper forms. Make sure that no word is used more than once. bring blank after matter adapt lead in do on use freedom dwell delight retire above have alert down sensible enjoy displease solution picture practical application
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper He smiled grimly. He was not sentimental. He (1) had enjoyed his _____ authority and it gave him an austere satisfaction to know that he _______ displease to had kept everyone up to the mark. It did not (2) him think that he had been feared rather than loved. He saw his life as __ a problem(3) in higher mathematics, the working-out of which _____ has required intense (4) application of all his powers, but of _______ which the result had not the least (5) practical consequence. Its _______ interest lay in its intricacy and its beauty in its (6) solution. But _____ like pure beauty it (7) led nowhere. His future was (8) blank. He was fifty-five, and full of energy, and to himself his mind
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper ____ seemed as (9) alert as ever, his experience of men and affairs was wide: all that remained to him was to settle (10) down in a ____ country town in England play bridge with elderly ladies and ______ __ golf with (11) retired colonels. He had met, when (12) on leave, old chiefs of his, and had observed with what difficulty _______ they (13) adapted themselves to the change in their circumstances. They had looked forward to the freedom that _____ would be theirs when they retired and (14) had pictured the charming uses to which they would put their leisure. Mirage. It _____ was not very pleasant to be obscure after (15) having dwelt
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper __ in a spacious Residency, to make (16) do with a couple of maids when you have been accustomed to the service of half a dozen _____ local boys and, (17) above all, it was not pleasant to realize that _____ you did not (18) matter a row of beans to anyone when you had ____ grown (19) used to the delicate flattery of knowing that a word ______ of praise would (20) delight and a frown humiliate all sorts and conditions of men.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper V. Translation A. Translate the following paragraph from the text into Chinese. I suppose every family has a black sheep. Tom had been a sore trial to his for twenty years. He had begun life decently enough: he went into business, and married and had two children. The Ramsays were perfectly respectable people and there was every reason to suppose that Tom Ramsay would have a useful and honorable career. But one day, without warning, he announced that he didn’t like work and that he wasn’t suited for marriage. He wanted to enjoy himself. He would listen to no expostulations. He left his wife and his
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper office. He had a little money and he spent two happy years in the various capitals of Europe. Rumors of his doings reached his relations from time to time and they were profoundly shocked. He certainly had a very good time. They shook their heads and asked what would happen when his money was spent. They soon found out: he borrowed. He was charming and unscrupulous. I have never met anyone to whom it was more difficult to refuse a loan. He made a steady income from his friends and he made friends easily. But he always said that the money you spent on necessities was boring; the money that was amusing to spend was the money you spent in luxuries. For this he depended on his brother George. He did
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper not waste his charm on him. George was a serious man and insensible to such enticements. George was respectable. Once or twice he fell to Tom’s promises of an amendment and gave his considerable sums in order that he might make a fresh start. On these Tom bought a motor-car and some very nice jewellery. But when circumstances forced George to realize that his brother would never settle down and he washed his hands off him, Tom, without a qualm, began to blackmail him. It was not very nice for a respectable lawyer to find his brother shaking cocktails behind the bar of his favorite restaurant or to see him waiting on the box-seat of a taxi outside his club. Tom said that to serve in a bar or to driver
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper a taxi was a perfectly decent occupation, but if George could oblige him with a couple of hundred pounds, he didn’t mind for the honour of the family giving it up. George paid.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper B. Translate the following paragraph into English. 多数人的生活取决于他们周围的环境。他们有的屈从于命运的摆 弄，有的甚至心甘情愿。他们犹如电车，颇为自得地在自己的轨道 上行驶；而对于那些匆忙驶过车流而后轻驰在旷野上的廉价车却不 屑一顾。我尊重这些人；他们是好公民、好丈夫、好父亲，可是， 我并不觉得他们使人振奋。另有些人把生活掌握在自己手里，似乎 在按照自己的意愿创造生活，尽管这样的人屈指可数，他们却深深 地吸引了我。也许我们没有所谓的自由意志，但不管怎么说，它确 实存在于我们的幻想之中。每逢站在十字路口，我们好像能在左右 两条道路中任选其一，可一旦选定之后，却很难认识到那实际上是 世界历史的整个进程左右了我们的人生选择。
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper VI. Writing The moral lesson of The Ant and the Grasshopper is: Idleness brings want. But the author did not agree. He said: “I could never quite reconcile myself to the lesson. ” Do you accept the traditional value of the fable or do you share the author’s opinion? Write an essay to illustrate your point of view. The suggested title is What Does the Fable Mean to Me?
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper A. 我认为家家户户都有败类。20年来汤姆一直是个令家人头疼的家 伙。他的人生起步颇为体面： 开始做生意，后来结婚而且有两个孩 子。拉姆齐一家人非常受人尊敬，完全有理由相信汤姆会有一个成 功而风光的人生。但有一天，事先没有任何征兆的，他声称自己讨 厌 作，而且也不适合婚姻生活。他要享受人生。他不听任何人的 规劝，就离开了妻子，离开了办公室。他有点钱，在欧洲不同国家 的首都快快活活地过了两年。有关他的种种行为的传闻不时传到了 亲戚们的耳朵里，他们都深感震惊。毫无疑问，他生活得很开心。 亲戚们无可奈何地摇着头说，等他把钱花完了看他怎么办。他们很 快发现： 他靠借债过日子。他富有魅力，而且厚颜无耻。他向我借 钱时，我从未遇到过比他更难以拒绝的人。他从朋友那里获得稳定 的收入，而且特别善于交友。他经常说把钱花在生活必需品上毫无
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 意义，而有趣的花钱方式是用它来享受奢华。为此他依赖哥哥乔治 来满足自己的享受，而他的魅力在乔治身上没有白费。乔治是个一 本正经的人，对汤姆的花言巧语丝毫没有察觉，同时他也是个正派 的人，有一两次轻信了汤姆要改过自新的诺言，给了他一笔数目可 观的钱让他重新开始生活。汤姆用这笔钱买了一辆汽车和一些漂亮 的珠宝饰物。但当事实使乔治明白他的弟弟决不会安定下来，因而 不想再管他时，汤姆开始敲诈乔治，良心上丝毫没有感到不安。当 一位受人尊重的律师发现自己的弟弟在自己喜爱的餐馆的柜台后面 调制鸡尾酒，或看见他坐在出租马车的驭座上等候在自己常去的俱 乐部外面时，终究感到有点不光彩。汤姆说，做餐馆酒吧服务员或 赶出租马车完全是个体面的职业，但如果乔治愿意给他几百英镑的 话，他不会介意为了家族的荣誉放弃这种职业。乔治如数照付了。
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper B. The lives of most men are determined by their environment. They accept the circumstances amid which fate has thrown them not only with resignation but even with good will. They are like streetcars running contentedly on their rails and despise the sprightly flivver that dashes in and out of the traffic and speeds so jauntily across the open country. I respect them; they are good citizens, good husbands, and good fathers, and of course somebody has to pay the taxes; but I do not find them exciting. I am fascinated by the men, few enough in all conscience, who take life in their own hands and seem to mould it to their own liking. It may be that we have no such thing as free will, but at all events we have the illusion of it. At a cross-road it does seem
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper to us that we might go either to the right or the left and, the choice once made, it is difficult to see that the whole course of the world’s history obliged us to take the turning we did.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Further Reading The Verger Main Idea of Further Reading Idiom Studies Exercises
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Further Reading The Verger Somerset Maugham (Albert Edward Foreman had been verger of a church called St. Peter’s in Neville Square for sixteen years, and during this time he had performed his duties perfectly, always keeping the church clean and tidy, always perfectly dressed for every funeral and wedding. Then a new vicar was appointed. It was not long before this man discovered the surprising fact that Foreman could neither read nor write. The vicar told him that he must learn to do so at once. )
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “We don’t want to be harsh with you, Foreman, ” said the vicar. “But the churchwardens and I have quite made up our minds. We’ll give you three months and if at the end of that time you cannot read and write, I’m afraid you’ll have to go. ” Albert Edward had never liked the new vicar. He’d said from the beginning that they’d made a mistake when they gave him St. Peter’s. He wasn’t the type of man they wanted with a classy congregation like that. And now he straightened himself a little. He knew his value and he wasn’t going to allow himself to be put upon.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “I’m very sorry, sir, I’m afraid it’s no good. I’m too old a dog to learn new tricks. I’ve lived a good many years without knowin’ ’ow to read and write, and without wishin’ to praise myself, self-praise is no recommendation, I don’t mind sayin’ I’ve done my duty in that state of life in which it ’as pleased a merciful providence to place me, and if I could learn now I don’t know as I’d want to. ” “In that case, Foreman, I’m afraid you must go. ” “Yes, sir, I quite understand. I shall be ’appy to ’and in my resignation as soon as you’ve found somebody to take my place. ”
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper But when Albert Edward with his usual politeness had closed the church door behind the vicar and the two churchwardens he could not sustain the air of unruffled dignity with which he had borne the blow inflicted upon him, and his lips quivered. He walked slowly back to the vestry and hung up on its proper peg his verger’s gown. He sighed as he thought of all the grand funerals and smart weddings it had seen. He tidied everything up, put on his coat, and hat in hand walked down the aisle. 40 He locked the church door behind him. He strolled across the square, but deep in his sad thoughts he did not take the street that led him home, where a nice strong cup of tea awaited him; he took the wrong turning. He walked slowly along. His heart was heavy. He did not know what he should do with
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper himself. He did not fancy the notion of going back to domestic service; after being his own master for so many years, for the vicar and churchwardens could say what they liked, it was he that had run St. Peter’s, Neville Square, he could scarcely demean himself by accepting a situation. He had saved a tidy sum, but not enough to live on without doing something, and life seemed to cost more every year. He had never thought to be troubled with such questions. The vergers of St. Peter’s, like the popes of Rome, were there for life. He had often thought of the pleasant reference the vicar would make in his sermon at evensong the first Sunday after his death to the long and faithful service, and the exemplary character of their late verger, Albert Edward Foreman. He sighed deeply.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Albert Edward was a non-smoker and a total abstainer, but with a certain latitude; that is to say he liked a glass of beer with his dinner and when he was tired he enjoyed a cigarette. It occurred to him now that one would comfort him and since he did not carry them he looked about him for a shop where he could buy a pocket of Gold Flakes. He did not at once see one and walked on a little. It was a long street, with all sorts of shops in it, but there was not a single one where you could buy cigarettes. “That’s strange, ” said Albert Edward. To make sure he walked right up the street again. No, there was no doubt about it. He stopped and looked reflectively up and down.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “I can’t be the only man as walks along this street and wants a fag, ” he said. “I shouldn’t wonder but what a fellow might do very well with a little shop here. Tobacco and sweets, you know. ” He gave a sudden start. “That’s an idea, ” he said. “Strange ’ow things come to you when you least expect it. ” He turned, walked home, and had his tea. 80 “You’re very silent this afternoon, Albert, ” his wife remarked. “I’m thinkin’, ” he said.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper He considered the matter from every point of view and next day he went along the street and by good luck found a little shop to let that looked as though it would exactly suit him. Twenty-four hours later he had taken it, and when a month after that he left St. Peter’s, Neville Square, for ever, Albert Edward Foreman set up in business as tobacconist and newsagent. His wife said it was a dreadful come-down after being verger of St. Peter’s, but he answered that you had to move with the times, the church wasn’t what it was, and henceforward he was going to render unto Caesar what was Caesar’s. Albert Edward did very well. He did so well that in a year or so it struck him that he might take a second shop and put a manager in. He looked for another long street that hadn’t got a tabacconist in it and when he found it, and
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper a shop to let, took it and stocked it. This was a success too. Then it occurred to him that if he could run two he could run half a dozen, so he began walking about London, and whenever he found a long street that had no tobacconist and a shop to let he took it. In the course of ten years he had acquired no less than ten shops and he was making money hand over fist. He went round to all of them himself every Monday, collected the week’s takings and took them to the bank. One morning when he was there paying in a bundle of notes and a heavy bag of silver the cashier told him that the manager would like to see him. He was shown to an office and the manager shook hands with him.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Mr. Foreman, I wanted to have a talk to you about the money you’ve got on deposit with us. D’you know exactly how much it is? ” “Not within a pound or two, sir; but I’ve got a pretty rough idea. ” “Apart from what you paid in this morning it’s little over thirty thousand pounds. That’s a very large sum to have on deposit and I should have thought you’d do better to invest it. ” “I wouldn’t want to take no risk, 120 sir. I know it’s safe in the bank. ” “You needn’t have the least anxiety. We’ll make you out a list of absolutely gilt-edged securities. They’ll bring you in a better rate of interest than we can possibly afford to give you. ”
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper A troubled look settled on Mr. Foreman’s distinguished face. “I’ve never ’ad anything to do with stocks and shares and I’d ’ave to leave it all in your ’ands, ” he said. The manager smiled. “We’ll do everything. All you’ll have to do next time you come in is just sign the transfers. ” “I could do that all right, ” said Albert uncertainly. “But ’ow should I know what I was signin’? ” “I suppose you can read, ” said the manager a trifle sharply. Mr. Foreman gave him a disarming smile. “Well, sir, that’s just it. I can’t. I know it sounds funny-like, but there it is, I can’t read and write, only me name, an’ I only learnt to do that when I went into business. ” The manager was so surprised that he just jumped up from his chair.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “That’s the most extraordinary thing I ever heard. ” “You see, it’s like this sir, I never ’ad the opportunity until it was too late and then some’ow I wouldn’t, I got obstinatelike. ” The manager stared at him as though he were a prehistoric monster. “And do you mean to say you’ve built up this important business and amassed a fortune of thirty thousand pounds without being able to read or write? Good God, man, what would you be now if you had been able to? ” “I can tell you that, sir, ” said Mr. Foreman, a little smile on his still aristocratic features. “I’d be verger of St. Peter’s, Neville Square. ”
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Notes to Further Reading knowin’ ’ow: knowing how. This is the way Cockneys (eastern Londoners) speak a particular dialect of English. In the dialect, most sounds represented by “h” are not pronounced. The same is true of the following words, such as “’appy”, “’as”, and “’and”.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Notes to Further Reading Gold Flakes: a brand name of cigarettes
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Notes to Further Reading render unto Caesar what was Caesar’s: This is a quotation from the Christian Bible. It means meeting one’s proper obligations as a citizen. And here, it means to relive one’s old experience or revive one’s old dream.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Notes to Further Reading gilt-edged securities: shares, esp. those offered for sale to the public by the government, that are considered safe, paying a small rate of interest but unlikely to fail
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences I’ve lived a good many years without knowin’ ’ow to read and write, and without wishing to praise myself, self-praise is no recommendation, I don’t mind sayin’ I’ve done my duty in that state of life in which It’s pleased a merciful providence to place me, and if I could learn now I don’t know as I’d want to. Although I’m illiterate, I’ve lived for many years happily. I have no intention to praise myself as self-praise should be discouraged. I’ve performed my duty very well, even God is pleased to have me put in such a position. I may not want to learn to read and write even if I am able to start to learn.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences In the course of ten years he had acquired no less than ten shops and he was making money hand over fist. During the ten years, he had taken and stocked no less than ten shops and was making profit very fast.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences He did not fancy the notion of going back to domestic service. He didn’t like the idea of going back to do house-keeping work ．
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences He went around to all of them himself every Monday, collected the week’s takings and took them to the bank. He visited his shops one by one, collecting all the money made and then deposited it in the bank.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences Mr. Foreman gave him a disarming smile． Mr Foreman gave an honest and friendly smile to the manager of the bank.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences I’m too old a dog to learn new tricks. I’m too old to learn to read and write.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences But when Albert Edward with his usual politeness had closed the church door behind the vicar and the two churchwardens he could not sustain the air of unruffled dignity with which he had borne the blow inflicted upon him. When Albert Edward closed the church door as the vicar and other two churchwardens left as politely as usual he couldn’t keep calm and his dignity any longer although he managed to maintain that air of dignity when he suffered the blow.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences His wife said it was a dreadful come-down after being a verger of St. Peter’s, but he answered that you had to move with the times, the church wasn’t what it was, and henceforward he was going to render unto Caesar what was Caesar’s. His wife said that it was a terrible fall in social position when he resigned from the church of St. Peter’s. He responded that you had to change when things changed because the church was headed by a new vicar. Therefore, he was going to relive his old experience of doing business.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Translation of Further Reading 教堂司事福尔曼 威廉 • 毛姆 阿尔伯特·爱德华·福尔曼在耐维尔广场圣彼得教堂当司事已有16 年了。在任职期间他一直忠于职守，经常把教堂打扫得干干净净，在每 一次婚礼和葬礼上他总是穿着很得体。这时来了一位新任命的牧师。不 久，他发现福尔曼是个文盲，感到很惊讶。于是要求他必须马上学文化。 “我们不想为难你，福尔曼，”牧师说，“但我和执事都已决定好 了。我们给你三个月时间学习，如果那时你依然不会读书、写字，恐怕 你得离开这里了。” 阿尔伯特·爱德华从来没有喜欢过新来的牧师。他从一开始就说上 面派他主持圣彼德教堂是犯了一个大错。他不是上等会众所需要的那种 人。这时候，他直了直腰。他知道自己的价值，绝不允许他人欺凌自己。
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “对不起，先生。这恐怕不行。我这把年纪，学不了了。我不识字， 可照样生活了这么多年。我也不想自吹自擂。自吹自擂决非自荐，我就 能这样说，我也尽职尽责了，仁慈的上帝对这样的安排也颇感满意。如 果我现在可以开始学文化，我也不知道想不想学。” “如果那样的话，福尔曼先生，恐怕你得走人了。” “行，先生，我很理解。一旦你找到替代我的人选，我会很乐意递 交我的辞呈。” 当阿尔伯特以他惯有的礼貌在牧师和执事走后关上大门时，他再也 无法保持平静的神态和尊严了。刚才他正是以这种神态承受了这个打击， 他的嘴唇颤抖着。他慢慢走回法衣室，把他的衣物挂在该挂的衣帽钩上。 回想起那些隆重的葬礼和时尚的婚礼，他叹了口气。他整理好一切，穿 上外套，拉上帽子，沿着通道走去。他锁上门。他穿过广场，禁不住一 阵阵伤感，他没有走原来回家的路。此时家里正有一杯芳香四溢的浓茶 在等着他。他拐个弯，慢慢往前走，心情很沉重。他不知道今后该做什 么。他不愿意再回去做家务活了，因为多年以来他在教堂里一直
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 是自己当家作主。不管牧师和执事说些什么，是他掌管着耐维尔·圣彼 得教堂。他无法降低自己的身份来接受一份干家务的活。他已省下一笔 相当可观的钱，但不做其他事情而靠它生活是不够的，而且生活费似乎 年年渐涨。以前，他从未被这样的问题所困扰。圣彼得教堂的司事犹如 罗马的大主教是终身制的。他曾经常想到牧师在他死后的第一个礼拜日 做晚祷时高兴地提到他们已故的司事——长期以来忠于职守，堪称楷模 的阿尔伯特·爱德华·福尔曼司事。他深深叹了口气。 阿尔伯特·爱德华从不吸烟，他是个绝对戒酒的人。但也有例外的 时候，也就是说，在就餐时喜欢来一杯啤酒，在疲倦时喜欢点上一支雪 茄。抽支烟会令他感到舒服些。这时，他突然想抽一支，因为随身没带 烟，他四处张望想找商店买一包“金雪儿”。他没有找到，于是就接着 往前走了一段。这是条很长的街道，沿途有各种商店，却没有一家卖香 烟的商店。 “这就奇怪了，”阿尔伯特·爱德华说。
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 为了确认此事，他又接着往前走。确实没有一家香烟店，他停住脚 步，若有所思地打量着这条街。 “我肯定不是走在这条街上唯一想买香烟的人，”他说，“我敢肯 定，在这条街上开个香烟店，生意一定不错。” 他突然灵机一动。 “好主意，”他说，“真奇怪，有些从未料想到的东西会突然冒出 来。” 他转身回到家里，喝了他那杯沏了多时的浓茶。 “你整个下午一声不吭，阿尔伯特，”妻子说。 “我在想事情。” 他前前后后仔细地考虑了这件事情。第二天，他沿街行走，正巧发 现有人要出租一家小店，这家小店似乎完全合他的意。24小时以后他就 租了那个小店，一个月后，他永远地离开了耐维尔·圣彼德教堂。阿尔 伯特成了店主，出售香烟和报纸。他妻子说，当了圣彼得教堂司事后再 干这一行，这种落魄太可怕了。他回答说你得跟上时代的潮流，教堂已
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 经今非昔比，所以他打算该干啥就干啥。阿尔伯特生意做得很好。大约 一年后，他想，我既然干得很成功，我不妨开设第二家商店，并招聘一 名经理。他又找到一条没人销售香烟的长街，当他找到一家要出租的商 店，他就马上租下来，并为它置备了各种各样的香烟。他又成功了。后 来他又想既然能够经营两家商店就可以经营六家商店，于是他在伦敦到 处查看，凡是没有烟草店的长街只要有商店出租，他一律租下。在 10年 时间里，他接管了不少于10家门店，挣起钱来轻而易举，他每周一到各 店亲自巡视，汇总一周的收入，然后将它存入银行。 一天当他交付了一捆钞票和很重的一袋银币时，收银员说经理想见 见他。他被领进办公室，经理和他握了握手。 “福尔曼先生，我想和您谈谈您在敝行的存款，你知道你已拥有多 少存款了？” “确切的数字记不清了。经理先生，但大概的数目我还是知道的。 ” “除了您今天早晨存入的，你已经存了三万英镑。这是一笔数目相 当可观的存款，我想您完全可以用它来投资。”
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “我不想冒什么风险，先生，我觉着放在银行里保险。” “你一点不用担心。我们会列出一张绝对可靠的金边股票单子给您。 它们给您带来的利息要高于我们所能给予的利息。” 福尔曼那张与众不同的脸上显出了忧虑的神色。 “我从未玩过股票，我还是把钱交给你来处理吧，”他说。 经理笑了，“全由我们来办吧。下次您来，只要在转让书上签上您 的名字就行了。” “这没问题，”阿尔伯特犹豫不定，“但我怎么知道我签的是什么 内容呢？” “我想您是识字的吧？”经理有点不悦地说道。 福尔曼先生坦然地笑了笑。 “嗯，先生，问题就在这。我不识字。我想这听起来有点可笑，事 实就是这样，我既不会读也不会写。我只会写自己的名字，而且还是在 做生意时学会的。” 经理极为惊讶地从椅子上蹦了起来。
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper “我从没听说过这种稀奇事。” “是这样，先生。我一直没有机会学文化。后来等有了机会，我又 太老了，我也不想学了，我挺固执的。” 经理盯着他的眼睛，好像他是原始丛林里的妖怪。 “你是说你积攒了三万英镑却不会读书写字？天啦，好家伙，如果 您会读书写字的话，您现在会在做什么呢？” “我可以告诉您，先生，”福尔曼先生说，颇具贵族气的脸上露出 一丝微笑，“我会是耐维尔·圣彼得教堂的司事。”
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Main idea of Further Reading In further reading, the author mainly tells a story of the verger Albert Edward Foreman who performed his duty very well but was forced to learn to read and write. As a verger, Albert had his routine life challenged when the new vicar came. Reluctant to accept the vicar’s humiliation, Albert had to resign his job. On the way home, he happened to walk along a street where no tobaccos were sold. So he decided to set up in business to be a tobacconist and newsagent. In the course of ten years, he made money hand over fist. His business proved to be a great success.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Idiom Studies 1. beat about the bush not telling sth. immediately or quickly, but in a complicated way 拐弯抹角地说 2. spill the beans tell one’s secret to others without one’s permission 泄密
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 3. the last straw that breaks the camel the last in a series of unpleasant and undesired events that makes one not tolerate a situation any longer （一系列打击，不快事件中）最终使人无法忍受的事； 终于导致垮台的因素 4. bark up the wrong tree direct an inquiry or accusation at the wrong place or person 错怪了人，把事情搞错了 5. bear fruit produce desired results 产生所期望的结果
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 6. sour grapes deprecation as a form of consolation to oneself about what one would like to have, but can not 酸葡萄 7. wither on the vine disappear gradually rather than being destroyed suddenly 逐步消失；夭折 8. sow one’s wild oats go through a period of irresponsible pleasure-seeking while young （年轻时）放荡，纵情玩乐
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 9. a thorn in one’s flesh a person or thing that continually annoys or hinders one 经常惹人烦恼的人或物 10. take a leaf out of one’s book copy sb. ; act or behave in a similar way to sb. 模仿某人，以某人为榜样
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Exercises I. Comprehension questions 1. How did Albert Edward perform his duty as verger of St. Peter’s? How did he react when the new vicar asked him to learn to read and write? 2. How did Albert Edward feel when he decided to leave St. Peter’s? 3. What made Albert decide to set up in business as tobacconist? 4. What did Albert Edward’s wife say about her husband’s going into business? What was his response? 5. Why was Albert Edward unwilling to invest in stocks and shares?
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper II. Topics for Discussion 1. Suppose you were in the position of Albert Edward, would you follow the new vicar’s advice and learn to read and write? State your reasons. 2. Albert Edward said, “You had to move with the times. ” Do you believe in this philosophy? 3. There is a saying “A loss may turn out to be a gain. ” or “ Misfortune may prove to be a blessing in disguise. ” Do you think it applicable to Albert Edward? Give examples to support your argument.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Speaking Skills Pursuing Objectives in Life Oral Practice More Expressions for Practice
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Pursuing Objectives in Life People vary greatly in their pursuits in life, such as hedonism, epicurism and utilitarianism. But whatever be your pursuing objectives, no one is going to stop you from doing what you want to and no one will be there to constantly drive you either. Therefore you, and you alone, will be accountable for your actions. Practice the following dialogues with your partners and learn to identify your pursuing objectives in life.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Oral Practice A: Which life pattern do you prefer, Tom’s or George’s? B: Well, George’s for sure. You see, for twenty years Tom raced and gambled, flirted with the prettiest girls, danced, ate in the most expensive restaurants, and dressed beautifully. I would say he was a most amusing companion, but you know he was perfectly worthless. He borrowed all the time, and he even blackmailed his own brother. What a shame! But George was quite a different character. He had been hardworking, decent, respectable and straightforward all his life. Unlike Tom, he was honest, industrious and worthy, and took on great responsibility for his family and people around him. I really appreciate that!
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper A: For most people, ambition is first and foremost defined as an ardent desire for rank, fame, or power. The ambitious individual, far from identifying himself and his fortunes with the group, wishes to rise above it. To be exact, the ambitious man or woman sees the world as a battle, and competitiveness is his or her principal emotion. For them, the world has limited prizes to offer, and he or she is determined to get his or hers. What do you think of their attitudes? B: Well, surely ambition is behind dreams of glory, of wealth, of love, of distinction, of accomplishment, of pleasure, of goodness. But I would see ambition in quite a different way. What really matters, I think, is how you do with your dreams and expectations, that is to say, how to make your dreams come true.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper A: I do agree. Some people say that success is a myth, and ambition is a sham. You know, many people are naturally distrustful of ambition, feeling that it represents something intractable in human nature. So, do you see any virtues out of ambition? B: I would say ambition could be quite positive in our lives. It is true that we human beings mostly live within a realm of choicelessness. But we do choose how we shall live: courageously or in cowardice, honorably or dishonorably, with a purpose or drift aimlessly. We decide what is important and what is trivial in life. And as we decide and choose, so are our lives formed. In the end, forming our own destiny is what our ambitions are about.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper A: Have you heard of this saying, “God must have loved the common people, because he made so many of them. ” B: Sure, that is from U. S. President Abraham Lincoln. Despite his seeming ordinariness, he went on to greatness — while giving new meaning and dignity to what the world considered “average. ” A: It seems in our society, many ordinary people who have set their sights high do find a way to achieve their goals later in their lives; while on the other hand, many most-likely-tosucceed people fail to achieve much in the end. In your opinion, how do “average” people excel?
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper B: Well, I think the secrets of the “average” people who excel include: Learn self-discipline, Bring out the best in people, Build a knowledge base, Develop special skills, Keep promises, And bounce back from defeat. A: Success is a choice. I think the first step to achievement in business and life is to build self-esteem, since our selfesteem is the value we put on ourselves.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper B: I can’t agree with you more. We can expect great things from people who feel good about themselves. They can push themselves. They can set long-term goals. They have dreams that everyone expects to be fulfilled. People with high self-esteem are risk takers, but more important, they are achievers. On the contrary, people with low self-esteem are often unfocused and easily frustrated. They tend to be underachievers, complete with the package that is so characteristic of those kinds of persons: lack of discipline, poor organizational skills, an inability to finish things, a sense of discontent, sensitivity to criticism, envy of others.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper More Expressions for Practice l l l You must establish a solid work ethic and a sound strategy in order to become achievers. To maintain financial viability and ensure a good quality of life, we all need to develop life skills that enable us to be independent, tolerant, sociable and enterprising. One of the great problems of mankind is that we suffer from a poverty of the spirit, which stands in glaring contrast to our scientific and technological abundance. The richer we have become materially, the poorer we have become morally and spiritually.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper l l For me, the principal fact of life is the free mind. For good and evil, man is a free creative spirit. In short, as Jack London states: “I accepted the rising of the sun, I accepted that up above me was all that was fine and noble and gracious, all that gave decency and dignity to life, all that made life worth living and that rewarded one for his hardship and misery. ”
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Additional Work I. Idiom Studies II. Vocabulary Expansion III. Reading Appreciation IV. Translation of Proverbs
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper I. Idiom Studies The idioms given below include a reference to the plant. Choose a suitable one from the list to fill in each blank in the following sentences. Make changes when necessary. beat about the bush spill the beans the last straw that breaks the camel’s back bark up the wrong tree bear fruit sour grapes wither on the vine sow one’s wild oats a thorn in one’s flesh take a leaf out of one’s book
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 1. There was some debate as to whether the benefit scheme should be withdrawn or simply allowed to wither on the vine ________. 2. He says that my new car is a waste of money, but that’s just _____; sour grapes actually, he would like very much to own one himself. ________; 3. If you’ve got bad news, don’t beat about the bush come straight to the point. 4. The manager is trying to get rid of Tom because he has been ________ a thorn in his flesh since he joined the department.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 5. I was not one of those young people who sowed their wild oats _________; I was a fairly decent youth. 6. If you want to buy a villa as splendid as mine, you should ___________ take a leaf out of my book and start saving money. 7. The police were looking for a tall thin man, but they were ___________; barking up the wrong tree thief was short and fat. 8. Alice’s friends were going to have a surprise party for her, but _______. Ben spilled the beans 9. Jane has tried every means to make Tom change his mind, but _____ none of them have borne fruit so far.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 10. Losing my job was bad enough, but being evicted from my _________________. house was the last straw that broke the camel’s back
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper II. Vocabulary Expansion There are four choices marked A, B, C, and D under each of the following sentences. Choose the one that best completes the meaning of each sentence. 1. As one of the youngest branch manager in the IT company, D Mr. Yang is certainly on the ___ of a brilliant career. A. track B. margin C. course D. threshold
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper C 2. In ___ times, human beings did not travel for pleasure, but to find a more favorable climate. A. prime B. primary C. primitive D. preliminary
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 3. While it’s true that techniques of active listening can ___ the A value of lecture, few students possess such skills at the beginning of their college careers. A. enhance B. enlarge C. access D. exaggerate
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 4. In the library, I found Dabbie was frowning, apparently ___ a D word. A. tumbled to B. collided with C. coincided with D. stumped on
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper A 5. Fierce storms have been ___ rescue efforts and there’s now little chance of finding more survivors. A. hampering B. bewildering C. tangling D. blundering
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 6. They didn’t even give him any sick-pay when he was off ill, C which is a fairly ___ way to treat an employee. A. vulnerable B. makeshift C. shoddy D. backhanded
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 7. It must be realized that large price increase can only ___ B demands for even larger wage increase. A. call off B. trigger off C. make off D. carry off
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 8. When the old lady was back from shopping, she was shocked to C find that her house had been ___. A. pawned B. leased C. ransacked D. mortgaged
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper B 9. Since this was my first job interview, I asked ___ about the salary. A. discouragingly B. diffidently C. differentially D. diffusely
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper B 10. The lost car of the Lees was found ___ in the woods off the highway. A. vanished B. abandoned C. scattered D. disregarded
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper III. Reading Appreciation Read the stories about the origin of the following phrases. Keeping up with the Joneses Behind the phrase, “keeping up with the Joneses, ” lies a human story that is found, in one form or another in every country of the world. In the United States many have been told that anyone can become rich and successful if he works hard and has some good luck. Yet, getting rich creates some problems. When one becomes rich, he wants people to know it. And even if he does not become very rich, he wants people to think that he is. That is what “keeping up with the Joneses” is about. It is the story of someone who tries to look as rich and as successful as his neighbors.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper The expression was first used in 1931 by a struggling young American by the name of Arthur Momand. He told this story about himself: He began earning 125 a week at the age of 23. That was a lot of money in those days. Young Momand was very proud of his riches. He got married and moved with his wife to a very wealthy neighborhood on Long Island, outside New York City. But just moving there was not enough. For when Momand his wife saw that their neighbors belonged to a country club they too joined a country club. And when he saw that rich people were expected to ride horses, Momand went horseback riding every day. Momand his wife also hired a servant and gave very grand parties for their new neighbors. It was like a race, but one could never finish this race
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper because one was always trying to keep up. Momand his wife could not do that. The race ended for them when they could no longer pay for their new way of life. They left their wealthy neighborhood and moved back to an inexpensive New York City apartment. Momand later said that his experience had been a cruel awakening for him. Nevertheless, he was able to see the funny side of it. He looked around him and noticed that many people do things just to keep up with their neighbors. He decided that this would make a good comic series for newspapers. So in 1913 he started writing one that appeared in many papers across the country. He called it “Keeping up with the Joneses, ” because “Jones” is a very common name in the United States. “Keeping up with the Joneses” came to mean
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Where did keeping with the people around you. Momand’s comic series appeared in different newspapers for over 28 years. People never seem to tire of keeping up with the Joneses. That is one reason why they read the “right” books, go to the “right” universities and eat in the “right” restaurants. Every city has an area where people want to live because others will think better of them if they do. Park Avenue in New York, Nob Hill in San Francisco, and Rittenhouse Squire in Philadelphia are three such areas. There are similar places, and “Joneses” in every city of the world. But one must get tired of trying to keep up with the Joneses, because no matter what one does, Mr. Jones always seems to be ahead.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Face the Music When someone says, “Well, I guess I’ll have to go face the music, ” it does not mean he is planning to go to a concert. It is something far less pleasant, like being called in by your boss to explain why you did this and did that, and why you did not do this or that. Sour music, indeed, but it has to be faced. At some time or another, every one of us had to “face the music, ” especially as children. We can all remember father’s angry voice: “I want to talk to you!” And only because we did not obey him. What an unpleasant business it was! The phrase “to face the music” is familiar to every American, young and old. It is at least 100 years old. the
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper expression come from? The first explanation comes from the American novelist James Fenimore Cooper. He said — in 1851 — that the expression was first used by actors while waiting in the wings to go on stage. After they got their cue to go on, they often said: “It’s time to go face the music. ” And that is exactly what they did — face the orchestra which was just below the stage. An actor might be frightened or nervous as he moved onto the stage in front of an audience that might be friendly, or perhaps hostile, especially if he forgot his lines. But he had to go out. If he did not, there would be no play. So, “to face the music, ” came to mean: having to go through something, no matter how unpleasant the experience might be, because you knew you had no choice.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper Other explanations come from the army. Men had to face inspection by their leader. The soldiers worried about how well they looked. Was their equipment clean — shiny enough to pass inspection? Still, the men had to go out, and face the music of the band, as well as the inspection. What else could they do? Another army explanation is more closely related to the idea of facing the results and accepting the responsibility for something that should not have been done. As, for example, when a man is forced out of the army because he did something unacceptable, he is dishonored. The band does not play. Only the drums tap a sad slow beat. The soldier is forced to leave facing the music, such as it is, and facing the back of his horse.
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper IV. Translation of Proverbs 1. Life is a battle. 人生就是一场战斗。 2. Life is but an empty dream. 浮生若梦。
Unit 3 The Ant and the Grasshopper 3. Life is short and art is long. 人生短暂，艺术无涯。 4. Better a glorious death than a shameful life. 忍辱偷生不如死的光荣。
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