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Unit 3 b Industrial Control Systems Sections: 1. Basic Elements of an Automated System Unit 3 b Industrial Control Systems Sections: 1. Basic Elements of an Automated System 2. Levels of Automation 3. Process Industries vs. Discrete Manufacturing Industries 4. Continuous Control 5. Discrete Control 6. Computer Process Control 7. Supervisory Control 8. Enterprise Control

Process vs. Discrete Industries § Process industries § Production operations are performed on amounts Process vs. Discrete Industries § Process industries § Production operations are performed on amounts of materials § Liquids, gases, powders, etc. § Discrete manufacturing industries § Production operations are performed on quantities of materials § Parts, product units

Discrete Control Systems § § Process parameters and variables are discrete Process parameters and Discrete Control Systems § § Process parameters and variables are discrete Process parameters and variables are changed at discrete moments in time § The changes are defined in advance by the program of instructions § Combinational logic control § The state of the system has changed (eventdriven changes) § Sequential control § A certain amount of time has elapsed (time driven changes)

Event-Driven Changes § Executed by the controller in response to some event that has Event-Driven Changes § Executed by the controller in response to some event that has altered the state of the system § Examples: § A robot loads a workpart into a fixture, and the part is sensed by a limit switch in the fixture § The diminishing level of plastic in the hopper of an injection molding machine triggers a low-level switch, which opens a valve to start the flow of more plastic into the hopper § Counting parts moving along a conveyor past an optical sensor

Time-Driven Events § Executed by the controller either at a specific point in time Time-Driven Events § Executed by the controller either at a specific point in time or after a certain time lapse § Examples: § The factory “shop clock” sounds a bell at specific times to indicate start of shift, break start and stop times, and end of shift § Heat treating operations must be carried out for a certain length of time § In a washing machine, the agitation cycle is set to operate for a certain length of time § By contrast, filling the tub is event-driven

Controller Requirements § § § Process-initiated interrupts Timer-initiated actions Computer commands to process actuators Controller Requirements § § § Process-initiated interrupts Timer-initiated actions Computer commands to process actuators System- and program-initiated events Operator-initiated events Capabilities § Polling (data sampling) § Interlocks § Interrupt system § Exception handling

Polling (Data Sampling) § Periodic sampling of data § Polling frequency – reciprocal of Polling (Data Sampling) § Periodic sampling of data § Polling frequency – reciprocal of time interval between data samples § Polling order – sequence in which data collection points are sampled § Polling format – alternative sampling procedures: § All sensors polled every cycle § Update only data that has changed this cycle § High-level and low-level scanning

Interlocks Preventing one device from interfering with the other(s) § Input interlocks § Proceed Interlocks Preventing one device from interfering with the other(s) § Input interlocks § Proceed to execute work cycle program § Interrupt execution of work cycle program § Output interlocks

Interrupt System Suspend program and execute another program requiring a higher priority event § Interrupt System Suspend program and execute another program requiring a higher priority event § Internal interrupt – generated by the computer itself § Examples: timer-initiated events, polling, systemand program initiated interrupts § External interrupts – generated external to the computer § Examples: process-initiated interrupts, operator inputs

Interrupt Systems Single-Level Interrupt Multi Level Interrupt Interrupt Systems Single-Level Interrupt Multi Level Interrupt

Exception Handling § Event outside of normal or desired operation § Examples: § Product Exception Handling § Event outside of normal or desired operation § Examples: § Product quality problem § Process variable outside normal operating range § Shortage of raw materials § Hazardous conditions, e. g. , fire § Controller malfunction § Exception handling is a form of error detection and recovery

Forms of Discrete Control § § § Computer process monitoring Direct digital control (DDC) Forms of Discrete Control § § § Computer process monitoring Direct digital control (DDC) Numerical control and robotics Programmable logic control Supervisory control Distributed control systems and personal computers

Computer Process Monitoring Computer observes process and associated equipment, collects and records data from Computer Process Monitoring Computer observes process and associated equipment, collects and records data from the operation § The computer does not directly control the process § Types of data collected: § Process data – input parameters and output variables § Equipment data – machine utilization, tool change scheduling, diagnosis of malfunctions § Product data – to satisfy government requirements, e. g. , pharmaceutical and medical

Direct Digital Control (DDC) Components in a conventional analog control system are replaced by Direct Digital Control (DDC) Components in a conventional analog control system are replaced by the digital computer Multiplexer ADC DAC

Numerical Control and Robotics § Computer numerical control (CNC) – computer directs a machine Numerical Control and Robotics § Computer numerical control (CNC) – computer directs a machine tool relative to the object being processed. Computations required to determine tool trajectory § Industrial robotics – manipulator joints are controlled to move and orient end-of-arm through a sequence of positions in the work cycle

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Implement logic, sequencing, counting, and arithmetic functions to control industrial Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Implement logic, sequencing, counting, and arithmetic functions to control industrial machines and processes. Both discrete and continuous control functionality

NXT Controller NXT Controller

Supervisory Control § Supervisory control, controls a number of integrated unit operations in a Supervisory Control § Supervisory control, controls a number of integrated unit operations in a cell: § Machines § Robots Supervisory Control § Conveyors Conveyor Control Machine Control Transformation Processes Robot Control

Distributed Control System Materials Planning Production Planning Design Quality Control Shop Floor Control Financial Distributed Control System Materials Planning Production Planning Design Quality Control Shop Floor Control Financial Planning Enterprise Network Supervisory Control Shop Floor Network Machine Control Storage Control Conveyor Control Machine Control Transformation Processes Robot Control Assembly Control

Control Architecture Level 4 Enterprise Control Level 3 Plant Control (Production, Quality, …) Level Control Architecture Level 4 Enterprise Control Level 3 Plant Control (Production, Quality, …) Level 2 Cell Controller (Supervisory Control) Level 1 Level 0 Machine Controller (Automatic Control) Device Control (Sensors/Actuators) Business Information (Business Office) Industrial Automation (Shop Floor)

Computer Integrated Manufacturing § Business functions - sales and marketing, order entry, cost accounting, Computer Integrated Manufacturing § Business functions - sales and marketing, order entry, cost accounting, customer billing § Product design - research and development, design engineering, prototype shop § Manufacturing planning - process planning, production planning, MRP, capacity planning § Manufacturing control shop floor control, inventory control, quality control

Customer Relationship Management/ Enterprise Resource Planning Customer Relationship Management/ Enterprise Resource Planning

You. Tube § § § § Industrial Control Programmable Logic Controller Distributed Control CAD/CAM You. Tube § § § § Industrial Control Programmable Logic Controller Distributed Control CAD/CAM Computer Integrated Manufacturing Customer Relationship Management Enterprise Resource Management